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1.101. e »to 




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VOL.. V. 


The Pablick are respectfully informed that 


of the 


^ ' t^ill be publisjied on , ftonday, NoTejniBqr. Jj|^ , 
4nd the subsequent Volumes every Two Months. 

This change iti the periods of Publication has beei/ 
found absolutely necessary, from the accumulation of New 
Lives, and the imperfect state in which many of the old 
ones were given in the former Edition, The Volume 
now before the Reader affords a striking instance of how 
much is wanted to render .the Work, what, in the present 
state of biographical materials, it ought to be. Of THREE 
HUNDRED AND FORTY SEVEN Lives in this Volume, TWO 

WRITTEN, and SIXTY FIVE only have been* retained from 
the former Edition, the greater part of which have required 
many additions and alterations.. The Editor, therefore, 
hopes that his anxiety to render the Biographical Dic- 
tionary more complete and useful, will reconcile the 
Publick to this change in the mode of Publicajion, which, 
while it does not materially lessen his labours, will at least 
afford time to fulfil his future engagements without in* 

September 1, 1812. 














VOL. V. 


wmnmui for j. michols and son ; f. c. and j. ritinqton } t. payne ) 

SON AMD CO. ; £. BRJMKIY ^ ^OIB. Jk IfMyi.Iffg. 


^ II — I M  W 

Ntdholfl, 8oit» and Bentlej, Printerst 



JoENVENUTI (Charles), an Italian Jesuit, physician, 
and mathematician of considerable eminence, was born at 
Leghorn, Feb. 8, 1716. He began his noviciate among 
the Jesuits at the age of sixteen, but did not take the four 
Tow^, according to the statutes of that order, until eighteen 
years afterwards. He had already.published a funeiai ora- 
tion on Louis Ancajani, bishop pf Spoleto, 1743, and a 
species of oratorio, to be^i^ t(r\ipusic, entitled *^ Cristo 
presentato al tempio,'* but' .#>wa^ueither as an orator or 
poet that he was destined: to shi^^ yj^e became professor 
of philosophy at Fermop'and when fisther Boscovich was 
obliged to leave Rome tpVcqinplete the chorographical 
chart of the papal state, which,! hV published' some years 
afterwards, Benvenuti succeeded him in the mathemati- 
cal chair of the Roman college, and also resumed his lec- 
tures on philosophy in the same college. His first scientific 
work was an .Italian translation of Clairaut's Geometry, 
Rome, 1751, 8vo ; and he afterwards published two works,, 
which gained him much reputation : 1. '^ Synopsis Physical 
g^neralis,V a thesis maintained by one of his disciples, 
the marquis de Castagnaga, on Benvenuti's principles, 
which were those of sir Isaac Newton, Rome, 1754, 4to. 
2. ** De Lumine dissertatio physica,'* another thesis main- 
tained by the marquis, ibid. 1754, 4to« By both these he 
contributed to establish the Newtonian system m room of 
those fallacious principles which had so long obtained in 
that college ; but it must not be concealed that a consider- 
able part of this second work on light, belongs to father 
Boscovich, as Benvenuti was taken iu before be had comr 
pleted it, and after it was sent to press* After the expul* 


' sion of the Jesuits, there appeared at Rome an attack 
upon them, entitled ^^ Riflessioni sur Gesuitismo/' 1772, 
to which Benvenuti replied in a pamphlet, entitled " Irre- 
flessioni sur Gesuitismo -/' but this answer gave so much 
offence, that he was obliged to leave Rome and retire into 
Poland, where he was kindly received by the king, and 
became a favourite at his court. He died at Warsaw, in 
September, 1789.* 

BENVENUTI (Joseph), an Italian surgeon, or rather 
physician, was born in the territory of Lucca, about the 
year 1728. He received the degree of doctor, began 
practice at Sarzano in 1755, as a member of the faculty ; in 
1756 was chosen member of the German imperial society ; 
and in 1758 of the royal society of Gottingen, while he 
was practising at the baths of Lucca. In 1753, he hap* 
peued to be at a place in that republic, called Brandejglio, 
where an epidemic fever of a particular kind prevailed, 
which he treated with great success by means of mercury. 
This formed the subject of bis treatise, entitled '^ Disser-* 
tatio historico^epistolaris, &c.^' Lucca, 17549 8vo, ably de- 
fending the preference he found it necessary to give to 
mercury over the bark, and vindicating Dr. Bertini, of 
whom he learned that method, against certain opponents. 
BenvenutPs other works are, I. ^^ De Lucensium Therma- 
rum sale tractatus," Lucca, 1758, 8vo. This he also transr- 
lated into Italian, with a lettei* on the virtues of these 
waters. 2* ^* Riflessioni sopra gli effetti del moto a ca- 
vallo," Lucca, 1760, 4to. 3. ^' Dissertatio physica de 
Lumine,'^ Vienne, 1761, 4to. 4. ^' De rubiginis frumentum 
corrumpentis causa et medela,^* Lucca, 1762» 5. ^^ Ob« 
servationum medicarum quae anatomiae superstructas sunt,- 
coUectio prima,'' Lucca, 1764, 12mo. He also promoted 
the publication of the first volume of the ^^ Dissertationes 
et Quaestiones medic88 magis celebres," Lucca, 1757, 8vo. 
Our authority does not give the date of his death. ' 

BENYOWSKY (Count Mauritius Augustus de), an 
adventurer of very dubious, but not uninteresting charac- 
ter, one of the Magnates of the kingdoms of Hungary and 
Poland, was born in the year 1741> at Verbowa, the here- 
ditary lordship of his family, situated in Nittria, in Hun- 
gary. After receiving the education which the court of 
Yieuna affords 'to the youth of illustrious families, at the 

1 £iof . UniTcrseU^.— Diet. Hist. • IbiiL 


B E N Y O W S K Y* ^ S 

age of fourteen years^ he fixed on the profession of arms. 
He was accordingly received into the regiment of Siebens- 
cbien, in quality of lieutenant; and joining the Imperial 
army, then in the field against the king of Prussia, was 
present at the battles of Lowositz^ Prague^ 3chweidnitz, 
and Darmstadt. In 1758, he quitted the Imperial service 
and hastened into Lithuania, at the instance of his uncle 
the starost of Benyowsky, and succeeded as his heir to the 
possession of his estates. The tranquillity, however, which 
he now enjoyed was interrupted by intelligence of the sud- 
den death of his father, and that his brothers-in-law had 
taken possession of his inheritance. These circumstances 
demanding his immediate presence in Hungary, he quitted 
Lithuania with the sole view of obtaining possession of the 
property of his family ; but his brothers-in-law by force 
opposed his entrance into his own castle. He then re- 
paired to Krussava, a lordship dependant on the castle of 
Verbowa, where, after having caused himself to be ac- 
knowledged by his vassals, and being assured of their 
fidelity, he armed them, and by their assistance gained 
possession of all his effects ; but bis brothers, having re- 
presented him at the court of Vieniia as a rebel and dis- 
turber of the public peace, the empress queen issued a 
decree iu chancery against him, by which he was deprived 
of his property, and compelled to withdraw into Poland. 
He now determined to travel ; but after taking: several 
voyages to Hamburgh, Amsterdam, and Plymouth, with 
intention to apply himself to navigation, he received let- 
ters from the magnates and senators of Poland, which in- 
duced him to repair to Warsaw, where he joined the con- 
federation then forming, and entered into an obligation, 
upon oath, not to acknowledge the king, until the con- 
federation, as the only lawful* tribunal of the republic, 
should have declared him lawfully elected ; to oppose the 
Russians by force of arms ; and not to forsake the colours 
of the confederation so long as the Russians should remain 
in Poland. Leaving Warsaw, in the month of December, 
falC attempted to make his rights known at the court of 
Vienna ; but disappointed in this endeavour, and deprived 
of all hope of justice, he resolved to quit for ever the do*- 
minions of the house of Austria. On bis return to Poland, 
be was attacked, during his passage through the county of 
Zips, with a violent fever; and being received into the 
bouse of Mr» Heusky, a gentleman of distinction^ be paid 

B 2 


his addresses and was married to one of his three daugh<- 
ters, but did not continue long in possession of happiness 
or repose. The confederate states of Poland, a party of 
.whom had declared themselves at Cracow, observing that 
the count was one of the first who had signed their unioir 
at Warsaw, wrote to him to join them ; and, compelled by 
the strong tie of the oath he had taken, he departed with- 
out informing his wife, and arrived at Cracow on the very 
day count Panin made the assault He was received widhk 
open arms by martial Czarnesky, aud immediately ap- 
pointed colonel general, commander of cavalry, and quar- 
ter-master-general. On the 6th of July 1768, he was de-^ 
tached to Navitaig to conduct a Polish regiment to Cracow, 
and he not only brought the whole regiment, composed of 
six hundred men, through the camp of the enemy before 
the town, but soon afterwards defeated a body of Russians 
at Kremenka; reduced Landscroen, which prince Lubo- 
mirsky, who had joined the confederacy with two thousand 
regular troops, had attempted in vain ; and, by his great 
gallantry and address, contrived the means of introducing 
supplies into Cracow, when besieged by the Russians: 
but the count, having lost above sixteen hundred men in 
affording this assistance to the town, was obliged to make 
a precipitate retreat the moment he had effected his pur- 
pose; and being pursued by the Russian cavalry, com- 
posed of cossacks and hussars, he had the misfortune to 
have his horse killed under him, and ,fell at last, after re- 
ceiving two wounds, into the hands of the enemy. Apraxin, 
the Russian general, being informed of the successful ma- 
nceuvre of the count, was impressed with a very high opi- 
nion of him, and proposed to him to enter into the Russian 
service; but rejecting the overture with disdain, he was ^ 
only saved from being sent to Kiovia with the other prisoners 
by the interposition of his friends, who paid 962 /. sterling 
for his ransom. Thus set at liberty, he considered himself 
as released from the parole which he had given to the Rus- 
4sians ; and again entering the town of Cracow, he was re* 
ceived with the most perfect satisfaction by the whole con- 
federacy. The town being no longer tenable, it became an 
ofagect of the utmost consequence to secure another place of 
retreat; and the count, upon his own proposal andrequest^ 
was appointed to seize the castle of Lublau, situated on the 
frontier of Hungary; but after visiting the commanding 
officer of the castle, who was not apprehensive of the least 


^nger, and engaging more than one half of the garrison 
by oath in the interests of the confederation, an inferior 
officer, who^was dispatched to assist him, indiscreetly di- 
vulged the design, and the count was seized and carried 
into the fortress of Georgenburgh, and sent from thence 
to general Apraxin. On his way to that general, however, 
he was rescued by a party of confederates, and returned 
to Lublin, a town where the rest of the^ confederation of 
Cracow had appointed to meet, in order to join those of 
Bar, from which time he performed a yarie^ of gallant 
actions, and underwent great vicissitudes of fortune. On 
the 19th' of May, the Russian colonel judging that the 
count was marching towards Stry, to join the confederate 
parties at Sauok, likewise hastened his march, and arrived 
thither half a day before the count, whose forces were 
weakened by fatigue and hunger. In this state he was at- 
tacked about noon by colonel Brincken, ait the head of four 
thousand men. The count was at first compelled to 
give way; but, on the arrival of his cannon, he, in his 
turn^ forced the colonel to retire, who at last quitted the 
field, and retreated towards Stry. The advantage of the 
^victory served only to augment the misery of the Count, 
who iivthis single action had three hundred wounded and 
two hundred and sixty-eight slain, and who had no other 
prospect before him than either to perish by hunger with 
bis troops in the forest, or to expose himself to be cut to 
pieces by the enemy. Oh the morning of the 20th, how* 
ever, by the advice of his officers and troops, he resumed 
his march, and arrived about ten o'clock at the village of 
S^uka, where, being obliged to halt for refreshment, he was 
surprised by a party of cossacks, and had only time to quit the 
village and form his troops in order of battle on the plain, • 
before he was. attacked by the enemy's cavalry, and soon 
after by their infantry, supported by several pieces of can- 
non, which caused the greatest destruction among his 
forces. At length, after being dangerously wounded, the 
Russians took him prisoner. The count was sent to the 
. commander in chief of the Russian armies, then encamped 
at Tampopl, who not only forbade the surgeons to dress 
his wounds, but, after reducing him to bread and water, 
loaded him with chains, and transported him to Kiow. On 
his arrival at Polene, his neglected wound had so far en- 
dangered his life, that his conductor was induced to apply 
to cobnel Sirkow, the . commanding officer at that place. 


and be was sent to the hospital,' cured of his wounds, and 
afterwards lodged in the town, with an advance of fifty 
roubles for his subsistence. Upon the afrival, however, 
of brigadier Baiinia, who relieved colonel Sirkow in his 
command, and who hacl a strong prejudice against the 
count, he was again loaded with chains, and conducted to 
the dungeon with the rest of the prisoners, who were al- 
lowed no other subsistence than bread and water. Upon 
his entrance he recognized several officers and soldiers who 
had served under him ; and their friendship was the only 
consolation he received in his distressed situation. Twenty- 
tWQ days were thus consumed in a subterraneous prison, 
together with eighty of his companions, without light, and 
even witiioui air, except what was admitted through an 
aperture which communicated with the casements. These 
unhappy wretches were npt permitted to go out even on 
their natural occasions, which produced such an infection, 
that thirty -five of ihem died in eighteen or twenty days ; 
and such were the inhumanity and barbarity of the com- 
mander, that he suffered the dead' to remain and putrefy 
^niong the living. On the 16th of July the prison was 
opened, and one hundred and forty- eight prisoners, who 
had survived out of seven hundred and eighty-two, were 
driven, under every species of cruelty, from Polene to . 
Kiow^ where the strength of the count's constitution, 
which had hitherto enabled him to resist such an accumula- 
tion of hardships and fatigue, at length gave way, and he was 
attacked witb^ a malignant fever, and delirium. The go* 
vernor, count Voicikow, being informed of his quality, 
ordered that he should be separately lodged in a house, 
and that two roubles a day should be paid him for sub- 
sistence ; but when be was in a fair way of recovery, an 
order amved from Petersburgh to send all the prisoners to 
Cazan, and this severity bringing on a relapse, the officer 
was obliged to leave the count at Nizym, a town depen- 
dant on the government of Kiow. At this place, a Mr. 
Lewner, a German merchant, procured him comfortable 
accommodation, superintended the restoration of his health, 
and on his departure made him a present of two hundred 
roubles, which he placed for safety in the hands of the 
officer until his arrival at Cazan, but who had afterwards 
the effi-ontery to deny that he had ever received the 
money, accused the count of attempting to raise a revolt 
among the prisoners, and caused him to be loaded with 


chains and committed to the prison of Cazan, from which 
he was delivered at the pressing instances of marshal Czar- 
nesky Potockzy, and the young Palaozky. He was then 
lodged at a private house, and being invited to dine with 
a man of quality in the place, he was solicited, and con- 
sented to join in a confederacy against the government. 
But on the 6th of November 1769, on a quarrel happening 
between two Russian lords, one of them informed the go- 
vernor that the prisoners, in concert with the Tartars,' 
meditated a design against his persoq and the gs^rrison. 
This apostate lord accused the count, in order to save his 
friends and countrymen, and on the 7tb, at eleven at night, 
the count not suspecting any such event, heard a knocking 
at his door. He came down, entirely undressed, with a 
candle in his band, to inquire the cause; and, upon 
opening his door, was surprised to see an officer with 
twenty soldiers, who demanded if the prisoner was at home. 
On his replying in the affirmative, the officer snatched the 
caudle out of his hand, and ordering his men to follow 
him, went hastily up to the count^s apartment. The count 
immediately took advantage of his mistake, quitted his 
house, and, after apprising some of the confederates that 
their. plot was discovered, he made his escape, and arrived 
at Petersburgfr' on the 19 th of November, where he en- 
gaged with a Dutch captain to take him to Holland. The 
captain, however, instead of taking him outboard the en- 
suing morning, pursuant to his premise, appointed him to 
meet on the bridge over the Neva at* midnight, and there 
betrayed him to twenty Russian soldiers collected for the 
purpose, who carried him to count Csecserin, lieutenant- 
general of the police. The count was conveyed to the 
fort of St. Peter and St. Paul, confined in a subterraneous 
dungeon, and after three days fast, presented with a mor- 
sel of bread and a pitcher of water : but, on the 22d of 
November 1769, he at length, in hopes of procuring his 
discharge, was^ induced to sign a paper promising for ever 
to quit the dominions of her imperial majesty, under pain 
of death. 

The count having signed this engagement, instead of 
being set at liberty, was re-conducted to his prison, and 
there confined till 4th December 1769, when, about two 
hours after midnight, an oiEcer with seven soldiers came 
to him ; and he was thrown upon a sledge to which two 
horses were harnessed, and immediately driven away with 

8 BE NY O W S K Y. 


the greatest swiftness. The darkness of the night pre- 
vented the count from discermng the objects around him ; 
but on the approach of day-light he perceived that major 
Wynblath, Vassili Panow, Hip^ohtus Stephanow, Asaph 
Baturin, Ivan Sopronow, and several other prisoners, were 
the companions of his misfortunes ; and after suiFering 
from the brutality of theii: conductor a series of hardships, 
in passing through Tobolzk, the capital of Siberia, the 
city of Tara, the town and river of Tomsky, the villages 
of Jaktitzk and Judoma, they embarked in the harbour of 
Ochoczk, on the 26th October 1770, and arrived at 
Kamschatka on the 3d December following. The eiisuing 
day they were conducted before Mr. Nilow, the governor; 
when it was intimated to them that they should be set at 
liberty on the following day, and provided with subsistence 
for three days, after which they must depend upon them- 
selves for their maintenance ; that each person should re-> 
ceive from the chancery a musket and a lance, with one 
pound of powder, four pounds of lead, a hatchet, several 
knives and other instruments, and carpenter's tools, with 
which they might build cabins in any situations they chose, 
at the distance of one league from the town ; but that they 
should be bound to pay in furs, during the first year, each 
one hundred roubles, in return for these advantages ; that 
everyone must work at the corvee one day in the week 
for the service of government, and not absent themselves 
from their huts for twenty-four hours without the governor*s 
permission ; and after some other equally harsh terms, it 
was added, that their lives being granted to them for no 
other purpose .than to implore the mercy of God, and the 
remission of their sins, they could be employed only in 
the meanest works to gain their daily subsistence. Under 
these regulations the exiles settled the places of their ha- 
bitations, built miserable huts to shelter themselves from 
the inclemency of the weather, formed themselves into a 
congress, and after choosing the count de Benyowsky their 
chief or captain, they swore with great solemnity mutual 
friendship and eternal fidelity. Among the number of 
unhappy wretches who bad long groaned under the miseries 
of banishment, was a Mr. Crustiew, who bad acquired 
considerable ascendancy over his fellow-sufferers ; and to 
obtain the particular confidence and esteem of this man 
was the first object of the count's attention ; in which he 
80on succeeded. The pains and perils incident to the 

B E N Y O W S K Y. 9 

situation to which these men were reduced, were borne for 
sometime in murmuring sufferance, until the accidental 
finding an old copy of Anson's Voyage inspired tbeni with an 
idea of making an escape from Kanischatka to the Marian 
islands ; and the count, Mr. Panow, Baturin, Stephanow, 
Solmanow, majors Wynblath, Crustiew, and one Wasili, an 
old and faithful servant of the count's, who had followed his 
master into exile, formed a confederacy for this purpose. 
While these transactions were secretly passing, the fame 
of count Benyowsky's rank and abilities reached the ear of 
the governor; and as he spoke several languages, he was 
after some time admitted familiarly into the house, and at 
length appointed to superintend the education of his son 
and his three daughters. ^^ One day," says the count, 
^^ while I was exercising my office of language-master, the 
youngest of the three daughters, whose name was Apha* 
nasia, who was sixteen years of age, proposed many ques- 
tions concerning my thoughts in my present situation, 
which convinced me that her father had given them some 
information concerning my birth and misfortunes. I there- 
fore gave them an account of my adventures, at which 
my scholars appeared to be highly affected, but the 
youngest wept very much. She was a beautiful girl, and 
her sensibility created much emotion in my mind — but, 
alas, I was an exile !" The merits of the count, however, 
soon surmounted the disadvantages of his situation, in the 
generous mind of miss Nilow, and the increasing intimacy 
and confidence which he daily gained in the family,^oined 
to the advantages of a fine person and most insinuating 
address, soon converted the feelings of admiration into 
the flame of love; and on the 11th of January 1771, ma- 
dame Nilow, the mother, consented that her daughter 
should do the honours of an entertainment* then in con- 
templation, and be publicly declared his future spouse. 
But the count, though he had cultivated an4 obtained the 
affections of his fair pupil, had acted more from policy 
than passion, and, intending to use her interest rather as 
a means of effectuating the meditated escape of himself 
and his companions, than as any serious object of matri* 
mouial upion, contrived to suspend the nuptials, by per« 
suading the governor to make an excursion from Kam- 
schatka to the neighbouring islands, with a view or under 
pretence of establishing a new colony. During these trans- 
actions the exiles were secretly at work ; and in order to 

10 B E N Y O W S K Y. 

conceal their design from all suspicion, Mr. Crustiew and 
Mr. Panow were on the 30th of March deputed to wait on 
the governor with five and twenty of their associates, fo 
request that he would be pleased to receive the title of 
Protector of the new colony ; and the embassy was not 
only favourably received, but orders were given to pre- 
pare every thing that might be necessary for the execution 
of the project. At this crisis, however, .an accident oc- 
curred which had nearly overturned the success of the 
scheme; and as it tends to discover the disposition of the 
count, we shall relate it in his own words. 

** About ten o'clock this day (1st of April, 1771), I re- 
ceived a message from, miss Nilow, that she would call on 
me in the afternoon, requesting at the same time that I 
would be alone, because she had affairs of importance to 
communicate. A3 I supposed the latter part of this mes- 
sage to be mere pleasantry, I was far from expecting any 
extraordinary information ; and my surprise at the event 
was niuch greater, as I had not the least reason to suppose 
she had made any discovery of my intentions. Miss Nilow 
arrived at three in the afternoon : her agitation on her first 
appearance convinced me that she was exceedingly afflicted. 
At sight of me she paused a moment, ^nd soon after burst 
into tears, and threw herself into my arms, crying out, 
that she was unfortunate and forsaken. Her sighs and tears 
were so extreme, that it was teore than a quarter of an 
hour before I could obtain a connected sentence. I was 
extremely affected at.her situation, and used every expe- 
dient to calm her mind, but this was extremely difficult, 
because I was entirety ignorant of the reason of her afBic- 
tion. As soon as she became a little composed, she begged 
me to shut the door, that no one might interrupt us. I 
came back, and on my knees intreated her to explain the 
jcause of her present situation, which she did to the follow- 
ing effect : 

" She informed me that her maid had discovered to her, 
that a ceitain person named Ivan Kudrin, one of my asso- 
ciates, had proposed to her to share his fortune, and that* 
this indiscreet person had assured the girl, that he was 
about to quit Kamscbatka with me, to make a voyage to 
Europe, where he hoped to place her in an agreeable situ- 
ation. The maid had first related the circumstance to her 
mistress ; but as she could never believe me capable of 
such base and treacherous behaviour to her, she was desl« 

B E N Y O W S K y. 11 

roQS of hearing the account herself, and had, for that pur- 
pose,, persuaded the maid to appoint a meeting with Kudrin^ 
ill order to question hi in more amply, while she herself 
might hear the whole, by bemg concealed behind a cur- 
tain. In tliis manner, she said, she became convinced of 
her unhappiness and my treachery, and that she would have 
spared me the confusion of hearing thisj if, from a convic* 
tion that she could not live after such an affront^ she had 
not been desirous of bidding me a last fafewell. 

" On tinishing tliese words she faintfed, and though I was 
exceedingly alarmed and distressed on the occasion, yet !• 
did not fail to arrange a plan in my mind, during the inter- 
val of her insensibility. When this amiable young lady 
recovered, she asked if she might give credit to what she 
bad heard. I then threw myself at her feet, and entreated 
her to hear me calmly, and judge wheiher I was to blame 
or not. She promised she would, and I addressed her in 
the following terms : 

**^You may recollect, my dear friend, the account I 
gave you of my birth, and the rank I held in Europe ; I re- 
member the tears you shed on that occasion. The misfor<« 
tune of being exiled to Kamschatka would long since have 
compelled me to deliver myself from tyranny by death, if 
jour acquaintance and attachment had not preserved me« 
J have lived for you, and if you could read my heart, I am 
sure I should have your pity ; for the possession of your 
person is becbme as necessary to my existence as liberty it- 
self. The liberty I speak of is not that which your worthy- 
father has given- me, but implies the possession of my estate 
and rank. I have hoped for the possession of your person, 
with a view of rendering you happy in the participation of 
my fortune and dignity. These views cannot be accom- 
plished at Kamschatka. What rank can I bestow on my 
love but that of an exile ? The favours of your worthy fa-t 
ther may be of the shortest duration. His successor may 
soon recal his ordinances, and plunge me again into that 
state of suffering and contempt, from which I was delivered 
for a short moment. Represent to yourself, my dearest 
friend, the affliction and despair that would overwhelm my 
soul, when 1 beheld you a sharer in my pain and disgrace ; 
for you well know that all the Russians esteem the exiles as 
dishonoured persons. You have forced me to this declara- 
tion of my intentions, in which I have been guided by the 
attachment and sincerity of my heart. I deferred the com- 


munication to you, but I swear that such was my resolu- 
tion." — " Why then," interrupt^ she, ** did you conceal 
your intention from me, who am ready to follow you to the 
farthest limits of the universe ?" This assurance encouraged 
me to proceed, and engage this charming young lady in my 
interests. I told her, therefore, that I was prevented only 
by the fear lest she should refuse my proposals on account 
of her attachment to her parents ; but that, as I now had 
nothing to fear in that respect, I could inform her, that my 
intention being to leave Kamschatka, I had determined to 
carry her off; and in order to convince her, I was ready to 
call Mr. Crustiew, who would confirm the truth. On this 
assurance she embraced me, and entreated me to forgive 
her want of confidence, at the same time that she declared 
her readiness to accompany me. 

^^ This degree of confidential intercourse being esta^ 
blisbed, l' persuaded her to dismiss every fear from her 
mind. Many were the trials I made of her resolution, and 
tlie event convinced me that she was perfectly determined 
to follow my fortunes. The secret being thus secure, by 
her promise to keep it inviolably, I had no other uneasiness 
remaining but what arose from the communication having 
been made to her servant. I mentioned my fears to miss 
Nilow, who removed them, by assuring me that her servant 
was too much attached to her to betray her secret, and had, 
besides, an affection for Kudrin, so that she could answer 
for her discretion. Thus agreeably ended our conversa- 
tion, though the commencement was rather tragical, and I 
received the vows of attachment and fidelity from an artless 
and innocent mind." 

On the 23d of April 1771, however, " Miss Aphanasia," 
says the county/ ^^ came to me incognito. She informed me 
that her mother was in tears^ and her father talked with her 
in a manner which gave reason to fear that he suspected 
our plot. She conjured me to be careful, and not to come 
to the fort if sent for. She expressed her fears that it 
would not be in her power to come to me again, but pro- 
mised she would in that case send her servant ; and she 
entreated me at all events, if I should be compelled to use 
force against the government, I would be careful of the life 
of her father, and not endanger my own. I tenderly em- 
braced this charming young lady, and thanked her for the 
interest she took in my preservation ; and as it appeared 
important that her absence should not .be discovered, I 

B EN Y O W S K Y» 13 

begged her to return and recommend the issue of oiir in^ 
tentions to good fortune. Before her departure I reminded 
her to look minutely after her fathefr, and to send me a red 
ribband in case government should determine to arrest or 
attack me ; and, in the second place, that at the moment 
of an alarm, she would open the shutter of her window 
which looked to the garden, and cause a sledge to be laid 
over the ditch on th&t side. She promised to comply with' 
my instructions, and confirmed her promises with vows and 

The apprehensions of this faithful girl for the safety of 
the man she loved, were far from being without foundation ; 
and on the 26th of Aprif she sent the count two red rib- 
bands, to signify the double danger to which she perceived 
he was exposed. The count, however, coolly prepared to 
brave the impending storm, and gave orders to the leaders 
of his associates, amounting in all to fifty-nine persons, to 
place themselves at the head of their divisions^ and station 
themselves round his house, in readiness to act in the 
night, in case an attack should be made by the cossacks 
of the town, and soldiers of the garrison, who, it was ru- 
moured, were busied in preparing their arms. At five' 
o^clock in the evening, a corporal, with four grenadiers, 
stopped at the count's door, demanding admittance in the 
name of the empress, and ordered him to follow the guard 
to the fort. The count, however, proposed, from a window, 
to the corporal, that he should enter alone and drink a glass 
of wine; but^ on his being admitted, the door was instantly 
shut upon him, and four pistols clapped to his breast, by 
the terror of which he was made to disclose every thing 
that was transacting at the fort, and at length obliged to 
call the four grenadiers separately into the house, under 
pretence of drinking, when they wdre all five bound toge- 
ther, and deposited safely in the cellar. 

This measure was^ of course, the signal of resistance, 
and- the count marshalling his associates, who had secretly 
furnished themselves with arms and animunition by the 
treachery of the store*keepers, issued forth from the house 
to of^ose, with greater advantage, another detachment who 
had been sent to arrest him. After levelling several sol- 
diers to the ground, the count, by the mismanagement of 
their commander, seized their cannon, turned them with 
success against the fort itself, and, entering by means of the 
drawbridge, dispatched the twelve remaining guards who 


were then within it. " Madame Nilow and her children,'* 
says the count, '^ at sight of me impiored my protection 
to save their father and husband. I immediately hastened 
to bis apartment, and begged him to go to His children^sl 
room to preserve his life, but he answered that he would 
jfirst take mine, and instantly fired a pistol, which wounded 
me. I was desirous nevertheless of preserving him, and 
cqntinued to represent that all resistance would be useless; 
for which reason I entreated him to retire. His wife and 
children threw themselves on their knees, but nothing would 
avail ; he flew upon me, seized me by the throat, and left 
me no other alternative than either to give up my own life,' 
or run my sword through his body. At this period the 
petard, by which attempted to make a breach, 
exploded, and burst the outer gate. The second was open, 
and. I saw Mr. Panow enter at the head of a party. He en- 
treated the governor to let me go, but not being able to 
prevail on hipo, he set me at liberty by splitting his skull.". 
The count by this event became complete master of the 
fort, and by the cannon and ammunition which he found oii 
the rampart, was enabled, with the ready and active assist- 
ance of his now increased associates, to repel the attack 
which was made upon him by the cossacks; but flight, 
not resistance, was the ultimate object of this bold com- 
mander; and in order to obtain this opportunity, he dis- 
patched a drum and a woman as a sign of parley to the 
cossacks, who had quitted the town and retired to the 
heights, with a resolution to invest the fort and starve the 
insurgents, informing them of his resolution to send a de- 
tachment of associates into the town to drive all the women 
and children into the church, and there to burn them all to 
death, unless they laid down their arms. While t^is em- 
bassy was sent, preparation was made for carrying the 
threat it contained into immediate execution ; but by sub- 
mitting to the proposal, the execution of this horrid mea- 
sure was rendered unnecessary, and the count not only 
received into the fort fifty-two of the principal inhabitants of 
the town, as hostages for the fidelity of the rest, but procured 
the archbishop to preach a sermon in the church in favour of 
the revolution. The count was now complete governor of 
Kamschatka; and having time, without danger, to prepare 
every thing necessary for the intended departure, he amused 
himself with ransacking the archives of the town, where he 
found several manuscripts of voyages made to the eastward 


of Kamschatka* The count also formed a chart, with de* 
tails, respecting Siberia and the sea--coast of Kamschatka, 
and a description of the Kurelles and Aleuthes islands. 
This chart has not survived the fate of its composer. 

The conspirators, previous to their hostilities against the 
governor, had prudently secured a corvette of the name of 
St Peter and St. Paul, which then rode at anchor in the 
port of Bolsha, and their subsequent success afforded them 
the means of providing her with such stores as were neces* 
sary for the intended voyage. On the 11th of May 1771, 
the count, as commander in chief, attended by Mr. Cnistievr 
as second, by sixteen of his fellow-captives as quarter* 
guards, and by fifty-seven foremast men, 'together with 
twelve passengers and nine women, among whom was the 
lovely Aphanasia, disguised in sailor's apparel, went on 
board this vessel ; and on the next day weighed anchor, 
and sailed out of the harbour on a southern course, intend*- 
ing to continue their voyage to China. On ^he 20th of 
May, they anchored their vessel in a bay on the coast of 
Beerlng's island, where they found the celebrated captain 
Ochotyn and his followers, who had also escaped from ^xile 
in Siberia, and were wandering in search of that settlement ' 
which, from their restless dispositions, they were doomed 
never to find. 

. The count, however, was not to be detained by the blan* 
dishments of friendship ; he departed from this island, and 
arrived, after experiencing many hardships and dangers at 
>8ea, at the harbour of Usilpatchar in Japan on the 2d of 
August; from whence, not meeting with a very friendly 
reception, he again immediately set sail, and arrived on* 
Sunday the 28th of August at the island of Formosa. The 
inhabitants of Formosa at first appeared inclined to treats 
him with respect and civility, particularly don Hieronymo" 
Pacheco, formerly captain at the port of Cavith at Manilla,, 
who had fled from that employment to the island of For* 
mosa, in consequence of his having in a moment of rage 
massacred his wife and a Doniinican whom he had found in^ 
her company : but these professions were soon found to be 
deceitful ; for on sending his men on shore to fetch water, 
they were attacked by a party of twenty Indians, many of 
them dangerously wounded, and Mr. Panow, the count's 
most faithful friend, killed. Don Hieronymo, however,; 
contrived to exculpate himself from any concern in this* 
treachery, and to advise the count to seek revenge by a^ 

16 B E N Y O W S K Y. 


conquest of the island ; but he contented himself with pro^ 
yoking the natives to a second attack, and repulsing thein 
with considerable slaughter. His men, however, insisted 
on going in quest of the Indians, in order to make them 
feel their further vengeance. The remonstrances of the 
count were to no effect ; and at length, complying witb 
their desires, he requested don Hieronymo to guide them 
towards the principal residence of the nation who had given 
him so bad a reception, where, after a short and unequal 
conflict, he killed eleven hundred and fifty-six, took six 
hundred and forty-three prisoners, who had prostrated them* 
selves on the ground to beg for mercy from their assailants, 
and set fire to their town. The prince of the country, not- 
withstanding this massacre of his subjects, was introduced 
to the count by his Spanish friend, and a cordiality at 
length took place between them to such a degree, that the 
count entered into a formal treaty for returning and settling 
at Formosa ; but his secret motives for making this engage- 
ment appear to have been, the execution of a project be 
had silently conceived of establishing a colony on the 

On Monday the 12th of September, the count and his 
associates sailed from Formosa ; on the Thursday follow*- 
ing the coast of China appeared in sight; and two days 
afterwards his vessel was piloted into the port of Macao. 
At this place he was treated with great respect by the go- 
vernor and the principal men of the town ; and on the 3d 
of October 1771, captain Gore, then in the service of the 
English East-India company, made an offer of services to 
him on the part of the directors, and a free passage to 
Europe, provided he would bind himself to entrust his 
manuscripts to the company, engage to enter into their 
service, and make no communication of the discoveries he 
had made. But having accepted proposals from the French 
directors, the offers of captain Gore were rejected, and the 
count soon afterwards returned from Macao to Europe on 
board a French ship. 

He arrived on the 8th of August 1772, in Champagne, 
where the duke d^Aiguillon, the minister of fVauce, then 
was ; " and he received me," says the count, " with cor- 
diality and distinction, and proposed to me to enter the 
service of his master, with the offer of a regiment of in-' 
faiHry ; which I accepted, ,bn condition that his majesty 
would be pleased to employ^me in forming establishments- 


Ibeyond the Cape.^' Ib con^equeaQ^ of this conditipn, tha 
duke bis patron proposed to bim from his msyeaty to foroa 
an establishment oi^ the island of Madagasc)ir> upon tk% 
same footing as he had proposed upon the island of For-* 
mosa, the whole scheme of which is publidbed in bis me^ 
moirs of his own life^ and discovers vast knowledge of the 
interests of eommercQ, and a deep insight into the c)ia-* 
racters of men. 

To a romantic mind and adventurous spirit such as the 
count possessed, a proposal like the present was irre** 
sistible ; and after receiving the most positive assurancei 
from the French ministryi that he should constantly receive 
from them the regular supplies necessary to promote the 
success of his undertaking, he set sail on the 22d of March^ 
1779, from Port U Orient for Madagascar, under the treache^^ 
reus auspices of recommendatory Tetters to Mr. De Temay^ 
governor of the isle of Fnmce, where he landed with a 
company of between four and five hundred men. on the 
i22d of September following. Instead, however, of receive 
ing the promised assistapce at this place, the governor en« 
deavoured by every means in bis power to thwart the sue-? 
cess of his enterprise ; and no other step remained for him 
to take, than that of hastening for Madagascar. He ac<i* 
cordingly set sail ia the Des Torg^, a vessel badly pro- 
vided with those stores that were most likely to be of use, 
and came to an anchor at Madagascar on the 14th of Fe- 
bruary 1774. The opposition which be met from the se^ 
veral nations placed him in a daugeious situation ; but he 
^t length, with great difficulty, formed an establishment 
on Foul. P<Hnt, entered into a commercial intercourse, and 
^med treaties of friendship and alliance with the greater 
part of the inhabitants of this extensive island. But whether . 
the count, whose commission only extended to open a 
friendly intercourse with the natives, was abandoned by 
the minister from the cruelty of neglect, whilst he was iu 
the regular execution of the commands of hi^ sovereign, 
or because his exorbitant spirit, and ambition bega^ to soar 
to more than an ordinary pitch of power and greatness, the 
following curious and extraordinary narrative pf his sub« 
sequent conduct will manifestly shew. 
, The island of Madagascar, as is well known, is of vast 
extent, and is inhabited by a great variety of different na« 
tions. Among these is the nation of Sambarines, formerly 
^vemed by a chief of the name and titles of JlolKindrian 

Vol. V. C 

18 • B £ N Y O W S K Y. 

Ampansacab^ Ramini Larizon ; whose only child^ a love);f 
daughter, had, it seems, been taken prisoner, and sold as 
a* captive ; and from this cii'cumstance, upon the death of 
Ramini, bis family was supposed to be extinct^ *^ On the 
2d of February," says the count, " M. Corbi, one of my 
most confidential officers, with the interpreter, informed 
xne, that the old negress Susanna, whom I had brought 
from the isle of France, and who in her early youth bad 
been sold to the French, and had lived upwards of fifty 
years at the isle of France, had reported, that her com- 
panion, the daughter of Ramini, having likewise been made 
a prisoner, was sold to foreigners, and that she had cer- 
tain marks that I was her son. This officer likewise re- 
presented to me, that in consequence of her report the 
Sambarine nation had held several cabars to declare me 
the heir of Ramini, and consequently proprietor of the 
province of Manahar, and successor to the title of Ampau- 
sacab^, or supreme chief of the nation. This information 
appeared to me of the greatest consequence, and I deter^- 
mined to take the advantage of it, to conduct that brave 
and generous nation to a civilized state. But as I had no 
person to whom I could entrust the secret of my mind, I 
lamented how blind the minister of Versailles was to the 
true interests of France. On the same day I interrogated 
Susanna on the report she had spread concerning my birth. 
The good old woman threw herself at my knees, and es:- 
cused herself by confessing that she had acted entirely 
upon a (Conviction of the truth. For she said that she had 
known my mother, whose physiognomy resembled mine, 
and that she had herself been inspired in a dream by the 
Zahanhar to publish the secret. Her manner of speaking 
convinced me that she really believed what she said. I 
therefore embraced her, and told her that I -had reasons 
for keeping the secret respecting my birth ; but that pe* 
vertheless if she had any confidential friends she might ac- 
quaint them with it. At these words she arose, kissed my 
hands, and declared that the Sambarine nation was in- 
formed of the circumstances, and that the Rohandriaa 
Raffangour waited only for a favourable moment to ac- 
knowledo;e the blood of Ramini.'* 

.The fallacy to which the old woman thus gave evidence, 
feeble as the texture of it may appear to penetrating minds, 
was managed by the count with such profound dexterity 
and address, that he was declared the heir of Ramini, in* 


^nested with the sovereignty of the nation, received ambas- 
sadors and formed alliances in the capacity of a king with 
other tribes, made war and peace, led his armies in person 
into the field, and received submission from his vanquished 
enemies. In this situation it is not wonderful that he 
should forget the allegiance he was under to the king of 
France } and, representing to his subjects the difficulties 
he had experienced from the neglect of the minister, and 
the probable advantages that might result by forming a 
new and national compact either with that or some other 
|)owerful kingdom in Europe, he persuaded them to per^ 
mit him to return to Europe for that purpose ; and ^' on 
the 11th of October, 1776," says the count, " 1 took my 
leave to go on board : and at this single moment of my life 
I experienced what a heart is capable of suffering, when 
torn from a beloved and affectionate society to which it is 

This account concludes his narrative; but among the 
memoirs and papers which fill the remaining part of the 
volume, it appears, that on his arrival in Europe his pro«- 
posals to the court of France were rejected ; that he made 
subsequent offers of his service to the emperor of Germany, 
which met with no better success; and that on the 25th of 
December, 1783, he offered, in the character of Sovereign 
of the island of Madagascar, terms for an offensive and de* 
fensive alliance with the ^ing of Great Britain: but this 
proposal was also declined. The ardour of the count, how« 
ever, was not abated by these disappointments ; he pre- 
tended to look with contempt on kings who could be so 
blind to the interests and advantages of their people ; and, 
sending for his family from Hungary,' he sailed from Lon- 
don with some of his associates for Maryland, on the 1 4th 
of April, 1784, with a, cargo of the value of near 4,000/1 
sterling, consisting, it seemf, of articles intended for the 
Madagascar trade. A respectable commercial house in Bal^ 
, timore was induced to join in his scheme, and supplied 
him with a ship of 450 tons, whose lading was estimated 
at.more than 1,000/. in which he sailed from that place o^ 
the 25th of Oct. 1784, and landed at Antangara on the 
island of Madagascar, on the 7th of July 1785, fropoi whence 
he departed to Angouci, and commenced hostilities against 
the French by seizing their storehouse. Here he busied 
himself in erecting a town after the manner of the country, 
and froBT heAce he sent a detachment of one hundred men 

C 2 


to take possession of the French factory at Foul Point ; Ibut 
they were prevented from carrying their purpose into exe- 
cution by the sight of a frigate which was at anchor off the 
Point. In consequence of these movements, the governor 
of the isle of France sent a ship with sixty regulars on 
board, who landed and attax;ked tl^e count on the momitij; 
of the 23d of May 1786. He had constructed a small re^^ 
doubt defended by two cannon, in which himself, with two 
^Europeans and thirty natives, waited the approach of the 
enemy. The blacks fled at the first fire, and Benyowsky, 
having received a ball in his right breast, fell behind the 
parapet ; whence he was dragged by the hair, and expired 
a few minutes afterwards. . 

Such is the abridgment of the history of this singular 
adventurer, taken from his Memoirs published in 1790^ 
2 vols. 4to, * and inserted in the preceding edition of this 
Dictionary. We have reduced the narrative in some parts, 
but are yet doubtful whether accounts of this kind strictly 
belong to our plan, and still more, whether the space al- 
lotted to this is not disproportionate. The story, however, 
is interesting, and although the evi4ence is chiefly that of 
the adventurer himself, the two volumes of his memoirs 
Thay hereafter be found useful as far as they describe the 
Ihitherto almost unknown island of Madagascar. Of his 
chiaracter, it is not easy to form a decided opinion. Even 
from his own account, he appears to have been unsteady, 
ambitious, and cruel in his expedients, but how far his na- 
tural disposition may have been altered by his sufferings, 
and the love of life and liberty may have predominated 
over that of truth and humanity, from what some are pleased 
to call a fatal necessity, we shall not presume to deter- 
mine. * 

BENZEL DE STERN^U (Anselm Francis de), a 
privy counsellor of the electorate of Mentz, was born Aug. 
28, 1738, and arrived at the dignity of counsellor when 
only nineteen years of age. The emperor invited him to 
Vienna, but he refused this honourable offer, and remained 
at Mentz, where having attained the rank of chancellor of 
state, he applied his attention to the reformation of the 
schools, and the regulation and diminution of the convents. 
He was one of the chief promoters of the union of the Ger- 
man bishops against the court of Rome. The death of the 

1 Memoin as aboTt, 

P E N Z E L, 21 

diector Emmerick Joseph, in 1774, interrupted hUpiir- 
^its ; but he wc^ soon recalled, and in 1782, appointed to 
the guardiajiship of the universities of the electorate, an4 
disUpguished hiiQself by many humane and enlightened 
regulations. He died May 7, 1784. We have only from 
bis pen, the p)an of a *^ New organization of the Univer^ 
•ity of Mentz," 1784, 8vo./ 

BENZELIUS (Eric), archbishop of Upsal, was born in 
Sweden in li642, at a village called Benzeby^ whence h^ 
took his name. His parents were of mean condition, but 
an uncle enabled him to pursue his studies at Upsal, where 
he was appointed .tptor to the children of the count de 1^ 
Cardie^ grand chancellor of the kingdom. He afterward^ 
travelled in Germany, jB'rance, and England, and on hi9 
return to his country, was appointed professor of history 
md jpor^ls. .Having ako made great progress in theolo- 
gical studies, be was c|*eated doctor of that faculty and 
appointed professor. In 1677 he was promoted to the 
bishopric qf Strengnes, wi\d in 1700, to the archbishopric 
of Upsal, which he held until bis death, Feb. 17, 1709. He 
was twice married, and by his first wife had thirteen chil* 
dren, of whom three of the sons became archbishops of 
Upsal. Benzelhis instructed Charles XII. in theological 
studies, and that prince preserved always a high esteem for 
him. The archbishop wrote an *^ Abridgment of Eccler 
siastical History," several dissertations on subjects of theo- 
logy and ecclesiastical history, and a Latin translation, wit^ 
notes, of msMiiy of the homilies of St. Chrysostom, which he 
made from manuscripts in the Bodleian library. He had 
also the.superintendanc^ of the edition of the Bible, in the 
Swedish language, which Charles XII. ordered to be pub- 
lished in 1703, with engravings, and which still bears the 
name of that monarch. Very few alterations, however^ 
were introduced in this edition, as the divines of the time 
.could not agree on certain disputed passages, and an entire 
iiew translation was reserved for the reign of Gustavus HI.' 

BENZELIUS (Eric), archbishop of Upsal, and one of 
thejsons of the preceding, was born at- Upsal in 1675. 
When he had finished his studies, his father sent him on 
his travels to the principal countries of Europe, and on his 
return, he was made librarian to the university of Upsal. 
He was afterwards for many years, and with great reputa- 

) Bio|r. UniTeraeUe, * Biqg. UaiYersellc^MorerL 

M BE N Z E L I U S. 


t)on, professor of divinity, and became successively bishop 
of Gottenbnrgh and Linkaeping, and arqhbishop of Upsal^ 
ivhere he died in 17 4 3* He was not t>nly an able theoi> 
logian, but versed in languages, history, and antiquities, 
and in all his writings displays erudition and critical acumen. 
He published, 1. ^< Monumenta historica v)etera Ecolesias 
Sueco-GothicBB," Upsal, 1704, 4to. 3, " Johannis Vas^ 
tovii Vitis Aquilonia, sive Vitse Sanctorum regni Sueco- 
Gothici," ibid. 1708, 4to. 3. ** Dissertatio de Alexandria 
iEgypti,'* ibid. 1711, 8vo. 4. '^Laudatio funebris Michael. 
Enemanni,'* Upsal, 1715, 4to. 5. *< Dissertatio de re lit- 
teraria Judseprum," ibid. 1716, 4to. 6. ** Acta Litteraria 
iSueciae, ah 1720 usque ad 1733," ibid. 3 vols. 4to. 7- "Pe- 
riculum Runicum, sive de origine et antiquitate Runarum,^* 
ibid. 1724, 8vo. 3. '^Oratio funebris in memoriam Lau- 
rentii Molini, theologi Upsaliensis,*^ ibid. 4to. These 
learned and ingenious works procured him very great re- 
putation, and the correspondence of the most eminent men 
of learning in every part of Europe. In 1720, when li- 
Ibrarian to the university, he associated with some of the 
professors in founding the academy of sciences of Upsal, 
which was soon* after established by government, and is the 
oldest institution of that kind in the north ; and when the 
^academy of Stockholm was founded in* 1739, Benzelius was 
iadmitted one of its first members. ^ 

BENZELIUS (H£NRY), archbishop of Upsal, and bro* 
ther to the preceding, was born at Strengnes in 1689, and 
studied at Upsal. During his subsequent travels he hap* 
pened to arrive at Bender, where Charles XII. was. This 
prince, who had more taste for the pursuit of scientific 
knowledge than is generally supposed, wa$ desirous at this 
time to send some men of learning to the East, and Ben- 
zelius was one whom he applied to, find who accordingly 
]>egan his travels in 1714, visiting Syria^ Palestine, and 
JEgypt, and returning to Sweden through Italy, Germany, 
and Holland. The journal of this tour is preserved in ma- 
nuscript at Upsal ; but a considerable part of Benzelius's 
observations were printed in a Latin collection, under the 
title of ^^ Syntagma dissertationum in Academia Lundensi 
iiabitarum,'' Leipsic. 1745, 4U). Benzelius, after his return 
to Sweden, was maae professor of theology, bishop of Lun- 
^en^ and ^i^i^bishop of Upsal, where he died in 1758. Ha 

? Bioff. UiuTene11e.^Saxii OnonMiiooq. 

B E N Z E L I: U S. 23 

was succteded in the archbishopric by his brother Jacob, 
who wrote in Latin, an abridgment of theology, and a 
description of Palestine, and some other works. — H. Jas- 
per Benz£LIUS, of the same learned family, who. died 
about the end of the last century, bishop of Strengnes, 
had studied under Mosheim, and publbbed in 174^1' at 
Helmstadt, a Latin life or dissertation on John Dury, who 
in the seventeenth century, travelled over a. considerable 
part of Europe, in hopes of reconciling the Lutherans and 
Calvinists. * 

BENZONI (Jerom), a Milanese, was born about 1519. 
His father, who was not rich, having suffered by the war, 
sent him on his travels, to seek his fortune in Italy, France^ 
Spain, and Germany. He did not find what he sought, 
but became so captivated with the accounts recentlv r6* 
ceived from the new world,, that he determined to go tnere. 
Accordingly in 1541, he went to Spain, and embarked foe 
America, where he remained fourteen years. In li56, he 
returned to his country, rich only in the observations he 
iiad made, and which he communicated to the public, in a 
" History of the New World," in Italian, Venice, J 565, 
4to, reprinted 1572, 8vo, and afterwards translated into 
Latin, French, German, and Flemish. * 

BEOLCO (Angelo), surnamed Ruzzante, was bom at 
Padua, about 1502, and died in li42. He applied him-* 
self early in life to study the manners, gesture> and lan- 
guage of villagers, and copied every particular that sa- 
voured of simplicity, drollery, and the grotesque. He was 
the Vade of the Italians. His rustic farces, though written 
in a low and vulgar style, are yet pleasing to people of edu* 
cation, by the correctness with which the counttymen are 
represented, and by the witticisms with which they are sea- 
soned. He preferred being the first in this species of com- 
position, to being the second in a more elevated line. His 
principal pieces are, la Vaccaria, TAnconitana, la Mos- 
chetta, la Fiorina, la Piovana, &c. These were printed 
with other poems of the same kind in 1584 in 12mo, under 
this title, ^^Tutte le opere del famosissimo Ruzzante," and 
have often been republished. ' 

BERARDIER de Bataut (Francis Joseph), a doctor 
of the Sorbonne, formerly professor of eloquence, and 

> Biog^. UinTersell«. * Ibid. 

I Ibi(C-«Moreri«-*Freheri Th^tram.'— Baillet tfugemens det SaraDi^ 

i^hrvMA^ grand mafeit^r of tti6 college of Louis-le-Gtand, 
Was born at Paris in 1720. He was deputy from the clergj 
of Paris, in the constituent assembly, and died at Paris in 
1 794. He had acquired great reputation in the university, 
and Was not l^ss tiespected in' the above assembly, where he 
signed thie famous protest of Sept. 12, 1791. Camille- 
De^moulins, who had been his pupil, celebrated him in his 
verses ehtitled ** Mes adieux au college ;" and from a sin- 
gular caprice, this revolutionist chose to receive the nup- 
tial benediction from Berardier, although one of the non- 
jiiring priests, and of totally opposite principles. St. Just 
and Robespierre were the wittiesses on this occasion ; and 
such was the regard Camillie-Desinoulins had for him, that 
he protected him from the massacres of the 2d of Septem- 
ber 1792. Berardier wrote, 1. " Precis de I'Histoire uni- 
Vcrselle^" a very excellent introduction to the study of his- 
tory, which has gone through sevelral editions. 2. '< Essai 
sur le recit,'* 1776, 12mo, also very successful, but not 
writtenwith so much perspicuity. 3. " Anti-Lucrece en 
vers Fran^ais,'* 1786, 2 vols. 12mo. 4. *^ Principes de la 
foi sur le g'ouvernment de PEglise, en opposition i, la con- 
stitution civile du clerge, ou refutation de I'opinion de M. 
Camus,'* 8vo. Of this fourteen editions were printed with- 
in six months, and it has likewise been published under the 
title of " Vrais Principes de la Constitution du Clerg^.*' * 

BERAUD (Laurence), a French mathematician and as-*' 
tronomer, was born at Lyons, March 5, 1703, entered 
among the Jesuits, and became professor of humanity at 
Vienne and at Avignon, and of mathematics and philo- 
sophy at Aix. In 1740 he was invited to Lyons and ap- 
pointed professor of mathematics, director of the observa- 
tory, and keeper of the medals ; and the same year be be- 
came astronoiher to the academy, the memoirs of which are 
enriched by a great many of his observations, particularly 
that on the passage of Mercury on the Sun, May €, 1753, 
during which he saw and demonstrated the luminbus ring 
round that planet, which had escaped the notice of all the 
astronomers for ten years before. In air his results, he 
entirely agreed with Lalande, who had made the same ob- 
servations at Paris, and with the celebrated Cassini. All 
his observations, indeed, are creditable to his talents, and 
accord with those of the most eminent astronomers^ 

I Bios* tJBjvcraelle. 

B £ R A tJ D. 25 

Among his other papers, inserted in the memoirs of the 
academy, we find several on vegetation, on the evapora-^ 
tion of liquids, and the ascent of vapours, on light, a phy-> 
sical theory on the rotation of the earth and the inclination 
of its axis, &c. In meteorology, he published observa- 
tions on the tubes of thermometers, with an improvement 
in the construction of them, which was the subject of three 
memoirs read in the academy of Lyons in 1747. He has 
also endeavoured to account for metals reduced to calcina- 
tion weighing heavier than in their former state, and main- 
tains, against Boyle, that fire is incapable of giving this 
additional weight, and likewise refutes the opinion of those 
who attribute it to air, or to substances in the air which the 
action of fire unites to the metal in fusion. This memoir 
was honoured with the prize by the academy of Bourdeaux 
in 1747, and contained many opinions which it would have 
been difficult to contradict before the experiments of 
Priestley, Lavoisier, and Morveau. In 1748, he received 
the same honour, from that academy, for a paper in which 
he maintained the connexion between magnetisnn and elec- 
tricity, assigning the same cause to both. In 1760, he re- 
ceived a third prize from the same academy, for a disser- 
tation oh the influences of the moon on vegetation and ani- 
mal oeconomy. Beraud was also a corresponding member 
of the academy of sciences in Paris, and several of his 
papers are contained in their memoirs, and in those of the 
academy of Lyons* He Wrote several learned dissertations 
on subjects of antiquity. On the dissolution of the society 
of Jesuits, he left his country for some time, as h^ could 
not conscientiously take the oaths prescribed, and on his 
return, notwithstanding many pressing offers to be restored 
to the academy, he preferred a private life, never having 
recoyered the shock which the abolition of his order had 
occasioned. In. this retirement he died June 26, 1777. 
His learning and virtues were universally admired ; he was 
of a communicative disposition, and equal and candid tem- 
per, both in his writings and private life. Montucla, La- 
lande, and Bossu, were his pupils ; and father Lefevre of 
the Oratory, his successor in the observatory of Lyons, 
pronounced his eloge in that academy, which was printed 
at Lyons, 1780, 12mo. The Diet. Hist, ascribed to Be- 
raud, a small volume, *^ La Physique des corps animus/* 
1755, 12mo.> 

1 Biof . UniTerscUe. — Did. Hist. 

26 B E R A U L D. 

BERAULD, or BERAULT (Nicholas), was bom at Or* 

leans in 1475, and died in 1550. According to tlie cus* 
torn of that age, he Latinized his name into Beralbus 
AuRELius, and it is under that name that his friend Nico^ 
las Bourbon celebrates him in oi>e of his Latin poems. 
Berauld, according to Moreri, was preceptor to. cardinal 
Coligni, his brother the admiral, and to Chatillon. Eras- 
mus, in many parts of his works, acknowledges the kind 
hospitality of Berauld, when, in 1500, he was travelling 
by the way of Orleafis into Italy, and highly praises the 
elegance of his style. In 1522, IJ^asmus dedicated to him 
his. work ^^ De conscribendis epistolis/' Berauld pub- 
lished various works in Latin, of which the principal are^ 
1. ^^ Oratio de pace restituta et de foedere sancito apud 
Cameracum,'' Paris, 1528, 8vo^ 2. ^^ Metaphrasis in oecor 
nomicon Aristotelis,*' Paris, 4to, without date. In 1 5 1 6^ 
be edited the works of William bishop of Paris, in folio^ 
and the same year an edition of Pliny's natural history, 
with numerous corrections, yet Hardouin has not men- 
tioned Berauld among the editors of Pliny. He also sup- 
plied notes to the Rusticus of Politian, and published a 
.** Greek and Latin Dictionary," that of Crafton, with ad- 
ditions, a preface, and notes. 3* ^^ Syderali$ Abyssus,'* 
Paris, 1514. .4. ^' Dialogus quo rationes expUcantur qui- 
bus.dicendiex tempore fjsicultas parari potest, &c.'' Lyons, 
1534. 5. ** De jurisprudentia vetere ac noviti^ oratio,'*' 
Lyons, 1533. 6. '^ Enarratio in psalmos LXXI. et 
CXXX." Paris, 1529, 4to. Berauld was greatly respect-* 
ed by Stephen Poucher, bishop of Paris, and aftei^wardai' 
archbishop of Sens, a celebrated .patron of learning and 
learned men. — Berauld's son, Francis, born at Orleans, 
embraced the principles of Calvin ; he was esteemed a very 
learned man and a good Greek and Latin poet. He was 
particularly eminent for his knowledge of Greek, wbic^ he. 
taught at Montbeliiard, Lausanne, Geneva, Montargis, of 
which last college he was principal in 1571, and at Ro- 
chelle. Henry Stephens employed him to translate part 
of Appian, and preferred his translation to tliat of Cceiiuai 
Secundus Curio. ^ 

BERAULT-BERCASTEL (Anthony Henry), born 
about the commencement of the last century, in the coun^ 
try Qf Messin in France, wa« first a Jesuit, thea cupte q{ 

1 jG«i|« pict,-*Moreri,— Bio^. ymTeneUei 

B E R A U L T. ft? 

jOrmeville in the diocese of Rouen^ and lastly canon of 
Noyou. He died during the revolution. He commenced 
his literary career in 1754, with a small poem on the Ca* 
nary-bird, " Le Serin des Canaries/' which was followed 
by the translation of Quivedo, and a collection of Idyls. 
He published afterwards in 2 vols. 12mo, a poem on the 
Promised Land, which had little success, and was justly 
censured for containing an absurd mixture of sacred and 
profane history. He then attempted a work more suitable 
to his profession, had he executed it well, an *^ Ecclesias* 
tf6al History," 24 vols. 12mo, 1778 and following years. 
This had some success, and a second edition was very re- 
;cently (1811) published at Toulouse, but it is so far infe* 
irior to Fieuri, that it is somewhat surprising the French 
public should have endured it. He left an abridgment of 
it in manuscript, in 5 vols. 8vo« He was also employed 
on the " Journal Etranger.*' * 

BERAULT (Michael), pastor and professor of theology 
at Montauban, about the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, was chosen to enter into conference with cardinal 
du Perron at Mantes, in L593; and in 1598, wrote against 
him *^ Brieve et claire defense de la vocation des ministres 
de TEvangile,'* 8vo. The lively interest he took in the 
affairs of the duke of Rohan, during the civil wars of France, 
induced him to publish several writings, particularly one, 
in which he maintained that the clergy were bound to take 
np arms and shed blood, for which be, was censured by the 
synod. Another BERAULT (Claude) succeede'd D'Her- 
belot, as professor of the Syriac in the royal college of 
Paris, but is best known by his edition of " Statins," 1685, 
2 vols. 4to, which, owing to most of the copies having 
been burnt by a fire in the printing-offibe, is the' roost 
scarce and dear of all the Delphin quartos. This author 
died in 1705.-*-BERAULT (JosiAs), an advocate of the 
parliament of Rouen under Henry III. was born in 1563, 
and died about 1640. He published a ** Commentaire sur 
la Coutume de Normandie,'^ 1650. and 1660, fol. The 
booksellers of Rouen, in 1626, republished this with the 
commentaries of Godefroi and Aviron, 2 vols. foL which 
were again reprinted in 1684 and 1776.' 

BERCHEM (Nicolas), an eminent artist, was born at 
'Haerlem, in 1624, and was taught the first principles of 

, * Biog. UntT^rselle. ' « Biog. Vnivf rse Uc— Moreri. 

2%. B E R C H E M. 

painting by his father, Peter Van Haerlem, an artist of 
very mean abilities^ whose subjects were fiab, confec- 
tionary, vases of silver, and other objects of still life; but 
he afterwards had the good fortune to have some of the 
best masters of that time for his instructors, and succes-«> 
sively was the disciple of Grebber, Vangoyen, Mojaart, 
Jan Wil9, and Weeninx. He had an easy expeditious 
manner of painting, and an inexpressible variety and beauty 
in the choice of sites for his landscapes, executing them 
with a surprising degree of neatness and truth. He pos« 
sessed a clearness and strength of judgment, and a won* 
derful power and ease in expressing his ideas; and al- 
though his subjects were of the lower kind, yet his choice 
of nature was judicious, and he gave to every subject as 
much of beauty and elegance as it would admit. The 
leafing of his trees is exquisitely and freely touched ; his 
skies are clear ; and his clouds float lightly, as if supported 
by air. The distinguishing characters of the pictures of 
Berchem^ are the breadth and just distribution of the lights ; 
the grandeur of his masses of light and shadow; the na* 
tural ease and simplicity in the attitudes of his figures, ex« 
pressing their several characters ; the just degradation of 
his distances ; the brilliancy and harmony, as well as the 
transparency, of his colouring; the correctness and true 
perspective of his design ; and the elegance of his compo- 
sition: and, where any of those marks are wanting, no 
authority ought to be sufficient to ascribe any picture to 
him. He painted every part of his subjects so extremely 
well, as to render it difficult to <)etermine in which he ex- 
celled most; his trees, buildings, waters, rocks, hills, cat- 
tle, and figures, being all equally admirable. 

One of the most capital pictures of this master was 
painted for the principal magistrate of Dort, in whose &l* 
mily it is still preserved ; being a prospect of a moun- 
tainous country, enriched with a great variety of sheep^ 
oxen, goats, and figures, excellently penciled, and most 
beautifully coloured. While iie was employed in painting 
that picture, the same burgomaster bespoke also a land- 
scape from John Both, and agreed to pay eight hundred 
guilders for each picture ; but to excite an emulation, he 
promised a considerable premium for the performance 
whigh should be adjudged the best. When the pictures 
were finished, and placed near each other for a critical 
examination; there appeared such an equality of merit in 

B E R C HEM. 29 

^ichf that he generously presented both artists with an 
equal sum above the price which he had stipulated. Ber« 
chem Mras singularly curious, in purchasing the finest prints 
and designs of the Italian masters, as a means of improving 
his own taste ; and after his death, that collection of draw- 
ings and prints sold for a very large sum. There was such 
a demand for h» works, that he was generally paid before- 
hand ; and although he was so indefatigable, that very 
often he would not move from his easel, in the summer 
months, from four in the morning till day>-light failed, (by 
which close application, he finished a great number of 
pictures,) yet, at this day, they are rarely to be purchased, 
and always are sold at an exttaoidinary high price. 

It is recorded of him, that his wife, the daughter oF Jan 
Wils, one of his masters, througli her avarice, allowed 
him no rest, and industrious as he was, she usually placed 
herself under his painting-room, and when she heard him 
neither sing nor stir, she struck upon the ceiling to rouse 
him. She inf»sted upon , having all the money he earned 
. by his labour, so that he was obliged to borrow from his 
scholars when he wanted money to buy prints, of which, 
as already noticed, he contrived to form an excellent col- 
lection. He passed ^art of his life in the castle of Ben«- 
-theim, tine situation of which famiriied him with the views 
and animals which compose his pictures, but he died at 
Harlaem, in 16SX There are many priuts engraven by, 
and after him ; the former amounting to forty-eight, and 
^e latter to one hundred and thirty three. ^ 

BERCHET (Peter), a French artist, who practised in 
'England, was bom in franco, in 1659, and at the age of 
fifteen was placed under the care of La Fosse, with whom 
his improvement was so considerable, that in three years 
he was qualified to be employed in one of the royal palaces. 
In 1681 he went to England, where he wotdied under Ram- 
hour, a French painter of architecture ; and afterwards he 
was engaged in different works for several of the English 
nobility. The ceiUng in the chapel of Trinity college, in 
Oxford, was painted by this master ; he also painted the 
staircase at the duke of Schomberg's in London, and the 
summer-house at Ranelagh. His drawings in the academy 
were nuich approved ; but towards the latter part of his 

1 Pilkington and Strait,— Ijtm of Painters omitted by De Piles, Svo. p. 94.** 


B E R C H E T. 

life, he only painted small pieces in the historical atyle^ for 
which the subjects were taken from fabulous history ; and 
his last performance was a Bacq^analian, to which he af* 
fixed his name the very day before he died, in 1720. ' 

BERCHORIUS (Peter), whose name we find disguised 
under Bbrcheure, Berchoire, Bercorius, Bekcheuius; 
&c. was bora in the beginning of the foiirteenth century^ 
at St» Pierre* du-Chemin^ near Af aillesais, in Poitou* He 
entered the , order of the Benedictines, and becaiae cele« 
brated for his learning, and attached himself to cardimtl 
Duprat, archbishop of Aix, whose advice was very useful 
to bim in his writings. Among bis other accomplishments^ 
be is said to have been so well acquainted with his Bible^ 
• as to be able to quote texts and authorities on all subjects 
without any assistance but from memory. He died at Paris 
in 1362, prior of the monastery of St. Eloy, since occu- 
pied by the Barnabites, which has induced some biogra- 
phers to think him a member of that order, but the Barr 
nabites were not an order until a century after this period. 
Berchorius wrote several works which are lost : those which 
remain are in 3 vols. fol. under the title of ^^ Reductorium> 
Hepertorium, et Dictionarium morale. utriusqueTestamen- 
ti, Strasburgh, 1474 ; Nuremberg, 1499 ; and Cologne, 
1631 — 1692. " Whoever,*' says Warton, in his "His- 
tory of Poetry,*' shall have the patience to turn over a few 
pages of this immense treasure of muUifarious erudition^ 
will be convinced beyond a doubt, from a general coinci^ 
dence of the plan, manner, method, and execution, that 
the author of these volumes, and of the ^^ Gesta Romano- 
rum," must be one and the same. The ^^ Reductorium*^ 
contains all tlie stories and incidents in the Bible, reduced 
into allegories. The '^ Repertofium" is a dictiojiary. of 
things, persons, and places ; all which are supposed to be 
mystical, and which are therefore explained in their mojal 
or practical sense. The " Dictionarium Morale" is in two 
-parts, and seems principally designed to be a moral re- 
pertory.for students in theology." Mr. Warton successfully 
pursues this argument in his ^< Dissertation on the Gesta 
Romanorum," to which we refer the reader. He mentions 
also that Berchorius was either of a comntent on a pr6sody 
called ^ Doctrinale metricum," which was.used asascbool* 
book in France^ till Despauter's manual on that subject 

' tord Orford's Works, vol. HI.— Pilkingtoo.— Stnitt. 

BEtlCHORlUS. 31 


appeared. Some biographers mention his *^ Tropologia,*' 
his " Cosmograpbia," and his " Breviarium ;" but the 
" Tropologia** is nothing more than his " Reductorium" 
on the Bible, and probably the ^' Breviarium'' is the same. 
The *' Cosmograpbia" seemis to be the fourteenth book of 
his *' Repertorium Morale." He is said by his biographers 
to have written other smaller pieces, which they have not 
named nor described. Among these, Mr. Warton thinks 
his ^* Gesta'* is comprehended : which we may conceive to 
have been thus undistinguished, either as having been 
neglected or proscribed by graver writers, or rather as 
having been probably disclaimed by its author, who saw it 
at length in the light of a juvenile performance, abounding 
in fantastic and unedifying narrations, which he judged 
unsuitable to his character, studies, and station. Besides 
the works above-mentiohed, Berchorius translated Livy, 
by order of king John, of which there was a beautiful MS. 
in the library of the oratory of Troyes, and other copies, 
not less beautiful, are in the imperial library at Paris. 
This translation was published in 1514 — 1515, at Paris, 
3 vols. fol. * 

BERCKRINGER (Daniel), who was born, according 
to Vossius, in the Palatinate, studied at Groningen. He 
became tutor to the children of the king of Bohemia, and 
was by the queen's interest appointed professor of philoso- 
phy at Utrecht, 1640, and eight years afterwards professor 
of eloquence. He succeeded also in poetry, but his style 
has been objected to as containing many new*coined words 
and affected phrases. He died July 24, 1667, leaving se* 
veral works, of which the principal were, 1 . " Exerctta- 
tiones ethicae, ceconomicee, politics," Utrecht, 1664. 2. 
** Dissertatio de Cometis, utrum sint signa, an causae, an 
Qtrumque, an neutrum," Utrecht, lt)65, i2mo. He wrote 
also against Hobbes, ** Examen elementorum philosopfaico- 
rum de bono cive," which remains in manuscript.' 

BEREGANI (Nicholas, Count), an Italian author of 
the seventeenth century, was born at Vincenza, Feb. 2^, 
fte7. When only nineteen years old, he was honoured 
by the king of France, Louis IH. with the ribbon of St. 
Michael and the title of chevalier. In 1649, his family 
wei^ promoted to the rank of nobility at Venipe. In that 

* * 

1 Bio;. UnJverselle. — Warton't Hist toI. III.— Dujj^io, — Morerj. 
' Moreri.-«Biog. Uoiv«neU«. - 


B E R E O A N t 

republic be distinguished himself at the bar, Qspecially 
when he returned to Venice, which he bad been obliged 
to leave for a time in consequence of some indiscretion. 
At his leisure hours he cultivated polite literature, an.d par- 
ticularly poetry and history. His poems are not without 
ease and elegance, although in other respects they partake 
largely of the vicious and affected style pf his age. Ho 
died at Venice, Dec. 17, 1713, and preserved to the last 
his love of study. Besides five dramatic pieces, all set to 
music, he wrote 1. ^^ Istoria delle guerre d^Europa delle 
comparsadellearmiOttomaneneir Ungheria I'anno 16S3,*' 
Venice, 2 vols. 4to. These two parts were to have been 
followed by four others, two of which were put to piress ia 
1700, but it does not appear that they were ever published, 
2. *^ Composizioni poetiche consistent! in rimesacre,eroir'hey 
morali ed amorose," Venice, 1702, 12mo. 3. " Opere de 
Claudio Claudiano tradotte ed arrichite di erudite annota- 
zioni," Venice, 1716, 2 vols. 8vo. This translation is ia 
high esteem, and the notes, although not so erudite as the 
title expresses, are yet useful ^ 

BE;RENGARIUS, or BERENGER (James), a physi- 
cian and anatomist of tiie sincteenth century, was a native 
of Carpi in Modena, whence some biographers have called 
him by the name of Carpius, or Carpensis. He took hi$ 
doctor^s degree at Bologna, and first ta^ght anatomy, ^nd 
surgery at Pa via. He afterwards returned to Bologna in 

1520, and taught the same studies. He was there, how- 
ever, accused of having intended to dissect two Spaniards 
who had the venereal disorder, and had applied to him for * 
advice, which, it was said, he meant to perform whil^ 
they were alive, partly out of his hatred to that nation^ 
and partly for his own instruction. Whatever may be in 
this report, it is certain that he was obliged to leave Bo« 
logna, and retire to Ferrar^^ where he died in 1550. By 
his indefatigable attention to the appearances of disease^ 
and especially by his frequent dissections, which in his 
time, were quite sufficient, without any other demerit, to 
raise popular prejudices against him, he was enabled to 
advance the knowledge of anatomy by many important dis-» 
coveries. His works were, 1. ^^ Commentaria, cum am« 
plissimis additionibus, super anatomia Myhdini," Bolbgoat 

1521, 1552, 4to, and translated into English by Jackson, 

1 Biog. UaiverseUe. 

B E R E N G A R I U S. 3f 

London, 1664. 2. ^^ IsagogH) breves in anatomiam eorporis 
humani, cum aliquot figuris anatoraicis,'' Bologna, 1522, 
4 to, and often reprinted. 3. " De Cranii fractura, tracta- 
tus," Bologna, 15 IS, 4to, also often reprinted. He was 
one of the first who employed mercury in the cure of the 
venereal disease. ' 

BERENC ARIUS, «»r BERENGER, the celebrated arch- 
deacon of Angers, was born at Tours in the beginning of 
the eleventh century, of an opulent family, and "becajne 
the disciple of the famous Fulbert of Chartres, under whomt 
he made rapid progress in grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, and 
what were then called the liberal arts. On his return to his 
country in 1030, he was appointed scholastic, or master 
of the school of St. Martin. His reputation soon reaching 
foreign parts, the number of his scholars greatly increased, 
and many of them were afterwards advanced to high rank 
in the church ; nor did he quit his school when made arch- 
deacon of Angers in 1039. The opinions, which have 
given him a name in ecclesiastical history,, were said to 
have been first occasioned by a pique. In a dispute with 
Lran franc, archbishop of Canterbury, on a very trivial ques- 
tion, he happened to be defeated, and what was worse, 
his scholars began to go over to that rival. Berengarius, 
on this, took Erigena for his model, and attacked the mys- 
tery of the eucharist, as the popish writers term it, but in 
plain language, the doctrine of transubstantiation. Bruno, 
bishop of Angers, Hugh, of Langres, and Adelman, of 
Brescia, in vain endeavoured to cure him of his heresy, 
and his writings, which were taken to Rome, were con- 
demned in two councils held by pope Leo IX. in 1050, and 
himself excommunicated. He then went to the abbey of 
Preaux in Normandy, hoping to be protected by duke 
William, surnamed the Bastard, but that young prince 
summonsed a meeting of the ablest bishops and divines, 
who again condemned Berengarius, and the council of 
Paris, in Oct. 1050, deprived him of all his benefices. 
This loss he is said to have felt more severely than their 
spiritual inflictions, and it disposed him to retract his sen- 
timents in the council of Tours, in 1055, in consequence 
of which he was received into church-communion. In 1059 
he wa§ cited to the council at Rome, by pope Nicholas XL 
and having been confuted by Abbo and Lanfranc, he ab** 

' BiQ£* Univecftelle.— Hall€r BibU AmL 

t* B E R EN O A R I US. 

jored hi!{ efror^^ biitnl his b.ooks, yet had no fstKftitt 
reached France, than he protested llg&inBt h\i recantatidni 
as extorted by feai"^ and returned to his i^udie^ with the 
same spirit of inqtaity. At length, however, Giregory Vll 
having called a new council atRomeiii 1078^ Berengev 
more seriously abjured his opinions, rettirned to France^ 
and passed th6 f^maiiiing years of his life in privacy lind 
jpenance. He died Jan. ^, lO^S^ aged nittety» Th^fd 
bare been ianany disputes betwixt protestant. and popish 
authors, ^ to th^ reality or sincerity of his final retianta^ 
lion. His sentiments, however, did not perish on his re- 
cantation^ or his d^ath) tod he inay be considered as havv»^ 
ing contributed to that great reformation in the church 
which afterwards Was carried into luting effect by his suc- 
cessors^ The greater part of his works are lost, but some 
are preservt^d amoi^g the works of Lanfranc, in the ^lec« 
tions of d'Acheri and Martentie; lind> in 1770) Lessingdis*^ 
covered! atid published his answeif to LanfbilEl6> *^ Dt cor^ 
j^One et sanguine Je^ju Christie'* * 

BERENGER DE LA TOUft> A French poet of thd 
sixteenth century, was boTn at Albena^ or A«A>eR^B in thd 
Vivarais. FttMn the preface to c^ie of hfe Works it appear^ 
that he st\^led law^ aild that his family had intended him 
for some post in the magistracy^ but that he had $Dund 
lieisnre to cultiva(^ his poetical talents^ in which he was not 
unsuccessful. His verees are easy and natural. The great-^ 
4fcr part were addressed to the poets of his time, many of 
whose names ^r^ wot much knoWn now^ at to persons of 
distinctio)f). We learn from on-e of his pieces that he lived 
*nder Francis I. ft^om another^ undter Henry H. and it is 
Supposed that he died about 1559* His J>ublish€d works^ 
are, l. " Le Sifecle d^or,'' and other ff^^etn^ Lyons^ 1551, 
«vo* 2. " Ghoreide,'^' or, " Louange dA ©al auX Dames,'' 
ibid. 1556, 8vo. 3. ^^ L'Amie des Amies>'* »n imitation of 
AriostOj in four books^ ibid. 1558, 8vo. 4. " L'Amie rns* 
tique/' and other poems, ibid. 15^8^ iva iRiis last> a 
Work of great rarity, is |5rinted with a species of contract 
tiofis and abbreviations which render the perusal of it very 

BERENGER (JottN Peter), a French miscelkneous 
writer, was born at Geneva in 1^40, and in early life quit* 
ted the meehamcal employment to which he had been des<^ 

1 Duptn. — Mosherm,*— Biog. UiRivenreile.-i*M<Jrferi.»«-8Axii Ooomasticoii. 
• Bioj. Universelle. 

B E R E N G E H. iS 

fined by his parents, for tbose studies to which he was in^i 
Tited by thte political troubles of his country. As by birth 
he was classed among those who are at Geneva called fza- 
tiv^Sf but who do not acquire the rank of citizens, because! 
born of foreign parents, his first effort was to establish, in 
some of his writings, the necessity of equal political rights. 
This dispute being referred to arms, Berenger, after his 
party was defeated, was banished, along with many others, 
by a decree of the sovereign power, February 10, 1770. 
On this be retired to Lausanne, and employed his timef 
in various literary undertakings, until his rieturn to Geneva^ 
where he died in Juue, 1807. He published, L An edi- 
fion of the works of Abauzit. 2. ^' Histoire de Geneve^ 
depuis son origine jusqu'a nos jours," 1772 — 75, 6 volsw 
l2mo. in this, the more distant ages are given in a sum- 
mary manner, having been suflSciently detailed by Spon, 
but n»uch tight is thrown upon the political history or the 
last century, which he brings down to 176^1, and to which 
m f . IfYvernois* work, *^ Tableau historique de revolutions 
de Geneve,** may be considered as a sequel. 3^. '^ Geo- 
graphie de Busching abregee, &c.'** Busching's work is 
here abridged in some parts and enlarged in others; Lau-^ 
sanne, 1776—79, I^vols. 8vo. 4. *^* Collection de tous 
les voyages faits autour de monde,'* 1788-^—90, 9 vols, 8vo^ 
repTinted in 1795. 5. " Amants Republicains, ou Lettres 
de Nicias et Cynire,*' 1782, 2 vols. 8vo, a political romance 
relating, to the troubles of Geneva. 6. ^^ Cours de geogra- 
phic historique, ancienne et moderne de feu Ostervald/* 
1803 and 1805, 2 vols. 12mo. 7. An edition of the " Dic- 
tionnaire geographique'^ of Vosgien (Ladvocat), 1805, Svo. 
S. Translations from the English of *^ Laura and Auguis- 
tu^i** and of " Cook's Voyages.'* 9. " J. J. Rousseau jxisti- 
tf€ envers sa patrie ;** and some lesser pieces mentioned ia 
Ersch's •'' France Litteraire.** M Bourrit attributes to hinv 
a translation of Howard's history of Prisons, but this,, k is 
thought, was executed by mademoiselle Keralio. * 

BEKENGER (Richaad), esq. many years gieiitlemain of 
tfie horse to his majesty, a man of considerable literary ta- 
tents, and for his personal .accompliskments called, by Dr. 
Jfohnson, " the standard of true elegance," published^ ii^ 
1771, '^The History and Art of Horsemanship,'* 2 vols. 
U% iUu&tjrated witk plates^ The bi»toFy^ wbicb' oooupiies 

} Biog. Universellv. 

© 2 - 

46 BERENGE li- 

the first volume, displays much research and acquaintance, 
with the classics and with other writers of remote antiquity. 
Previously to this, Mr. Berenger contributed three excel- 
lent papers. No. 79,, 156, and 202, to the " World," and 
in Dodsley's collection are a few of bis poems, written with 
ease and elegance. He died in his sixty- second year, 
Sept. 9, 1782.* 

BERENICIUS, a man utterly unknown, who appeared 
inlHolland in 1670, was thought to be a Jesuit, or a rene- 
gade from some other religious fraternity. He got his bread 
by sweeping chimnies and grinding knives,' and died at 
length in a bog, suffocated in a fit of druhkennes^. His 
talents, if the historians that mention him are to be credit^ 
ed, were extraordinary. He versified with so much ease, 
that he could recite extempore, and in tolerably good 
poetry, whatever was said to him in prose. He has been 
known to translate the Flemish gazettes from that language 
into Greek or Latin verse with the utmost facility. The 
dead languages, the living languages, Greek, Latin, French, 
and Italian, were as familiar to him as his mother tongue* 
He could repeat by heart Hors^ie, Virgil, Homer, Aristo- 
phanes, and several pieces of Cicero and of the Plinies ; 
and, after reciting long passages from them, point out the 
book and the chapter from whence they were taken. It is 
supposed that the ^^ Georgarchontomachia sive expugn^tta* 
Messopolis^^ is by him. * 


BERG ^JOHN Peter),' a learned divine, was born at 
Bremen, September 3, 1737, and died at Duisbourg, March 
3, 1800. He was distinguished as a theologian and philo- 
sopher, and a man of very extensive learning. He was 
eminently skilled in the Oriental languages, particulai'ly 
the Araibic, and for many years acquired much fame by his 
lectures on the holy scriptures, in the university pf Duis- 
bourg. He published, 1. " Specimen animadversionum 
philologicarum ad selecta Veteris Testamenti loca," Ley- 
den, 1761, 8vo. 2. " Symbolse litterarise Duisburgenses 
ad ipcrementum scientiarum a variis amicis amice collatde, 
ex Haganis factae Duisburgenses, '^' vol. I. 1783; vol. II. 
1784 — 6. If this be the saijicf work with his " Museum 
Duisburgense," it is a sequel to the " Musasum Hag«inum,^' 

1 British Essayists^ Preface tothe Wbrldt—Tbrale's Aneodotes, and Bo$«v€)H9 
Life of Johnson. 
' Af Qceri. 

BERG. 37 

by the learned professor Barkey, minister of the G^mau 
church at the Hague. ' 

BERGALLI (Charles), an Italian monk of the order 
of the minorite conventuals^ was born at Palermo, and in 
1650, when he officiated during Lent at Bologna, acquired 
high reputation as a preacher. He was professor of philo** 
sophy and divinity in the convents of his order, provincial 
in Sicily, and superintendant of the great convent of Pa« 
lermo, where he died, November 17, 1679. He published 
a philosophical work, or at least a work on philosophy, en* 
titled " De objecto philosophise," Perug. 1649, 4to; and 
it is said that he wrote an Italian epic poem called ^^ Davi* 
diade,*' a collection entitled *^ Poesis miscellanea," and 
an elementary work on medicine, ** Tyrocinium medico 
facultatis ;" but these have not been printed. * 

BERGALLI (Louisa), an Italian poetess, was born 
April 15, 1703, and appeared from her infancy capable of 
making a 6gure in the literary world. Her father, although 
of a genteel family of Piedmont, was ruined by various mis- 
fortunes, and at length set up a shoemaker^s shop in Venice, 
where he acquired some property. His daughter Louisa, 
one of a numerous family, discovered first a ta^te for em- 
broidery, then for drawing and painting, in which she was 
instructed by the celebrated female artist Rosalba Carriera; 
nor did she make less progress in literature, philosophy, 
and languages. She learned French of her father, and 
Latin under an excellent master, and in the course of this 
study she translated some of the comedies of Terence. 
Having conceived a particular taste for dramatic poetry, 
she received some instructions from Apostolo Zeno. As 
soon as her talents were known, places both lucrative and 
honourable were offered to her at Rome, Poland, Spain, and 
Milan, but she would not quit Venice, her native country, and 
continued her studies until the age of thirty^five, when she 
married count Gaspard Gozzi, a noble Venetian, known ia 
the literary world for his Italian dramas and other works. 
She lived with him very happily, and bore five children, 
whom she educated with great care. The time of her 
•death is not mentioned. Her principal works are, 1. ** A- 
gide re di Sparta,'' a musical drama, Venice, 1725, 12mo. 
. 2. « La Teba," a tragedy, ibid. 1728, 8vo. 3, " L'Ele- 
nia," musical drama, ibid. 1730, 12mo. 4. *< Le Awcn- 

1 Biog. Unirerselle. — Month. ReTf vol. L^l. p. 4€7, 
9 i^oreriy-r^iog. Unirerselle^ 

58 B E R G A I> L I. 


ture del poeta^" CQPaedy, ibid, 1730, 8vo, 5. '" El^Ura,"- * 
tragedy, ibid. 1743, 12mo. 6. " La Bradapaapte," musi- 
cal dramq., ibid. 1747, 12ino. 7, " Le Coinmedie di Te- 
renzio tradotto in versi scioUi," ibid, 1733, 8vo. ^, Trans- 
|a:tions from Racine and other dramatic poets of France. 
9. '* Componimenti poetici delle piu iUnstn rima<;rici d'og-* 
pi secolo,'* ibid. 1726, l2mo, Many of her sonnets an4 
lesser pieces appeared froih time to time in various collec- 
tions. * 


BERGANTINI (John Peter), an Italian author of the 
last century, was born at Venice, October 4, 16»l.^ He 
jjtudied for eight years in the Jesuil;s' college of Bolggnai 
and on his return to his own country, after a course of civil 
und canon law, was created doctor in 17d6, Hel^egan 
then to practise at the bar, where he bad considerable suc- 
cess, until he arrived at the twenty-fourth year of bis agei, 
when he suddenly changed his profession, and entered the 
order of the Theatinsj January 12, 1711. He was gome 
years after called to Rome, by the general of the order, and 
appointed their secretary; and such was his reputation 
among them, that he obtained a dispensation, never before 
granted by that society, to confess women, si^ year§ before 
the time prescribed by their laws. He afterwards devoted 
much of his time to preaching, through the principal cities 
of Italy. On his return to Venice in 1726, be determined 
to settle there, dividing his time between the duties of his 
profession, and the study of the best ancient authors, and 
those of his own country. His first publications were ha- 
rangues, panegyrics, and funeral orations, few of which 
survived him, but the following works were thought entitled 
to more durable fame: 1. A translation of Thuanus " D^ 
re Accipitraria," and of Bargee's " Ixeuticon," nnd^r the 
title of " II Falconiere di Jacopo Aug. Thuano, &c» with 
the Latin text and learned notes, Venice, 1735,. 4tjOt 
?. A translation of Vaniere's ** Prsedium rusticumj" en» 
titled *' Delia Possessione di Campagna," Venice, 1748, 
8vo, unluckily taken from the edition of 1706, the tranala* 
tor not being acquainted with that of 1730. He translated 
also cardinal de Polignac's ** Anti-Lucretius,'' Verona, 
175d, Svo^ and published an improvement of the de la 
Ci:M§ca dicuonary, uuder the title " Delia volgar^ elocu* 

B E S O A N T I N L W 

%iwe, illu^ty^toy ampUctta e faciUtata, ^ol. I. contenente 
A- B«'' YeaicQ, 174O9 folio. Tbe bookseller being unstio* 
€e$«ful in the sale; this volume only appeared, but the 
aiitbor, in 1743, published a prospectus in wbiob he pro« 
£9s^d to have re-^modelled the work, and reduced it front . 
twelve volufne^ to iix. This, however, still remains in ma* 
nuscript, with many pther works from his pen. Our aatho- 
rity does not mention bi$ death. ^ 

BKBGELLANLJS (John Arnold), the author of a poem 
in praise of printing, written in Latin hexameters and pen* 
tafpoterst has isscaped the research^ qf biographers as to 
much personal history. It is, however, conjectured, that 
his prQPi^r name was Arnold or Arnoldi, and that he was 
called ]^ergellanus from his country. It is supposed also 
that he caine to M^nte, and was employed tiiere, either 
as a worknaaui or as a' corrector of the press. John Conrad 
ZieltqQf, who is pf this last opinion, has apcerdin^ly as« 
signed hiui a short article in his Latin history of the oor« 
rectors of the press, p. 79, 80, where he calls him John 
Anthony, iqst^ad of John Arnold. Struvias (Intiod. in 
not. rei litterarise, p. 892) considers Bergellanus as th^ 
first historian of printing, but in this he is mistaken. Men* 
tel, in bis ** Pafs^nesis de vera origine Typographic, p. 52, 
s^ys that Bergellanus's poem was printed in 1510, which 
could not be the case, as mention is made in it of Oharles 
V. who was not emperor until 1519. Walkius, who wrotd 
in 1608, asserts that Bergellanus.wrote or published hii| 
poem eighty -years before^ which brings us to 15120, but in 
fact it was not written or published until 1540 and 154 J, as 
appears oli^afly by the author's dedication to cardinal Al- 
bert, archbishop of Mentz and marquis of Brandebourg. 
TberQ h^ye been six editions of it, separate or joined to 
other works on the subject. The two last are by Prosper 
Marchand in his History of Printing, Hague, 1740, 4to, 
a^d by Wplfius in his ^^ Monumenta typo^aphica.'* * 

BEflGEN (Chahles Augustus de), a German an^o« 
quist aqd botanist, was bom August 11, 1704, at Francfort 
on the Oder. His father, John George Bergen, was pro« 
fessor of anatomy and botany in that university. After his 
early studies, his father gave him some instructions in tlie 
prineiples of medicine, and then sent him to Leyden, 
Yii^ffi he studied under Bo^riiaave and Albinus. He also 

I B'lQs* UpirtrseUg, > Moreri. 

40 R E R G E N. 


went to Paris for farther improvement in anatomy. The 
reputation of Saltzman and Nicolai next induced him to 
pass some time at Strasburgb, and after visiting other cele- 
brated universities in Germany, he returned to Francfort, 
and took his doctor's degree in 1731. The following year 
he was appointed professor-extraordinary, and, in 1738, 
succeeded, on the death of his father, to the chair of ana- 
tomy and botany. In 1744 he became professor of thera- 
peutics and pathology, in room G[f Goelicke, which he re- 
tained with high credit until his death, October 7, 1760, on 
which occasion his life, in the form of an eloge, was pub- 
lished in the Leipsic Medical Commentaries, vol. IX. 

Bergen is the author of a great many works on botany, 
and various branches of natural history. In 1742 he pub- 
lished a dissertation to prove the superiority of the system 
of Linnaeus to that of Tournefort, but afterwards he 
changed his opinion, and his ** Francfort Flora,'' published 
in 1750, is arranged on the Tournefortian system, although 
with improvements. This Flora was originally only a new 
edition of the " Vade Mecum" of Johrenius, one of his 
predecessors in the botanical chair, but unquestionably his 
additions were then new and important. - He also proposed 
|L new classification of shells, published observations on the 
anatomy of frogs, and several dissertations or memoirs on 
various plants and animals. His academical dissertations 
on anatomy were published by Haller, who particularly 
praises those on the intercostal nerve and on the cellular 
membrane. His works not included in that collection are, 

1. "Icon nova ventriculorum cerebri," Francfort, 1734. 

2. " Programma de pia matre," Nuremberg, 1736, 4to. 

3. ^^ Programma de nervis quibusdam cranii ad novem pa- 
ria hactenus non relatis," Francfort, 1738. 4. " Methodus 
cranii ossa dissuendi, et machined hunc in finem constructae, 
delineatio," 1741, 4to. 5. ^* Pentas obervationum anato- 
mico-physiologicarum," 1743, 4to. 6. " Elementa physi- 
ologiae," Geneva, 1749, 8vo, after the manner of Boer- 
haave's Institutes. 7. ^^ Anatomes experimentalis, pars 
prima et secunda," Francfort, 1755, 1758, 8vo. 8. Seve- 
ral dissertations and theses, in the medical journals. 9. 
•* Programma," already mentioned, on the comparative 
merits of the Linnsean and Tournefortian systems, Franc-^ 
fort, 1742, 4to; Leipsic, 1742, 4to. 10. ^^ Dissertatio de 
Aloide," Francfort, 1753, 4to, with a supplement in the 
^ifpv^ Act* Acad, Nat. Curiosor. vol. II. U, ^^ Catalogue 


stirpium quas hortus academise Viadrinse (Francfort) com- 
jplectitur," 1744, 8vo. 12. " Flora Francofurtana,** ibiel. 
1750, 8vo. 13. " Classes conchyliorutn," Nuremberg, 
1760, 4to. Adanson consecrated a genus to the memory 
of Bergen under the name of Bergena, but it was nojt 
adopted by Linnaeus. * , 

BERGER (John Henry de), a learned lawyer, was born 
at Gera, Jan. 27, 1657, and studied at Halle, Leipsic, and 
Jena. He afterwards was appointed professor of law at 
Wittemberg, and counsellor at Dresden. In 1713, 
Charles VI. invited him to Vienna in quality of aulic 
counsellor of the empire, and he died there November 
25, 1732. Of his qumerous works, which have been often 
reprinted,- the following are the principal: 1. "Electa 
processus executivi, processorii, provocatorii et inatri- 
monialis," Leipsic, 1705, 4t(). 2. /* Electa disqeptationuia 
forensium," the best edition of which is that of Th. 
Hayme, 1738, 3 vols. 4to. 3. "Electa jurisprudentiae 
criminalis," Leipsie, 1706, 4tD. 4. " Responsa ex omni 
jure," 1708^ folio. 5. " CEconomia juris," 1731, folio. 
Berger left three sons, Christopher Henry, Frederic Louis, 
and John Augustus, who all followed the profession of the 
law with distinguished merit. ' 

BERGER (John William), brother to the preceding, 
was professor of eloquence at Wittemberg, aulic counsellor 
to the elector of Saxony, Augustus II. king of Poland, and 
died in 1751. He wrote several interesting dissertations, 
mostly on points of ancient history and literature, among 
which are, 1. " Dissert. Sex de Libanio," Wittemberg, 
1696, 1698, 4to. 2. " De antiqua poetarum sapientia," 
1699, 4to. 3. " De Virgilio oratore," 1705, 4to. 4. " Dis- 
sert tres de Lino," 1707, 4to. 5. " Disciplina Longlni 
selecta," 1712, 4to. 6. " De Mysteriis Cereris et Bacchi,'* 
1723, 4to. 7. " De Trajano non Optimo," 1725, 4to. 
8. " De Stephanophoris veterum," 1725, 4to, &c. Saxi- 
us, who has given a much fuller list of his dissertations, 

E raises him as a man of most extensive learning, and who 
ad scarcely his equal in Germany. Yet from one of his 
works we should be inclined to doubt his taste. Among 
those enumerated by Saxius is one, *^ De naturali pulchri- 
tudine orationis," 1719, in which he attempts to prove 
that Caesar's Commentaries (the pure^ simple, and elegant 
style of which is more remote from th^ sublime than that 

^ ^iop Uqiveni^Ue, 9 Moreri.— Bio|p. UniTeneHe.«r^S«xti OoDinastr 

4« ^EB^GEIt 

of s^ny of the classical ftutbors) contain th^ most cpippleU 
ejcemplification of aU Longiaus's rul^^ relatttig to ^ublim'e 
writing* After bi3 de^tb was published ^^ Conspectus Sib*- 
liothecae B^rgerianflP ;" lal^Q " Libri Mawscripti et im^ 
pr^si, coljaji qum Manupcriptis ex Bibliotbeca Jo. Gul. de 
Bergcr," 1752, 8vo. Another brother, JoHW Godfeey pg 

Bf R6£^y was an eminent pbyuician, and published, !• " Pby* 
aiglpgica m^dica," Witfcenpiberg, J 701, and often reprinted, 
2. ^* De Therrpis Carolinis conmaeatatio^" ibid. 1709, 4to. 
Ha died October 3, 1736, * 

. BEBGER (Theqdqkj5)| professor of law find history at 
Cobourg, was horn at UnteHautern in 16S2, studied at 
Halle, and accompanied several young gentlemen on their 
travels. He died November 80/ 1773. His " Universal 
History," published, in German, at Cobourg, fplio, is highly 
esteemed by his countrymen, and passed through five edi>^ 
tions. It has since been continued by professor Wolfgang • 
JsBger, 1781, folio. ' 

BERQERAC (Savinjen Cyrano de), was born about 
1630, in the castle of Bergerac in Perigord, and was at 
first very indiffiprently educated by a poor country priest. 
He afterwards came to Paris, and gave himself up to evpry 
kind of dissipation. He then entered as a cadet in the 
regiment of guards^ * and endeavoured to acquire repu- 
tation on the score of braveryi by acting as second in 
many duels, besides those in which he was a principal, 
scarce a day passing in which he had not some affair of this 
kind on bis hands, Whoever obser\'ed his nose with any 
attention, which was a very remarkable ope, was sure to b^ 
involved in a quarrel with him. The courage he shewed 
upon these occasions, and some desperate actions in which 
be distinguished himself when in the army, procured him * 
the name of the Intrepid, which be retained to the end of 
his life. He was shot through the body at the siege of 
Mouzon, and run through the neck at the siege of Arras, in 
1 640; and the hardships he suffered at these two sieges, the 
little hopes be had of preferment, and perhaps his attach-* 
ment to letters, made him renounce war, and apply himself 
altogether to certain literary pursuits. Amidst all his foU 
lies he had never neglected literature, but often withdrew 
himself, during the bustle and dissipation of a soldier's life, 
to read and to write. He composed many works, in which 
be shewed some genius and extravagance of imagination^ 

1 Biog. Universelle.— Blair's Lectures. —iSaxiiOoomasticoa, 

B E R G £ H A C, «9 

Ms^rsh^l-Gassion, who loved ipen of wit wi CQi^rstgf, be*- 
cau^^ he had both biipself, would have B^reerS'C with biWf 
but he, being passionately fond of liberty, looked Upon fchi> 
advantage as a constraint that would never s^gi*^^ with bim, 
and therefore refused it. At length* how^var, in eoiatpli- 
ance with his friends, who pressed him to procure a patroa 
at court, he overtanme his scruples, and placed himself witb 
the duke of Arpajon in 1653. To this nobleman be dedi** 
cated his works the same year, for be bad published nop^ 
before, coni>isting of spme letters written ip bis yputb, with 
a tragedy on the death of Agrippina, widow of Germanicus* 
He afterwards printed a comedy called " The Pedant," 
but his other works were not printed till after bi? deatbu 
His ** Comic history of the states and empires of the 
Moon" was printed in 1656. His " Comic history of the 
states and empire^ of the Sun," several letters and dia«- 
Jogues; and a fragment pf physics, were all collected and 
published afterwards in a volume. These comic histories 
and fragments shew that he was well at^quainted with the 
Caitesian philosophy, He died in 1 6$ 5, aged only thirty •■ 
five years, bis de^th being occasioned by a blow upon hi^ 
bead which he unluckily received from the fall of a piece 
pf wood a few months before. 

The earl of Orrery, in hiB " Ren^arks on the life and 
writings of Swift," has taken occasion to speak of bioj in 
the following manner : " Cyrano de Bergerac is a French 
jiuthor of a singular character, who had a very peculiar turn 
of wit and humour, in many respects resembling that of 
Swift. He wanted the advantages of learning and a regu* 
Jar education ; his imagination was less guarded and cor* 
rect, but more agreeably extravagant, He has introduced 
into hi$ philosophical romance the system of des Cartes, 
which was then much admired, intermixed with several fin^ 
strokes of just satire on the wild and immechaoical inqui^ 
ries of the philosophers and astronomers of that age ; and 
in many parts he has evidently directed the plan which the 
dean oi St. Patrick's has pursued." This opinion was first 
quoted in the Monthly Review (vol. XOj when Derrick 
translated and published Bergerac's " Voyage to th^ 
Moon," 1753, l^mo. But Swift is not the only person iu- 
debted to Bergerac. His countrymen allow that Moliere, 
in several of his character^, Foptenelle* in \M ** Plurality 
of Worlds," and Voltaire, in his " Micromegas,*' have taken 

many biuU and $ket(:he» fr^m (bi^ eceentric wrilcr. There 



44 6 fi H G E R A C. 

have been various editions of his works at Paris, Amster* 
dam, Trevoux^&c. : the last was printed at Paris, 1741, 3 
vols. 12 mo.* 

BERGHEM (Nicolas.) See BERCHEM. 

BERGIER (Nicolas), an eminent French antiquary, 
was born at Rhei'ms, March 1, 1567, and not 1557, as as-* 
sorted by Bayle, Moreri, and Niceron, After finishing his 
studies at the university of that 6ity, he became preceptor 
to the children of count de St. Souplet, who always testi- 
fied his respect for him on account of the pains he bestowed 
on their education. ' He then was admitted an advocate, 
and appointed law-professor and syndic of the city, a place 
which he filled during many of the elections. His talents 
and virtues were so highly estimated by his fellow-citizens, 
that as a mark of their confidence they employed him on 
their affairs at Paris. During his visits to that metropolis, 
he commenced a friendship with Dupuy and Peiresc, and 
formed an acquaintance with the president de Bellievre, 
who obtained for him the place of historiographer by bre- 
vet, with a pension of two hundred crowns. He was on a 
visit at the country-house of this celebrated magistrate, 
when he was attacked by a fever, which terminated fatally^ 
August 18, 1623, in his fifty -seventh year. The president 
honoured him with an affectionate epitaph, which is printed 
in his two principal works. He is particularly known in the 
literary world by his " Histoire des grands chemins de 
Tempire Remain,'* a work in which he was assisted by his 
friend Peiresc, who furnished him with many necessary 
documents. It was first printed in 4to, 1622, and in the 
course of a cenXury became very scarce. In 1712 the first 
book of it was translated into English, and published at Lon- 
don, in 8vo, entitled " The general history of the Highways 
in all parts of the world, particularly ?n Great Britain.'* In 
1728, John. Leonard, bookseller and printer at Brussels, 
published a new edition of the original, 2 vols. 4to, from a 
copy corrected by the author ; and one yet more improved 
was printed atthe same place, in 1736, 2 vols. 4to. They 
are both scarce, but the first is reckoned the best printed. 
It has also been translated into Latin by Henninius, pro- 
fessor in the university of Duisbourg, with learned notes, 
and the remarks of the abbe Du Bos, for Grsvius's antiqui- 
ties, vol. X. ; but Bayle is mistaken in supposing that this 

1 Biog, t7oi¥enene.-*oDict., Hist. -^Moreri, et UA^ocat In Cyrapo, 

B E R G I £ R. 45 

work was translated into Latin and Italian by Benedict 
Baccbini, who, however, made some progress himself in a 
work <^ De viis antiquorum Romanorum in Italia/* and 
doubtless would have availed himself of Bergier's labours. 
Besides this history of the Roman roads, Berg^er had be- 
gun a history of Rheims, the manuscript of which the pre" 
sident de Bellievre wished Andre Duschesne to complete, 
but some obstruction arising on the part of the chapter of 
Bbeims, who refused Duschesne access to their archives^ 
he declined proceeding with the undertaking. The son of 
the author, however, John Bergier, unwilling that the whole 
should be lost, published the two books left complete by his 
father, with a sketch of the other fourteen of which it was to 
consist. This was entitled '• Dessein de I'Histoire de Reims,** 
ibid. 1635, 4tOw Bergier was also author of 1. '' Le point 
du Jour, ou Traits du Commencement des Jours et de Pen- 
droit ou il est etabli sur la terre,*' Rheims, 1629, ISmo. 
The first, a Paris edition, 1617, was entitled " Archeme* 
ron.'* His object is to attain some general rule for avoid- 
ing the disputes respecting the celebration of the Catholiq 
festivals. 2, " Le Bouquet royal," Paris, 1610, 8vo; 
Rheims, 1637, 4to> enlarged, an account of the devises 
and inscriptions which graced the entrance of Louis XIII. 
into Rheims. 3. <* Police generale de la France," 1617. 
4. Various Latin and French poems inserted in the collec- 
tions^ but we cannot pronounce him very successful as a 

BERGIER (Nicolas Sylvester), . a French writer of 
considerable note, was born, at Darnay in Lorraine, .Decern* 
ber 31,1718. In the career of promotion he was first cu- 
rate of Flangebouche, a small village in Franche-Comt^, 
then professor of theology, principal of the college of Be- 
.san9on, a canon of the church of Paris, and confessor to 
the king's aunts. Throughout life he was one of the most 
strenuous opponents of the modern philosophers of France* 
^e acquired an early name by some essays on various lite-t 
xary subjects, io which the prizes were adjudged at Besan- 
{oa ; and his reputation was considerably heightened by his 
very ingenious .and plausible work, entitled ** Elements 
primitifs des Langues, &c." Paris, 1764, 12mo. Soon af- 
ter he published another, which was favourably received by 
|he learned world, *' Origiae des Dieux du Paganisme et 

* Biog. .UDiTerselle.T-.-Oen. Bict.'^NicerQiif toL VL<— Moreri.-^Meinoirs o£ 
|4t9r»t)ire^ roll. IV. i«t&d YIL 

49 B E A O t E It 

le« sens de* Fables decon vert, par tine eif plication strivltf 
des Poesies d'Hesiode/* Paris, 1767, 2 vols. 12mo. When 
about the same time be found religion attacked in every 
quarter by a combination of men of talents in France, he 
determined^ to endeavour to counteract their schemes. 
With this view he wrote ** La Certitude des Preuves dn 
Christianisme,*' 1768, 12mo, pstrticularly directed against 
the " Examen critique des Apologistes de la religion Chre* 
tieime," improperly attributed to Freret; and it was allowed 
to have been written with much sense, precision, and mo- 
deration. This work, which occasioned more friends and 
more ' enemies to Bergier than any other, passed through 
three editions in the same y6ar, besides being translated 
into Italian and Spanish. Voltaire, to whom the popularity 
of any Writings of this tendency must have been peculiarly 
unpleasant, affected to answer it in his ** Conseils raison- 
ables," written with his usual art, but more remarkable for 
wit than argument, Bergier answered the *^ Conseils,** 
tlie only instance in which he. noticed any of his adversaries 
\ti public. He had another more contemptible antagonist, 
the noted Anacharsis Cloots, who published what he, and 
perhaps no man else, would have called " Certitude des 
Preoves du Mahometisme.*' About this time the blergy of 
France, sensible of Bergier*s services, gave him a pension 
of two thousand livres, and offered him some valuable be- 
nefices, but he would only accept of a canonry in Notre 
Dame, and it was even against his inclination that he was 
afterwards appointed confessor to the mesdames, the last 
king's aunts. Free from ambition, modest and simple in ' 
dress and manners, he was desirous only of a retired life, 
und at Paris-he lived as he had done in the country, in the 
midst of his books. This study produced, successively, 
!. ** Le Deisme refute par lui-meme," Paris, 1765, 1766, 
176B, 2 vols. 12mo, an examination of the religious prin- 
ciple of Rousseau. 2. " Apologie de la Religion Chre- 
tienne contre Fauteur du Christianisme devoil^," (the baron 
Holbach) Paris, 1769, 2 vols. 12mo, 3. " Examen du 
Materialisme, ou refutation du systeme de la Nature," Pa- 
ris, 1771, 2 vols. 12mo. 4. " Trait6 historique et dogma- 
tique de la vraie Religion, &c." Pari«, 1780, 12 vols. 12mo/ 
This is, in some respect, a collection of the sentiments of 
the ablest writers against infidelity. 5. •* Discours sur le 
Mariage des Protestants," i7»7, dvo. 6, '^Observations 
sur le Divorce," ibid. 1790, 8vo, He also compiled a the- 

B £ R G t £ A. 4« 

eloptA dictioAiry, which mtkes a part of the ^ Encyclo- 
pedia metbodique/^ 9 vols. 4to. The abb^ Barrtiel says» 
tjiat when this work was first undertaken, some deference 
was still paid to religion, and Bergier thought it incumbent 
On him to yield to the pressing solicitations of his friends, 
lest the part treating of religion should fall into the hands 
6f its enemies, but in this they were deceived. Bergier, 
indeed, performed his task as might have been e2q>ected ; 
but in other parts of the work the compilers exceeded their 
predecessors in licentious sentiments, and at the same time 
availed themselves of the name of Bergier as a cloak. M. 
Barbier attributes to our author the sketch of Metaphysics 
inserted in the •* Cours d'etude de Pusage de PEcoIe mili- 
taire.*' In all his works there is a logical arrangement and 
precision, and the only objection the French critics have is 
to his style, which is sometimes rather diffuse. He died at 
Paris, April 9, 1790. He was a member of the academy of 
Besan^on, and an associate of that of inscriptions and belles^ 
lettres. » 

BERGIUS (John Henry Louis), a German writer, wa« 
bom at Laaspa in 1718, and died in 1781. He published, 
f. ^ Cameralisten Bibliothek," a complete catalogue of all 
books, pamphlet!^, &c. on the subjects of political economy^ 
police, finances, &c. Nuremberg, 1765, 8vo. 2. " A Ma- 

fazine of Police and Administration, in alphabetical order,*^ 
rancfort, 1767, 1773, 8 vols. 4to. 3. " New Magazine of 
Police, &c.** Leipsic, 177 J — 80, 6 vols. 4to. 4. •* A col- 
lection of the principal German laws, relative to police and 
administration,^ Francfort, 4 vols. 1780 — 81. This last 
was continued by professor Beckmann of Gottingen. • 

BERGIUS (PfcTEli Jonas), a physician and professor of 
natural history at Stockholm, and a member of the aca- 
demy of sciences of that city, died in 1 79 1 . He wrote many 
works of considerable reputation. Having received from 
Crtkbb, the director of the Swedish India company, an her- 
bal of plants collected at the Cape of Good Hope, be drew 
lip a description of them, under the title of " Descriptio- 
nes plantar am e^ Capite Bon* Spei,*' Stockholm, ,1767, 
Ivo, but generally quoted by the shorter title of " Flora 
Capensis.'* Bergius discovered several plants in that co- 
tofiy» which had escaped the knowledge of preceding bota« 

^ Bio^. UniTerselle. — ^B»rrael'f Memoiri of JaGobiiuim» t«1. J. p* &l* 

* fitog.Uiiiverselle. y 


48 B E R G I U & 

nists, and established several genera, one of which he de-. 
dicated to Grubb, but this title was not generally adopted. 
He also published various memoirs on plants in the trans- 
actions of the societies of which he was a member, and^ 
without ever travelling out of Sweden, found means to ac- 
quire a very accurate knowledge of the most rare erotics, 
and in compliment to his skill Linnaeus consecrated to him 
a new g^enus by the name of Bergia. He wrote a vegetable 
** Materia medica," under the title of " Materia medica e 
regno vegetabili, sistens simplicia officinalia pariter atque 
culinaria," Stockholm, 1778, 8vo; 17S2, 2 vols. 8vo ; and 
in the Swedish, a treatise on fruit trees, 1780, and a histo- 
rical work on the city of Stockholm in the fifteenth and 
sixteenth century. ^ 

BERGIUS (Bengts or Benedict), brother of the pre^ 
ceding, a commissary of the bank of Stockholm, and a 
member of the academy, was born in 1725, and died, in 
1784. Being equally attached to the study of naturaf his- 
tory, the brothers kept between them a very large garden, 
in which they cultivated rare plants, and which they be- 
queathed to the academy of Stockholm, with funds for a 
professorship of agriculture and gardening. The present 
professor is the celebrated Olaus Swartz. * Benedict Ber- 
gius wrote various papers inserted among those of the^ aca- 
demy, on the colour and change of colour of animals, on 
certain plants, the history of fishes, &c. and after his death 
appeared an ingenious treatise of hisi in Swedish, on 
^* Nicety in diet among all people," which was translated 
into German, and published by Reinold Forster and Spren- 
gel at Halle, 1792.* 

BERGLER (Stephen), was born at Hermanstadt, the 
capital of Transj'lvania, about 1680, and leaving his coun-. 
try in pursuit of employment, engaged with Fritsch, the 
opulent and spirited bookseller of Leipsic, as corrector of 
the press, but his turbulent and unsocial character having^, 
occasioned a dispute between him and Fritsch, he went to 
Amsterdam, where his intimate knowledge of Greek recom- 
mended him to the superintendance of Wetstein's edition 
of Homer, 1702, 2 vols. 12mo, and the magnificent edition 
of the Onomasticon of Pollux, 2 vols.fol. 1706. Bergler 
afterwards went to Hamburgh, where he assisted Fabricius 
in his Bibl. Graeca, and his editiou of Sextus Empiricus^ 

1 Bioj.UmTettclU. ^ IbkL 

B E R G L E R. 4S 

Leipsic, 1718, folio. Returning then, to Leipsic> heirans^ 
eribed ah ancient scholiast on Homer, published a neif edi- 
tion, of Aiciphron, with excellent notes^ 171^, Svo, and 
made some progress in an edition of Herodotus, in a new 
translation of Herodian, more literal thaathat^oftPolitJaii^ 
and in an edition of Aristophanes, vrhiohwai published by 
the younger Burmann in 1760, 2 vols^ 4to. Amidst all 
these employments, he contributed several excelleut papers 
to the Leipsic ** Acta Eruditorum.'' It is to htm likewise 
that we owe the Latin translation of the four books of Oe* 
nesius on the Byzantine history, which is inserted in vol. 
XXIIL of that collection, published at Venice in 1733, but 
is not in the fine Louvre edition. For Fritsch, to whom he 
seems to have been reconciled, he translated a Greek work 
of Alexander Maurocordato, hospbdar of Walachia, which 
was published, with the original text, > under the title ^^ Li- 
ber de officiis," Leipsic, 1722, 4to, and London, 1724, 
12mo« For this he was so liberally revirarded by John Ni« 
cplasy prince of Walachia', and son to the author, that he 
determined to quit Leipsic^ and attach himself to bis .patron. 
He went accordingly to Walachia, wbeVe the prince had a 
capital library .of manuscripts, collected at. a yast expence. 
Bergler found there the introduction and first three chap- 
ters of Eusebius's " Evangelical Demonstration," hitherto 
madiscovered, and sent a copy of them to Fabricius, by 
.whom they were printed in his ^^ Delectus argumentorum," 
Hamburgh, 1725, 4to« On the destth of the prince, how- 
ever, Bergler being without support, went to Constantly 
nople, where he died in 1746, after having, it is said, em- 
braced Mahometanism. He was a most accomplished scho- 
lar in Greek and Latin, and an accurate editor ; but his 
unsteady turn and unsocial disposition procured him many 
^ enemies, and even among his friends he was rather tole- 
rated than admired. ' 

BERGMAN (Sir Torbern), a celebrated chemist and 
natural philosopher, was born March 20, 1735, at Catha- 
rineberg in Westgothland. His father was receiver-gene- 
ral of the finances, and had destined him to the same em- 
ployment; but nature had designed him for the sciences, 
to which he had an irresistible inclination from his earliest 
years. His first studies we're confined to mathematics and 
physics, and all efforts that were made to divert him. from 

1 • .' • ' 

1 Biog. Uaiverstlie.-- Saxii ODOOMStitoo, 

YouV.  E  

S# B £ H ($ S£ A^i^M. 

•eifloee h^i4fig jlfOTttd indfccttial^ he #a» $«tf to jUpaat 
with permission to follovr the bent oif bis iiii!tiii8UCM!iw Lin-^ 
fieua at that time filled the wkole kiiigdfom. with his fame. 
imAigaied by his example, the Swedirii youdt AoduBDd 
around bim; and acoomplisfaed disci|9lesieaYiiig h'rasdftool^ 
earried the naatie aod die system: of tbeir niasier to the most 
diBtiBMiit parts of the globev Bergmao^ s^ttudi wicb the 
ipleadciiir of thia renowii^ attached bioiseif to the man whose 
aserit had ptocnred it, and by wfaooi he was very soon dis^ 
tmguistead. He applied buwelf at fir st to the stooiy of m^ 
aeets, and made seveml ingenious leseaicbes into tbeiv 
history;, aau^og otbetfs iate that of the genua of Untkred^^ 
ab oAie» and 9^ enielly preyed oo* b^* the larfos el the ieb« 
aemaie&a, that neatle in their, boocfdn and drrour tbem* He 
d»oo¥eved that, the leecfa< is evipaaooa^ aoad idiat tkie eoecaa 
a^uatieua ts> the egg^ oi this anoud, fkodi wheaoe issue ten 
or tvfeUe youngv Lianasusiy wlia h«d» att first deuiied tbis 
§tK(str we^ struck \d«k astotinriuBaeot aokwit he saair it pncwredl 
5^ ViULeflobetapui!'^' were the words be pronouneed^ aod* 
aibieb be- vnaote at the foes oi the naenioit? vAimt be gsnre it 
bih saactiom Mr. Bei<gaMBi men diitongaisfaed- hinnelf as 
aa astroodmerf naturaHst, and geootetrieian; bat these* we 
net the tittestby which heaeqaived bis fdtsm. The cbair ol 
cbeaiifltry and mineralogy^ which bad been* fiUed by dM 
eel^btialied) WaiiertiiS) beoomiog vacant by hia Mugnation^ 
Mr. Bergmaa was^aoion^ the niaabev of tbtr eompetitors; 
atid witimft hainng* before thte period disco vened any pavti* 
eulttp atoeatioa to eheouetry^ he pubUsfaed a mesnotr 00 the 
pveparal»o» of akim,. thai astonifihed bii* friends m welt at 
)m. adversariistf ; bot it waS' wamrfy ansackecb iw the pem^'- 
cal publica^MHiSy and Walteriua himself cidiausised it witfaoat 
jiaaerveL The dispute, ine ntaysapyuBey wair. deemed^ of 
faigli ioipoiPtaiioe^ sioee the prince Gaatanrus, a£i9etfvraiid^ 
king of Sweden, and then chancellor oi t^ attivecsity^ 
took 4So>^zance ol the afi&ir, and after having consulted 
fm^ personify the m^t able to gikre bim ad^iee, and: whose 
t e stim ony went iwfaiwiv of Bergman, he addVesBed a me« 
rmffiAs wfitum* with his owti^ hand^ m answer to M the oh^ 
jection» uf^ged' against the: candilQiailev to^ the^ consistory of 
the ttimiemtty aadi to the senate, wto elected tain»agceeably 
to his btgbim»'» i^ifahea. 

B)ei^giiiae>bflitoow't0'saefafy'tWfe were coaamred 

of bim ; to justify the opinion of those who recommeaded 
him ; to fill the pfisEcr of W^erius-^ and to put eitvy to 

rfkenee ; not was he iin^ttceessful in any of tb^sc^ a ftewf i p W, 
tie did not follow the common track in the$ study ^ thi^ 
mistry. As he had received the lessons of no niaster^ faft 
Wtfs tainted with th^ j^rejudices of no sebbol. Acenstoftied 
to fnrecision, and having nO titne to lose^ he af^plied bifni^^ 
to experiments without pacing any attention to iheoHteS ^ 
lie repeated those often which he con^ide^ed aS the ihoilt 
faiportant and instructive, and reduced dieih to method^ ttk 
improvement till then unknown. He fir^ intrddueed intii 
chemistry the process by analysis^ whiefa oiight to be a^ 
plied to every science ; for there should be but one ti^ 
d>od of teaching and' learning, a^ there is but One of j^<l^^ 
well. These views have been laid dt>#n by Mr. BlergdiS 
in an eKcelletit discourse, which contains, if we^mayusetii^ 
llhrase, his ^fesston of faith in what relates to the Science 
It is here tkat he displays himself without d^sgtiisfe to hh 
render, and here it is of iobpoHance to study him ^ith a^ 
ientiorn. The productions of voleahoes bad itevef be^ 
analysed when Messrs. Perber and Troil brought d ric& 
collection of them into SWed^, at the tight of #hie& 
Mr. Be^ginan conceived the design of investigating tli^ 
nature. He examined first 6f ail the matters least idtefreA 
6y the fire, and the forn» of which were still id be dti^ 
te^ned ; he foilowed them in their changes progrei^vely ; 
he determined, he imitated their more c(Mnplie«^efd ap^ 
pearances ; he knew the effects v^hich wbuld tesult from 
the mi)cture and decomposition of the saiine substances 
whicfr aire found abundantly in these productiohs. He disv 
covered such as were fernied in* the btimid way ; ifnd tbM 
in his tabbratory he observed t6e ptocesS of nature ; tM% 
combat of flames and explosions ; that ehaios in' which tStt^ 
dements seem to dash and to cenfound on^ atiotfaefr, xxn^ : 
,y^led themselves to his eyes. He ittvt the fire df yolca<>i 
lioeS kindled in the midst of pyritical ccfmbinsttibhs, ahd 
#ei^^t decomposed by clays ; he saw ihrtfd ahf disen«^ 
gaged from calcined calcareous stones, Spreading upbil 
ffie surfaee of tbe earth, and filling caverns in which Attend 
Mtd ^mal life ai^e equally extinguished ; he sa# the snfi 
j^ureous acid thrown out in waves, converi itself intb th6 
vitrioUe by mere contact vSth' the afir; «lnd distilling 
flinongh the rocksj from the aliJim veiiis 6f the solfetara. 
He saw the bitumens asr tliey melted ; thi inflamm Ale and 
sulphureous airs exhaling ; and the waters become mineral 
and impregnated witb the fire ftudf vapours of &ose sttt«* 

B 2 


peaiious furnacesy^ preparing for the beiirgs that move asfd 
jdispute on the crust of the abyss^ a remedy for pain and 
s balsam for disease. 

The Gontinilal application bestowed by Mr. Bergman on 
)iis stu(lies having affected his health, he was advised to 
interrupt them if he wished to prolong his life : but he 
found happineas only in study, and would not forfeit his 
title to reputation by a few years^ more of inactivity and 
jUtnguor. By this enthusiasm, however, he exhausted his 
^it^ength, and died July $, 1784. The university of Upsal 
paid the mo$t distinguished honours to his memory ; and 
4be academy of Stockholm consecrated to him a medal to 
perpetuate the regret of all the learned in Europe for his 
Joss. His principal publications were>: 1. ^^ A physical 
description of the Earth," 1770 — 74, 2 vols, 8vo, a much 
Admired work, and translated into the Danish, Qerman, 
jandi Italian language^. 2. Various ** Eloges" of the mem- 
bers af the .academy of Stockholm. 3. An edition of 
Scheffer's " Physics." 4. -Many papers in the Transac- 
tions of the Academies of Stockholm, Berlin, Montpellier, 
and the Royal Society, London. These smaller pieces form 
6 volsi 8»vo, under the title '^ Opuscula physica et che- 
inica," 1779 — ^90, a part of which was translated under the 
title of "Physical and Chemical essays," and published 
jby Dn Edmund .Cullen, London, 1786, 2 vols** 

[ BERIGARD or BEAUREGARD (Claude Guiller- 
MET, SiGNOR de), was born at Moulins in 1578, and taught 
philosophy with reputation at Pisa and at Padua, where 
|ie died of an iimbilical hernia, in 1663. We have by 
him, 1. ** Circulus Pisanus," printed in 1641, at Florence, 
^to. This book. treats of the ancient philosophy, and that of 
Aristotle* . 2. ^^ Dubitationes in dialogum Galilaei pro terras 
immobilitate,'' 1632, 4to, under the iictitious name of 
Oalilseus Lynceus ; a work which brought upon him the 
charge of Pyrrhonism and materiali3m, not without foun- 
dation. He has been reproached with acknowledging no 
other moving principle of the world than primitive matter. 
Whatever he professed, his works are now in little repute^ 
yet Chaufepie has bestowed a copious article on him.' . 
BERING (Vitus), a Latin poet, born in Denmark in 
. 1617) whose taste foe letters does not appear to have im« 

' ' ) Eloges des Academiciens, Berlin; I2iiio, toI. tV. 36. — Biog. Unhrerselie. 
 .* Chaisfepie«-<-*Moreri»— Gen J)ict->-Saxii OnodiasticoB. 

B E R I N G. 5» 

peded his fortune, was a member of the royal cDunnl of" ' 
finances, and historiographer to his majesty. It Was to ., 
justify his promotion to this last office, that be published * 
" Floras Danicas, sive Danicarum rernm a prindordio regni • 
ad tempora usque Christiani 1. Oldenburgici Breviariuof.'* 
This work was printed in foi. 1698, at Odensee, the ca- 
pital of Funen, at the private press of Thomas Kingorius,' 
bishop of that island, who spared no eicpence to make anf 
elegant book. The bookseller, however, to whovd' the* 
sale was consigned, eager to get rid of the uhsold copies^ 
printed a new title with the date of 1700, and* when that 
did not quite answer his expectations, he printed another 
with the date of 1709, and notwithstanding this obvioui^ 
trick, there are connoisseurs who think the pretended' ledi-* 
tion of 1709 preferable to that of 1698. In 1716, how-' 
ever, a second edition was published in 8vo, at Timaro,'* 
under the direction of the Jesuits of that piace^ Bering*i^ 
poetry, printed separately, was collected m the 2d vol. of 
^^ Deliciae quorundam Danorum,*' Leyden, 1693, 12mo. 
The smaller pieces, lyrics, sonnets, &c. arle thebcsr; he 
bad not genius for the more serious efforts of the muse. 
He died in 1675.* 

BERKELEY (George), an eminent and learned |)re« 
late, was born in Ireland, at Kilcrin, near Thomastown, 
the 12th of March 1684. He was the son of William 
Berkeley of Thomastown, in the county of Kilkenny ; 
whose father, the family having suffered for their loyalty 
to Charles I. went over to Ireland after the restoration, and 
there obtained the coUectorship of Belfast. George had 
the first part of his education at Kilkenny school, under 
Dr. Hinton; was admitted pensioner of Trinity college^ 
Dublin, at the age of fifteen, under Dr. Hall ; and chosen 
fellow of that college June the 9th, 1707, after a very 
strict examination, which he went through with great 

The first public proof be gave of his literary abilities 
was his ^' Arithmetica absque Algebra aut Euclide demon- 
strata;" which, from the preface, he appears to have 
written before he was twenty years old, though he did not 
publish it till 1707. It is dedicated to Mr. Palliser, son 
to the archbishop of Cashel ; and is followed by a ni(athe- 
matical miscellany, containing observations and theorems 

I 9.iof . Uniy.— 3^iUet Jusemeog d^s 8ayan8.-tMprQri.«— Saxii Ononust*' > 

ff B E |l K E L £ T. 

^8€xi|^04 ^f bf? BHPH Mr- Samuel Molineu?, wiv)fe fa- 
tLef \fa^ the frieud and porrespondeot of Locke. Thi« 
|iftle pl^cie i^ SQ far curious^ as it shews bis early and strong 
|iassip{i fqr t^e ma^bfsm^tic^^ bis admiration of those great 
Ba,Knes in pbil^sopby) Loc^e and Newton, some of whos^^ 
|}p^itio|is he afterwards vei^tured to call in question^ an4 
t^e poipmencemeqt of his application to those more sul;>tile 
^tapbysicai ftudies^^ tq which his genius was peculiarly 

jn 1709, <*fn)e forth the " Theory of Vision," which, 
pf ^U hfs works| aeems to do the greatest honour to his 
lagacityi; beipg, as Dr. Reic[ observes, the first attempt 
^^ ever wfis made to distinguish the immediate and natu- 
^l pbjects of, sight, froi^ ^e conclusions we have beei| 
aqc^stomed from infancy to drai^ from them. The boiin- 
Sfti^ i^ here tr^cefi out between the idea^ of sight and 
|Oi{ich ; and it is sh^wp, that, though habit has so connected 
tt^es^e two classef of ideas in our minds, that they are not 
without ^ ^(rong effort to be separated from each other, 
^et ongiiij^Uy they b^ve no ^uch connection ; insomuch, 
qi^at V peifon born bliad, aud sviddealy made to see, woul^ 
at first be utterly unable to tell how any object that affected 
Ijia 9ight would affect his touch; and particularly would 
not from sight receive any idea of distance, outness, of 
^:^terf)^l space, but would imagine all objects to be in hi» 
eye, or rather in his nain^d. This was surprisingly co^t 
^med in thecfise pf a young man born blind, and couched 
^f fpi^^eea years pf age by Mr. Cheselden, in 1728. '^ 4 
Dfindication of the Theory of Vision'' was published by him 


Ifl 1710 ^ppeaped " The Principles of human knqw-r 

Wge;^' and^ i^ 171 3, ^^ pialoguf|s between Uylas an4. 
Fl^ubi^ou^ :'' but to them the same praise has not beeo 
ffiveib ^^4 ^ ^^ ^^y ^^^^ ^^ tendency is a disputed 
point. The object of both pieces is to prove that the com- 

Sonly received notion of the eiristeuce of matter is false ; 
^ at sensible materi,al, obj^ects, as they are called, are no4^ 
Sxternal to the mind^ bvit exist in it, ai^d are nothing more 
iian impressions made upon it by the impoediate ^ct of 
^od, a^ccording tp certain rules tprnied laws of nature,^ 
firoip whicb^ in the ordinary course of bis. governments^ be 
]f,ever devi^t^ i and tha^ the steady adherence of the Su- 
preme Spirit to these rules is what constitutes the reality 
of tiUagf to hia creatures* These works are declared to 


bave been written in opposition to sceptics and tttbeisl^ $ 
and the author's inquiry is into the chief cause of error 
aud diiEcuIty in tlie sciences, with the grounds of seep* 
Ucism, atheism, and irreligion ; which cause and grounds 
are found to be the doctrines of the existence of matter. 
*He seems persuaded that men never could have be^n de* 
luded into a false opinion of the existence of matter, if 
they had not fancied themselves invested with a power of 
abstracfing substance, from the qualities under which it is 
perceived ; and hence, as the general foundation of his 
argument, he is led to combat and explode a doctrifie 
maintained by Locke and others, pf there being a power 
in the mind of abstracting general ideas. Mr. Hume ssyi, 
that these works ^^ form the best lessons of scepticism, 
which are to be found either among the ancient or modem 
philosophers, Bayle not excepted." Dr^ Beattie also con« 
siders them as having a sceptical tendency. He adds, tbaA 
if Berkeley's argument be conclusive, it proves that to be 
false which every man must necessarily believe, every mo* 
meut o£ his life, to be true, and that to be true which no 
man since the foundation of the world was ever capable of 
believing for a single moment. Berkeley's doctrine attacks 
the most incontestable dictates of common sense, and pre-* 
tends to demonstrate that the clearest principles of humaa 
conviction, and those which have determined the judgotent 
of men in all ages, and by which the judgment of all rea* 
sonable ihen must be determined, are certainly fallacioui* 
]lt may just be observed, that Berkeley had not reached 
his 27th year when he published this singular system. The . 
author of bis life in the Biog. Brit, asserts that *^ the airy 
visions of romances, to the reading of which he was much 
addicted, disgust at the books of metaphysics then received 
in the university, and that inquisitive attention to the 
operations of the mind which about this time was excited 
by the writings of Locke and Malebranche, probably gave 
birth to his disbelief of the existence of matter." What-* 
ever influence the other causes here assigned 'might have 
had, we have the authority of his relict, Mrs. Berkeley, 
that he had a very great dislike to romances, and indeed 
it would be difl&cuU to discover in any of these volumea 
of absurd fiction the grounds of such a work as Berkeley's* 
In 1712 he published three sermons in favour of passive 
obedience and non-resistance, which underwent at least 
three ediiiGfns, and afterwards had nearly done him some 

* A 


injury in his fortune. They caused him to be represented 
as a^ Jacobite, and stood in his way with the house of Ha- 
nover, till Mr. Mblineux, above-mentioned, took off the 
impression, and first made him known to queen Caroline, 
whose secretary, when princess, Mr. Molineux had been. 
Acuteness of parts and beauty of imagination were so con* 
^picuous in his writings, that his reputation was now es« 
tablished, and his company courted even where his opinions 
did not find admission. Men of opposite parties concurred 
in recommending him ; sir Richard Steele, for instance, 
and Dr. Swift. For the former he wrote several papers in 
the Guardian, and at his house became acquainted with 
Pope, with whom he afterwards lived in friendship. It is 
said he had a guinea and a dinner with Steele for every 
paper he wrote in the Guardian. Swift recommended him 
to the celebrated earl of Peterborough, who being appointed 
anibassador to the king of Sicily arid the Italian states, 
took Berkeley with him as chaplain and secretary in No- 
vember 1713. He returned to Eno^land with this noble- 
roan in August 1714, and towards the close of the year 
had a fever, which gave occasion to Dr. Arbuthnot to in- 
dulge a little pleasantry on Berkeley's system. " Poor 
philosopher Berkeley,*' says he to his friend Swift, " has 
nov^ the idea of health, which was very hard to produce in 
him; for he had an idea of a strange fever on him so strong, 
that it was very hard to destroy k by introducing a con* 
trarj' one." ^ 

His hopes of preferment expiring with the fall cJ queen 
Anne's ministry, he some time after embraced an offer 
made him by Dr. St. George Ashe, bishop of Clogher, of 
accompanying his son in a tour through Europe. When he 
arrived at Paris, having more leisure than when he first 
passed through that city, Mr. Berkeley took care to pay 
his respects to his rival in metaphysical sagacity, the illus- 
trious Pere Malebranche. He found this ingenious father 
in his cell, cooking in a small pipkin a medicine for a 
disorder with which he was then troubled, an inflammation 
on the lungs. The conversation naturally turned on our 
author's system, of which the other had received some 
knowledge from a translf^ion just published. But the 
issue of this debate proved tragical to poor Malebranche, 
In the heat of Jisputation he raised his voice so high, and 
gave way so freely to the natural impetuosity of a man of 
parts and a Frenchman, that he brought on himself a 

B E R K E L E Y. Si 

Tioleht JDCrease ef bis. disorder, which carried him «flF a 
few days after. In this excursion Mr. Berkeley employed 
tout years; and, besides those places which fall within 
the grand tour, visited some that are less frequented* He 
travelled over Apulia (from which he wrote an account of 
the tarantula to Dr. Freind), Calabria, and the -whole 
island of Sicily. This last country engaged his attentioti 
so strongly, that he had with great industry collected very 
considerable materials for a natural history of it, but un^ 
fortunately lost them in the passage to Naples. What in- 
jury the literary world has sustained by this mischance^ 
may be collected from the specimen of his talents for ob- 
servation and description, in a ietter to Mr. Pope concern- 
ing the island of Inarime (now Ischia) dated October 22, 
1717 ; and in another from the same city to Dr. Arhuthnot^ 
giving an account of an eruption of Vesuvius. On hi« 
•way homeward, he drew tip at Lyons a cuiious tract " De 
Motu,*' which was inserted in the memoirs of the roysl 
academy of sciences at Paris, who had proposed the sub- 
ject. He arrived at London in 1721 ; and, being muck 
affected with the miseries of the nation, occasioned by the 
South Sea scheme in 1720, published the same year ^^ An 
essay towards preventing the ruin of Great Britain ;" re- 
printed in his miscellaneous tracts. 

His way was open now into the very first company. Mr, 
Pope introduced him to lord Burlington, and lord Bur- 
lington recommended him to the duke of Grafton ; who, 
being lord-lieutenant of Ireland, took him over as one of 
hii^ chaplains in 1721, and November this year he is said 
to have accumulated the degrees of bachelor and doctor ia 
divinity; but a writer in the Gent. Mag. 1776 asserts that 
be never went to Ireland as chaplain to any lieutenant, and 
that he was created D. D. by his college in 1717, when he 
was in Italy. The year following he had ^ very unex- 
pected increase of fortune from Mrs. Vanhomrigh, the 
celebrated Vanessa, to whom he had been introduced by 
Swift : this lady had intended Swift for her heir, but, per- 
ceiving herself to be slighted by him, she left near 8000/. 
between her two executors, of whom Berkeley was one. 
In his life in the Biog. Brit, it is said that Swift had often 
taken him to dine at this lady's house, but Mrs. Berkeley, 
his widow, asserts that he never dined there but once, and 
that by chance. Dr. Berkeley, as executor, destroyed ai 
mttch of Vftoessa^tS correspondence as be could find. Mr* 

JAzT^bsi, the 6tb«r eicecutor, p«bli«be4 the ^< CftdemM M4t 
Vanessa/' which, according to Dr. Delany, proved fimtil 
to Stella. May 18, 1724, he was proB^oted to the dea^^jr 
of Derry, wonh 1 100/. per unnunh and reaigoed hia felt> 

In 172$ he published, and it has since been re*priate4 
in his miscellaneous tracts, ^' A proposal for convertin|^ 
the savage Americans to Christianity, by a college to be 
erected in the Summer Islands, otherwise called the Islea 
of Bermuda f ' a scheme which had employed his thoieigbt^ 
for three or four years past; and for which he was disposed 
to make many personal sacrifices. As what he deemed 
necessary steps he offered to resign all his preferment, and 
to dedicate the remainder of bis life to instructing the 
American youth, on a stipend of 100/. yearly; he prer 
yailed with three junior fellows of Trinity college^ Dublin, 
to give up all their prospects at home, and to exchange 
their fellowships for a settlement in the Atlantic ocean at 
40/. a year ; he procured his plan to be laid before George h 
who commanded sir Robert Walpole to lay it before the Qom<^ 
mons ; and further granted him a charter for erecting a col* 
lege in Bermuda, to consist of a president and nine fellowfi, 
who ware obliged to maintain and educate Indifin scholars 
at 1 o/. a year each ; he obt^ued ^ grant from the commooa of 
^ sum,. to be determined by the king ; and accordingly 20^0/. 
was promised by the minister, for the purchase of lands, 
9Ad erecting the college* Trusting to these promising ap'^ 
pearances, he married the daughter of John Forster, esq; 
speaker of the Irish hou^ of commons, tt^ 1st of August 
1728 ; and actually set sail in September following for 
Khode Island) which, lay nearest to Beromda, taking with 
him bis wife, a aingle lady, and two gentlemen of £ort«ne» 
Yet the scheme entirely failed» and Berkeley waa oUiged 
to return, after residing ne^r two year> at Ne?«vpQrt. . The 
reason given is, that the ministear never heartily embraced 
the project, and the money was turned iiito aivolher cbaa** 
nel. During his residence in America, when he wad not 
employed as an itinerant preacher, whi<^ biisiness could 
not be discharged in the winter, he preached every Sua^ 
day at Newport, where was the nearest episcopal cburci^ 
and to that church he g&ve an organ. When the season 
and his health permitted, be visited the continent, not only 
in its outward skirts, but penetrated iar into its rece9ses. 
The same gsmftow desira of ad^aw^mg. the beat intuce^ 


qf Hd^loui^ w}iilph m4ttced ]bitm to gto9% tb# ^tlantici uni* " 
{orjpaly sicitvif ^4 bw whilst America was th^ j»c^q9 of bi4 
i{)iaistry. T^e ipis^ioiiari^ fropiu ^he Eqgli^l^ society, who 
i:i^ed mt\m a,bQut |i b^n4red qiil^ of Rbo^e Island^ 
agre^ aciapiig theqa^eives tp bql^ a &ort of ^ynod at Pr» 
BerlF^ey^ bPMie tber^ twice iq a year, ip ord^r tQ enjpj 
t^^ advfuntf^gfs of ifi$ advice and ^xborta^tiQiis. ]four of 
t^se m^f^ilgl) w^rf accpr^iogly M^i Q^e of the priu* 
qpfil p<^i>to wbic]^ the ioatqf tb^o pr^^^d vpqn bis felipw-i 
If^bourers, Tv^s ti^e a^bsolote neoQ^ity of cpnciliaMngy by 
df\ iiuiopei^ ini^Qs^ (be affe^t^Qn of their b^urcirs, ai>d also 
of (b§ir 4iss^i^l4Dg peigbbours. Hi^ omi example, iiideed, 
v^y emioi^Uy et^ppced bis precepts upop tbia bead ; for 
it ^ scarcely pos^ibbs tf> concave a ^qoduot more uoi- 
fbnqly kifld; teqd^r, b^nei^cent, and liberal tbaa bis was. 
£le seeiped to have only one wi$b in bis heart, which waa 
to alleviate piiseiry, and to diffuse happinef^. Finding, a^ 
lengthy thf^ the ^ar of offending the dissenters at home, 
^nd of iaclining the colonies tq assert independency, had 
detercnioed the minister to make any use, rather than tb^ 
^t use, of the money destined for, and promised to St, 
Paul's college, the d^n of Derry took a reluctapt le^ve of 
a country, where the napie /of Berkeley wa'is jlong and justly 
levere^ V¥>te than that of any European wMtever, At bis 
^ep^^re, b^ gaiie a farm of a hundred ^r§s, which , lay 
jfound hi% bQ^s^» an4 U'u bouse itself, as a benefaction to 
y^ a^^ Haxvar^ ^olleg^: and tbf value of that land,- 
^aifiu Qot insignificant because cultivated, became after-r 
Vwds v^ry .considerable. He gave, of bis own prop^erty, 
to 99e of tjiM^s^ f oUegos, and to sovora^ missionaries, books 
10 tibQ aviWUt of ^v^ hundred pounds. To the other coU 
if^ge kf^ jnkie fi large donation of books purchased by 
q^^9 f n4 txuft^ to tM4 disjpo^l. 

In (7ig, Ibi/f publinhed *^ The Minute Philosopher," iu 
% vols, trq^ Tbis mast^iy \9r0rk is written in a series of 
4pi44og?i^ 9^ ^ fiodj^l of Plato, a philosopher of wboia 
^ it^ si|i4 tf} have, been vory fond ; and in it be pursues the 
$wo^.iql$er tijUK^ilgjIl the various characters of atheist, Ilv 
h^ctiiie, entb^siasi^ iicornor, critiq, metaphysician, fatalist* 
UQid fceptic 

We b^v^ already related by what means, and upon wbal 
^ffilWOD, pr. 3trkeloy had first the honour of bfing koowQ 
^ queen (Caroline. This priociess delighted mupb iq atir 
te&ding to philosophical conversations between learned 

6© B E R K E t E v. 

and ingenious men; for which purpose she had, when' 
princess of Wales, appointed a particular day in the week, 
when the most eminent for' literary abilities at that time in 
England were invited to attend her royal* highness in the 
evening: a practice which she continued after her acces-; 
sion to the throne. Of this company were doctors Clarke^^ 
Hoadly, Berkeley, and Sherlock. 'Clarke and Berkeliey^ 
were generally considered as principals in the debates that* 
arose upon thoise occasions ; and Hoadly adhered to the', 
former, as Sherlock did to" the latter. Hoadly was no friend' 
to our author : he affected to consider his philosophy and 
his Bermuda project as the reveries of a visionary. Sherlock 
(who was afterwards bishop of London) on the other hand 
warmly espoused his cause ; and particularly, when the 
** Minute Philosopher" came out, he carried a copy of it 
to the queen, and left it to her majesty to determine, whe- 
ther such a work could be the production of a disordered 
understanding. After dean Berkeley's return from Rhode 
Island, the queen often commanded his attendance to dis* 
course with him on what he had observed worthy of notice 
in America. His agreeable and instructive conversation 
engaged that discerning princess so much in his fsCvour, 
that the rich deanery of Down in 'Ireland falling vacant/ 
he was at her desire named to it, and the king's letter 
actually came over for his appointment. But hid friend 
lord Burlington having neglected to notify the royal inten- 
. 'tions in proper time to the duke of Dorset, then lord 
lieutenant of Ireland, his excellency *was so offended at 
this disposal of the richest deanery in Ireland,' withbut his 
concurrence, that it was thought proper not to press the 
matter any farther. Her majesty upon this declared, tliat 
since they would not suffer Dr. Berkeley to be a dean in 
Ireland, he should be a bishop : and accordingly, in 1733;* 
the bishopric of Cloyne becoming vacant, he was by let-« 
ters patent, dated March 17, promoted to that see, afid 
was consecrated at St. Paul's church in Dublin, bn the* 
19th of May following, byTheophilus archbishop of Cashel, 
assisted by tlie bishops of Raphoe and Killaloe. His lord- 
fihip repaired immediately to his manse-house at Cloyne, 
where he constantly resided (except one winter that he 
attended the business of parliament in Dublin) and applied 
himself with vigour to the faithful discharge of all episco-** 
pal duties. He revived in his diocese the useful office (stf 


)nil9l»4eaii9 jivhiich h»d gone in^o disuse ;. visited frequently 
|MtroiQhially ; and confirmed in several parts of hU see. 
. AboijLt this time be. engaged in a controversy with the 
mathematicians, whicb^ made a good deal of noise in the 
literary wqrld y and the Qcicasion of it is said to haye been 
thvs: Mr, Addison had, many years before this, given him 
an account of theic common fiiend Dr. Garth's behaviour 
in his last illness^, which was eqiially unpl easing to both 
these advocates of revealed religion. For, when Addison 
went to see the doctor, and began to discourse with hia|L 
.seriously about another world, ^' Sorely, Addison,*' replied 
jbie, ^^ 1 have good rqason not to believe those trifles, since 
my friend J>r. Ha}ley, who has, dealt so much.jn den^on- 
stratioD^ has assured me, that the doctrines of Christianity 
are incomprelM^nsible? and.tbe religion itself an imposture.'* 
The bishop, therefore, addressed to bim, as to an infidel 
HULthematician,;, a discburse called the ^' Analyst ;" with a 
view to show that mysteries in faith wer^ unjustly objected 
jto by .mathematicians, who admitted much greater mys« 
jteries, antd ^vqu falsehpods in scien.ce, of which he en- 
deavoured to prove, that thie doctrine of fluxions furnished 
a clear example. This attacl( gave, opcasion to a sniart 
controversy upon the subject of fluxiqns; the principal an* 
swers to the " Analys/' were \\ritten by a .person under 
the name of Philalethes Ca^ntabrigiensis, generally sup- 
posed to be Dr. Jurin, who published a piece entitled 
"Geometry no friend, to Infidelity," 1734. , To this the 
bishop rephed in ** A Defence of Freethinking in Mathe- 
matics," 1735; which drew a second answer the same year 
froqd Philalethes, styled " The minute Mathematician, or 
the Freethinker no just thinker:'^ and .here the con^ 
troversy ended, and whatever fault mathematicians may 
find in this hostile attempt .pf. our bishop, it must be ac-* 
knowledged they have reaped no inponsiderable advantage 
from it, inasmuph as it gave rise to the Treatise of Fluxions 
by MaclauHn, in which the whole ^doctrine is delivered 
with more precision and fulpess th^n ever w^s done before, 
or probably than ever ^(vould have, been done;, if no attack 
had been made upon it. , 

Qut the bishop, eyer active and attentive to the public 
good, was continually sending forth liomething or other : 
in 1735, the **. Querist;" in 1736, " A Discourse address- 
.cd to Magistrates,'^ occasioned by the enormous licence 

6« ^tJi%etZT% 

wardir Of n ^citolUf kind. 1)1 1744^ dditibe feith his celebft&tei 
and curiotts book^ (^ntit^d, << ^ts;. i dbaiil ait ^htlosofihi- 
cal fdfl^fidns add inquiries oeiicirotfig the tittd^ of Tsfr 
Watef :" at medict^e vi^ch hlid b^n^ ukeful Id Mths^lf in a 
oa^e of iketfou^ 60lic^ This work^ he famsf ft^en beard tb 
declare, cc^st htm t&6rd tkne and p^iiM than aifjr othef hfe 
bad evef b^en engag^^ iA«r Itund^iWeRft a s^dnd itopr^^ 
aiony with addkioHs tftkl «iJiendatic>ii^) in 1747; and #a^ 
fotk>«^ed hf <« FMthtf dxoa^§ eH Tai^ Wilt^,'' ill l752f. 
tr> July, the same y^#, b6 rdlfitated witb bi^ Md^ «f)d fe^ 
fK»iiy t^ Oxf^Jrd^ I^an^tity to' itipi^ifletid tbcf ^tduieaiio^ of bis 
tOft, i)hd siibjeifift of tb6 foUo^ng dAtiolO) but chiefly €6 
hidtrlge «be pa^ion for I^i^n^ retii^^iMfi V ^hteb tod eret 
dtfofigiy p66^ett9«d biffi^ Md ^a^ oM df bill Hkf^es td foM 
tbi^ Bermuda projeot. Aot t» liotie 6iHiid bd mf^re sdnsibte 
ibM bis kydsbip of tbd iittprO^tftff)^ Of a bisbofi^^ n6i^<^ 
f^aidendef^ te pttViMiAf ^ndo^t^ol^ tcS^ d^obitifge bSs bigR 
pt&ftrmtifit fdr sottid danoiMy €« btadshif^ ik6 OtfoiM. #ai(t- 
ifig of succ«i^ ill tU^* h& aditidly Wfo^^ o«>^ to die flMr«^ 
ttfry a« sltftte^ t§ r^qu^Mi ttrit li« Ifiight hafd ^Mi^^fi <6 
r^igiv Itii bii^^rte, imrtfr m tiat tiAie aft iMi^ f 4eo£ p<^ 
tfViMfnL So «n(:otiioioii H ]^i€iw ^HoilM his dha^^sty^ 
ifiirlKMsicy to iifiqtikd itbo W^¥ die exlTalerdindry Hnm diat 
prrdfeiVed it : betn^ told tbit k t«>«^' bk old aeqliliitiliaftc^ 
By. Berk^%, bie d^toi^efd tlfot bd should di6 a bisbop id 
Hfpke of hitaself^ but pt?ef him Ml liberty t6 reside vrh^re 
te ^4iea^. t'h^l blidbbp's Idi» idt l^efoii^^ be tefi Gtoyiid 
W^ t($ 61^ £ IddM^ of tbo dennifeM^r la^ds ifi Hbat THeigbbofir-' 
h5od) t^ IM ^6M#ed^y^rty ki the r^tit 6f 2^0M: ^btch smxt 
btt dir€f«liled fo be distributed- «V<ery ye^, Umii bi^ iiauTn, 
among p^p' boiiieMk^epers of GbyAe, . Yoti^bftt; atid Ag-^ 
lAddft. The a«ftb6ir6f bi^ Kfebi ilb^ Bi6g, Btk. magnified hi* 
love f6if f be beam^H o^ Gtoyiie, but ^bfe hM: was^ t^at &d 
hiA ly^eif any idea of €Idytie Ha tt beaiitiftil jlitnatioft^ and 
w^ are bap^y' W d)f^tw froi^ the same authority vidtich cor* 
rects tbls^ ^tSfj som6 adcfiliona) partioulars tif Ms disiill- 
tei'esfed lipirife^- He deelaik'ed t& Mf<s.' Berkeley/ toon aftef 
be was advanced to the prelacy, tiii§ M» r^tolutioh watl 
iievei* to obamg^' hisi sifee ; bfetausei a* be" afterwards con- 
fessed fO the ^cbbitfhop' 6f Ti^am, afiid the late earl of 
SbannoA, be hiid feYy tkA^ in bf6 got tte* world und^r 
bk f^t)^ afid be^ b6ped to t^ampl^ on it to bi^ latest mro^ 
ment. These two warm friends liad boen pressing him to 

B E R K £ Lr K je* o7 

tlaaft of a tranriatiofi r 6at be did not love episcopal tfans^ 
latknr. He thought that they were sometimes really hurt- 
M t6 individaatsy ind that they often gave, though uii- 
jffistty, a bsndle to snspeet of medh views, an order to' 
vbioh t^at holy atid humble oKin was himself an honour, 
and to which it may be said, without adulation, that he 
would faoLve been an honour in any age of the church. 
Humble and imaspiri^ng as was the bishop of Cioyne, thef 
•arl of Chesterfirid sought him oat ; and when, as a tribute 
io exalted merit, that nobleman offered to liim tl e see of 
Cb^bctf, wh^re be tipas told be might immediately receive 
ines to the amount of tefi thousand pounds, he consulted 
M». Berkdiay, as having a family, and, with her full ap- 

Sd)aiwn, tior oniy declined the bishopric of Clogher^ but 
e offer which accompanied that proposal, of any other 
tramislatiofi wMcb might become feasible dufing lord Ches- 
tetfieid^s administraition. The primacy wa^ vacated befbrd 
the expirKOioi! of tbat peiiod« On tiiat occasion, the brsliop 
said toMrif. Berk€kiy» *^ J desire to add one more to the 
Ust oC ckuvchmewy who s»fe evidently dead to annbition and 
asaiice*** tuit befcre tai# embarkation for America, queen 
CflRrolnNir dndeav^dumd to sta^ge# his resolution, by the of- 
fer ^f ajii> En^isfa mitre ^ bnt, in reply, he assured he^ 
tBn^emiyf ^lae he chose rather to be president of St. {'aul's 
eoHege, tilati primate of all En^and. 

At Oxford he lived highly respected, a^idf collected and 
pfinted tk^ minfe year aft his smaller pieces in 8vo ; but he 
diii«otli^0loi»g; fi>r, on Sunday evening, Jan. 14, 1753, 
m)m w» in the HiMsl of his fiimily, listening to' the lesson 
itttdie burkbl serm# wfaitoh his kdy was reading to hini, he 
W9m seittdd with iirhat was called a palsy in the heart, and 
inMMby ejipilred The accident wa» so smMen, that hi^ 
body waa cotd^ and bis^joifnts stiff, before it was discovered: 
aa be lay upeo a ooueh, ^^ seeitted to be asleep, till his 
daughMVy ewr pwimmitig him with a dish of tea, first per- 
pntei^d ]Ai iii8e)itiifbili4^. His remains were interred at 
CiMist eiMVeh, Osford, and there ^ an elegant marble 
mmmamffb over bim^ wi^ an inscription by Dr. M arkham, 
thM mttitev of Westminster sehool and late" archbishop of 

Hm w klis pef80D> he was^ handsome, with a countenatitd 
full of meaning and kindness, remarkable for sreat strength 
of limbs f.. and, till his sedentary life impaired it, of a very 
robust constitutions H* was^, howe«mr, often trotrbled with 


the hypochondria^ and latterly with a nervous colic^ from 
which he was greatly relieved by the virtues of bis favourite 
tar-watefy which he brought into extensive use. It was 
at one time a fashion to drink this medicine, to which 
more virtues were attached than the good bishop had ever 
thought of. When at Cloyne, he spent the mornings 
< and often a great part of the day, in study ; and Plato, 
from whom many of his notions were borrowed, was his 
favourite author. The excellence of his mpral character is 
conspicuous in his writings : he was certainly a very amia* 
ble as well as a very great man. Atterbury dnce declared 
that he did not think so much understanding, so much 
knowledge, so much innocence, and so much humility, had 
been the portion of any but angels, until he saw Mr* 

Dr. Berkeley has not been very fortunate in his bio* 
graphers. An account of him was drawn up by his brother, 
the Rev. Dr. Robert Berkeley, vicar-gener^ of Cloyne, 
who died in 1787. This was first inserted in the Biog. 
Britannica, and many mistakes pointed put, and additions 
made to it in a subsequent volume of that work. Pre- 
viously to this, in 1776, an ^^ Account of his' Life' ' was pub- 
lished in a thin octavo volume, at London, which probably 
was drawn up from family information. Of this a, second 
edition was published in 1784, professedly ^' with improve- 
ments,'* but the errors both of the first edition and of the 
Biog. Brit, which had then appeared, are retained. . In 
1784 a new edition of the bishop's entire works was pub- 
lished at Dublin and London, 2 vols. 4to, with the octavo 
life prefixed. The third vol. of the. Biog. Brit, contains 
some important information from the bishop's widow (who 
died 1786) and which we have endeavoured to incorporate. 
It remains only to be noticed that the romance called the 
*^ Adventures of Signor Gaudentio di Lucca,'' often attri* 
buted to our author, wsis certainly not his production. ^ 

BERKELEY (George, LL. D. prebendary of Canter- 
bury,) second son of the preceding, by Anne, eldest 
daughter of the right hon. John Forste;:, a privy-counsellor 
and speaker of the Irish house of commons, by Anne, 
daughter to the right hon. John Monck, brother to tbe 
duke of Albemarle, was born on the 98th of September 


• « Biog. Brit. — Life, 8vo. 1784. — Gent*. May. See Index.-— Reid, Beattie, and 
Mr. Dagatd Stewart in his late Essays (1810) have treated of Dr. Berkeley's 
Metaphysics. -"-British Essayists, Pre^qe to the Ouardiaii. 

B E R K E LEY. es 

llSSf old style, in GrosTenor^street, Gro^venor-squam; tn 
his infaDcy he was removed widi the family to Ireland^ 
where he was instructed in the classics by bis father only^ 
the bishop taking that part of the-education of his sons on 
himself. Instructed in every elegant and useful aCcom* 
plishment, Mr. Berkdey was, at d^ age of nineteen^ sent 
over to Oxford ; his fadier leaving it to his own choice to 
enter a gentleman commoner, ^Jier at Christ church or 
St John^s college* But bishop Conybeare, then deaii of 
Christ church, on his arrival offering him a student^ip in 
that society, he accepted it, finding many of the students to 
be gentlemen of the first character for learning and rank in 
the kingdom. His first tutor was the late learned archbishop 
pf York, Dr. Markham ; on whose removal to Westminister* 
school, he put himself under the tuition of Dr. Smallwelb 
afterwards bishop of Oxford. Having taken the degree of 
B. A. he served the office of collector in the university, and 
as he was allowed by his contemporaries to be an excellent 
Latin scholar, his collector's speech was universally ad* 
mired and applauded. In 1 758 he took a small living firom 
his society, the vicarage of EastGarston, Berks, from which 
be was removed, in 1759, by archbishop Sicker, hid sole 
patron, to the vicarage of Bray, Berks ; of which he was 
only the fifth vicar smce the reformatioo. In 1759, also, 
he took the degree of M. A.«-*The kindness of archbishop 
Seeker (who testified the highest respect for bishop Berke- 
ley's oQieoioiy by his attention to his deserving son) did not 
rest here ; he gave him also the chancellorship of Breck* 
nock, the rectory of Acton, Middlesex,' md the sixth pre« 
bendal stall in the churcli of Canterbury. In 1768 he had 
taken the degree of LL. D. for which he went out grand 
compounder, and soon afterwards resigned the rectory of 
Acton. Some time after he had obtained the chanceUor* 
diip of Brecknock, he put himself to rery considerable ex« 
pence in order to render permanent two ten pounds per 
annum, issuing out of liie estate, to two poor Welch cura- 
cies. The vicamge of Bray he exchangied for that of 
Cookham near Maidenhead, and had afterwards firom the 
church of Canterbury the vicarage of East-Peckbifm, Kent^ 
whidi he rehnquished on obtaining' the' rectory of St de- 
mentis Danes ; which with the vicarage of Tyshufst, Sus« 
sex (to which he was presented by the church of Canter- 
bury in 1792, when he vacated Cookham), and with the 
chancellorship of Brecknock, he held till his death. * His 
Vou V, F. 

M /B E R K E LEY. 

illness had been long and painful, but borne with exem* 
plary resignation ;. and his death was so cairn and easy that 
ao pang was observed, no groan was heard, by his attending 
wife and relations. He •died Jan. 6, 1795, and was in* 
terred in his father's voxdt in Christ church, Oxford. Not 
long before his death, he expressed his warmest gratitude 
to Mrs. Berkeley^ of whose affection he was! truly sensible, 
and of whom he txM)k a most tender farewell. Dr. Berke-* 
\ey\% quaUfications and attainments were such as occasioned 
bis .death to be lamented by many. He was the charitable 
divine,, the affectionate and active friend, the elegant scho« 
Jar, the accomplished gentleman.. He possessed an exqui- 
.4ite sensibility. To alleviate the sufferings of the sick and 
needy, and to patronize the friendless, were employments 
in which his heart and his hand ever co-operated. Jn the 
pulpit his manner animated^ and his matter forcible. 
Ilis conversation always enlivened the social meetings 
where he was present ; for he was equalled by few in affa- 
bility of temper and address, in the happy recital of agree- 
able anecdote, in the ingenious discussion of literary sub- 
jects, or in the brilliant display of a lively imagination. 

Dr. Berkeley published two or three single sermons ; one 
of which, preached on the anniversary of king Charles's 
martyrdom, 1785, entitled <^ The. danger of violent inno- 
vations in the state, how specious soever the pretence, 
exemplified from the reigns of the two first Stuarts^'' has 
gone through six editions, the last in 1794 ; one on Good 
Friday 1787; one at Cookham on the king's accession, 
1789. His Sermon on the consecration of bishop Home 
was not published until after his death. In 1799, his 
widow published a volume of his. Sermons with a biogra- 
phical'preface. He married, in 1761, Eliza> eldest. daugh- 
ter and coheiress of the rev. Henry Finsham, M. A. by 
Eliza, youngest daughter and one of the coheiresses of the 
truly pious and learned Francis Cherry, esq. of Shottes- 
brook-house in the county of Berks, by whom he had four 
children, now no more. The la^e bishop Home, we maV 
add, was one of Dr. Beti^eley's earliest and most intiAiaie 
friends^ the loss of whom he severely felt, and of whom he 
was used to speak with the sincerest respect ai^d the most 
affectionate regards 

This memoir^ we have some reason to think, was drawn 

up for the preceding edition of this work, by his widow, a 

Jady who claims some notice on her own account. She died 

B K ft K E L E r. <7 

at Kensington, Nov. 4, liBOO, leaving a character rather 
difficult to appreciate. In 1797, she published th^ "Poenw'* 
of her son George Monck Berkeley, esq. in a magnificent 
quarto volume, with a very long, rambling preface of anec*' 
dotes and remarks, amidst which she exhibits many traits 
of her own character. She was unquestionably a lady of 
considerable talents, but her fancy was exuberant, and her 
petty resentmentii Were magnified into an importance visi- 
ble perhaps only to herself. She had accumulated a stock 
of various knowledge, understood French perfectly and 
spoke it fluently. She likewise read Spanish and Hebrew, 
and always took her Spanish Prayer*book with her to 
church. This was but one of her peculiarities. In con-^ 
versatfon, as in writing, she was extremely entertaining, 
except to those who wished also to entertain ; and her sto- 
ries and anecdotes, although given in correct and .fluent 
language, lost much of their effect, sometimes from lengthy 
and sometimes from repetition. She had, however, a warm 
friendly heart, amidst al} her oddities ; and her very nu- 
merous contributions to the Gentleman's Magazine con- 
tain no small portion of entertainment and information^ 
Her ^oUf the above-mentioned George Monck Berkeley^ 
published in 1789, an amusing volume of anecdote and 
biography, under the title of " Literary Relics." * 

BERKELEY (George Earl of) descended in a direct 
Hne from Robert Fitzharding, who was of the royal house 
of Denmark. He with his nephew, Charles Berkeley, had 
the principal management of the duke of York's family, 
and was one of the privy council in the reign of Charles IL 
James IL and William IIL At the restoration he mani« 
fested great loyalty for Charles IL and was advanced to the 
dignity of viscount Dursley and earl of Berkeley in 1679. 
One of his most munificent acts was his bestowing on the 
public library of Sion college, a vahiable collection of 
books formed by sir Robert Coke. He died Oct. 1 4^ 1698, 
aged seve»ty*one, and was buried at Cranford in Middle- 
sex. Lord Orford attributes to him, on good authority, 
a curious and scarce work of the religious cast, entitled 
** Historical applications and occasional meditations upon 
several subjects. Written by a person of honour," 1^70, 
12mo. In this book are several striking instances of the 
testimony which some men of eminence have borne to the 

' Dr. Berkeley's SennoDS.^'^eQt. Mag. 1795, 1800^ and 1792, p. 185. 

F 3 


importance of religious life, and the consolation to he re* 
ceived from it, especially at the approach of death. Fen- 
ton, in his observations on a short poem, prefixed to thid 
work by Waller, says that his lordship was a person of 
strict virtue and piety, but of such undistinguisbing affa- 
bility to men of ^I ranks and parties, that Wycberley has 
been supposed to have drawn his character of ^^ Lord PlaU'^ 
sible,'' in the Plain Dealer, from him ; a circumstaace that 
cannot detract much from his lordship's reputation, for 
Wycberley was a poor judge of men of " strict virtue and 
piety." Beside^ the above work, of which a third editioii 
appeared in 1680, lord Berkeley published, the same year^ 
V A speech to the Levant Company at their annual eiec« 
tion, Feb. 9, 1680;'^ 

BERKELEY (Sir Robert), one of the justices of the 
king's bench in the time of Charles L was born in 1 584, 
the second son of Rowland Berkeley, esq. of Spetcbly in 
Worcestershire, where his descendants yet live ; and was 
by the female line, descended from Thomas Mowbray, 
duke of Norfolk, who flourished in the reigns of Henry IV. 
and V. In the 19 James L be served the office of high 
sheriff for the county of Worcester ; in the 3d Charles I« 
was made king's serjeant, and in the 8th of the same reign, 
was made a justice. of the court of king's bench. WUle 
in this ofEce, he, with eleven of his brethren, gave his 
opinion in favour of ship-money ; and if we may judge 
from the tenor of his conduct in private life, as well as 
upon the bench, from honest motives ; but as be bad been 
active on other occasions in what he seems to have thought 
his duty, and was a man of fortune, he was singled out by 
parliament as a proper object of their vengeance. . He waa 
accordingly impeached of high treason, and adjudged to 
pay a fine of 20,000/. to be deprived of his office of judge, 
and rendered incapable of holding any place, or receiving ' 
any honour in the state or commonwealth : be was also to 
be imprisoned in the Tower during the pleasure of the 
house of lords. Having made some ^^satisfaction'' for his 
fine to the parliament, he was by their authority, dis-^ 
charged from the whole, and set at liberty, after he had 
been upwards of sev^i months in the Tower* But he af^ 
terwards suffered greatly by the plunderings and exactions 

1 Park's edit, of the Royal and Noble Authors.— CoUiiM's Peera£e.^-<-Gnuiceiw 


6f the rebels, and a little, before the battle of Worcester, 
ibe Presbyterians, though' engaged in the king's service, 
retained their ancient animosity against him, and burnt hi^ 
house at Spetchly to the ground. He afterwards cbnvert- 
ed the stables into a dwelling-house, and lived with con- 
tent, and even dignity, upon the wreck of his fortune. He 
was a true son of the church of England, and suffered more 
from the seduction of his only son Thomas to the church of 
Rome, at Brussels, than from all the calamities of the civil 
war. He died Aug. 5, 1656.* 

BERKELEY (Sir William), a native of London^ was 
the youngest son of sir Maurice Berkeley, and brother of 
John lord Berkeley of Stratton. He was elected proba« 
tioner fellow of Merton college, Oxford, in 1625, and four 
years after was admitted M. A. In 1630, he set out on his 
travels, where he seems to have acquired diat knowledge 
which fitted him for public business, and on his return, be<- 
came gentleman of the privy-chariiber to Charles L lu 
1646, he went on some commission to Virginia, of which 
province he had afterwards the government. He mvited 
many of the royalists to retire thither as a place of security, 
and hinted in a letter to king Charles 1. that it would not 
be an unfit place as a retreat for his majesty ; depending, 
perhaps, more upon the improbability of its being attacked, 
than on its means of defence. Virginia, however, was not 
long a place of safety ; the parliament sent some ships with 
a small force, who took possession of the province vdthout 
difficulty, 9,nd removed sir Wiliiatn Berkeley from the go- 
vernment, but suffered him to remain unmolested upon his 
private estate. In 1660, on the death of colonel Matthews, 
in consideration of h}s ^^vices, particularly in defending 
the English from being killed by the natives, and- in de«- 
stiroying great numbers of the Indians without losing three of 
his own men, he was again made governor, and continued in 
that office un^il i;676, whep be returned to England, after 
an absence of thirty years. He died the following year^ 
md was buried July 13, in the parish church of Twicken«- 
fcom. His wtitings iare, ^ The Lost Lady," a tntgi-^comedy^ 
liond. 163^, fol. and, as the editor of the Biog. Dram« 
tkiMts, another p)ay called <^ Cornelia," 1662, not printed 
biA aderibedrte a * ^^ sir Williatti B^ftley.*' l^e mote aJs6 a 

»  • • * 

• Granger's Biog. and letters by Malcolm, p. 217, 253— 261 .^Peck's J)e» 

70 B E R K E L E ¥• 

V Description of Virginia,'* fol. In Francis Moryson's edi-* 
tion of " The Laws of Virginia," Lond. 1662, fol. the pre- 
face informs us that sir William was the author of the best 
of them. * 

BERKENHOUT (Dr. John), an English miscellaneous 
writer, was born, about 1730, at Leeds in Yorkshire, and 
educated at the grammar-school in that town. His father^ 
who was a merchant, and a native of Holland, intended him 
for trade ; and with that view sent him at an early age to 
Germany, in order to learn foreign languages. After con- 
tinuing a few years in that -country, be made the tour of 
Europe in company with, one or more English noblemed. 
On their return to Germany they visited Berlin, where 
Mr. Berkenhout met with a near relation of his father's, 
the baron de Bielfeldt, a nobleman then in high estimation 
with the late king of Prussia ; distinguished as one of the 
fountlers of the royal academy of sciences at Berlin, and 
universally known as a politician and a man of letters. 
.With this relation our young traveller fixed his abode for 
some time ; and, regardless of bis original destination, be- 
came a cadet in a Prussian regiment of foot. He soon ob- 
tained an ensign's commission ; aud, in the space of a few 
years, was advanced to the rank of captain^ He quitted 
the Prussian service on the declaration of war between 
England and France in 1756, and was honoured with the 
command of accompany in the service of his native coun- 
try. When peace was concluded in 1760, he went to 
Edinburgh, and commenced student of physic. During 
his residence at that university he compiled his ^^ Clavid 
Anglic^ l^ihguas Botanicae ;" a book of singular utility to 
all students of botany, and at that time the only botanical 
lexicon in our language, and particularly expletive of the 
Linnsean system. It wis not, however, published until 

Having continued some years at Ediqburgb, Mr. Ber- 
Jienhout went to the univer^ty of Leyden^ where he topk 
the degree of doctor of physic, in 1 765, as w^ learn from his 
y Ditsertatio medica inauguralis de Podagra," dedicated to 
)iis relation baron de BielfeUt. Returning to England, 
J>r. Berkenhout settled at Islewortb in Middlesex, and in 
1766, published his '^Pharoiacopoeia Medici," 12mo, the 
third edition of which was printed in 1782. In 1769, he 

> Aili. On, II. 5$6.— •Bi9|. ])iaBU-**Lj«oiui'B JBattifOB^ vol. IIK 


publisked '< Oatliries of the Natural ill$tory of Great Bri- 
tain and Ireland, vol. I.; vol. 11. appeared in 1770, and vol. 
III. in 1771. The encourageiQent this work met with af« 
forded at least a proof that ' something of the kind was 
wanted. The three volumes were reprinted together in 
1773, and in 1783 were again published in 2 vols. 8vo, 
under the title of ** Synopsis of the Natural History of 
Great Britain, &c.^' In t771, he published *^ Dr. Cado* 
gan's dissertation on the Gout, .examined and routed ;'* 
and in 1777, ^^ Biographia Literaria, or a Biographical. 
History of Literature; containing the lives of English, 
Scotch, and Irish authors, from the dawn of letters in these, 
kingdoms to the present time, chfonologically apd cift^- 
sically arranged," 4to, vol. I. the only volume whiclvap- 
peared. The lives are v«ry short, and the author frequently 
introduces sentiments hostile to. religious establistiments. 
and doctrines, which could not be very acce{>table to Eng- 
lish readers. The dates and facts, however, are given. 
with great accuracy, and in many of the Uves> he profited; 
by the assistance of George Steeveus, esq. the celebrated 
commentator on Shakspeare. This was followed by "A 
treatise on Hysterical Diseases, translated from the French.^' 
In 1778, he wajs sent by governmeift with certain com« 
niissioners to treat with America, but neither the commis- 
sioners nor their secretary were suffered by the congress 
to proceed further thjan New- York. Dn* Berkenhout, how- 
ever, found means to penetrate as fai: as Philadelphia, 
where the congress was then assembled. He appears to 
have remained in that city for some time without molesta-^ 
tion ; but at last on suspicion that he was, sent by lord 
North for the purpose of tampering with spme of their 
leading members, he was seized and committed to prison. 
How long he remained a state prisoner, or by what means 
he obtained his liberty, we are not informed ; but we find 
from the public prints, that he rejoined the commissioners 
at New York, and returned with them to England. — For 
this temporary sacrifice of the emoluments of his profes- 
sion, and in consideration of political services, he obtained 
a pension. In 1780, he published his '^ Lucubrations oa 
Ways and Means, inscribed to lord North," proposing cer* 
tain taxes, some of which were adopted by that minister, 
and some afterwards by Mr. Vuu Dr. Berkenhout^s friends 
at that time appear to have taken some pains to point tuoi 
Ottt as ap inventor of taxes. His n^t work was ^^ An^ essay 

i2 B EB K E N H O U T. 

oil th^ Bite of & Mad Dog, in wluch the claim to infalli-* 
bility of the principal preservative remedies against the 
Hydrophobia is examined.'' In the year following Dr. 
Berkenhout published his ^* S}rmptomau)logy ;'' a book 
which is too universally known to require any recommenda- 
tion. In 1798, appeared ^^ First lines of the theory and 
practice of Philosophical Chemistry," dedicated to Mn 
Eden, afterwards lord Auckland, whom the doctor accom- 
panied to America. Of this book it is sufficient to say^ 
that it exhibits a satis&ctory display of the present state 
of chemistry. His la;st publication was *^ Letters on Edu* 
cation, to his son at Oxford,'' 1791, 2 vols. 12mo; but in 
17^^^ 9, he published a continuation of Dr. Campbell's 
•* Lives of the Admirals," 4 vols. 8vo ; and once printed 
^ Proposals for a history of Middlesex, including London,'* 
4 vols. fol. ^ which, as the design dropt, were never circu- 
lated. There is also reason to suppose him the author of 
certain humorous publications, in prose and verse, to which 
he did not think fit to prefix bis name, and of a translation 
from the Swedish language, of the celebrated count Tes*** 
sin's letters to the late king of Sweden. It is dedicated to^ 
the prince of Wales, his present majesty of Great Britain ; 
and was, we believe, Mr. Berkenhout's first publication^ 
He died the 3d of April 1791, aged 60. 

When we reflect on the variety of books that bear his 
name, we cannot but be surprised at the extent and va* 
riety of the knowledge they contain. He was originally 
intended for a merchant; thence his knowledge of the 
principles of commerce. He was some years in one of the 
best disciplined armies in Europe ; thence his knowledge 
of the art of war. His translation of count Tessin's Letters 
shew him to be well acquainted with the Swedish language^ 
and that he is a good poet His Pharmacopoeia Medici, 
&c. demonstrate his skQl in his profession. His Outlines 
of Natural Histoiy, and his Botanical Lexicon, prove hia 
knowledge in every branch of natural history. His FirsI 
Unes of Philosophical Chemistry have convinced the worI4 
ef his intimate acquaintance with that science. His essay 
en Ways and Means proves him well acquainted with the 
system of taxation. All his writings prove him to have 
been a classical scholar, and it is known that the Italianji 
French, German, and Dutch languages were fiimiliar to 
him. He was morepver a painter ; i^nd played ^ell^ it is^ 

' l^ 6h yarious musical instruqien^ To theffa aG<|iiiHft^ 

BEttKEKIlOtJT. ii 

jnenti may he added, a cofirid^able degree bf matke^^ 
matical knowledge, which he Attained in the coarse of hit 
Inilitaty studies. An individual so univer^Uy informed as 
Dr. Berkenbout, is an extraordinary appearance in the re« 
public of letters.-^Iil this chani<;ter, whioh, we believe^ 
was published in his life-time, there is the evident hand of 
a friend. Dr. Berkenhout, however, itiay be allowed to 
have been an ingenious and well-informed man, but as an 
liuthor he ranks among the useful, rather than the original; 
and the comparisons of his friends between him and the 
** admirable Chrichton** are, to say the least, highly inju-* 

BERNARD (St.) one of the most, if not the most dis« 
doguished character of the twelfth century, was born at 
Fountaine, a village of Burgundy, in 1091, and was the 
son of Tecelinus, a military nobleman, renowned for what 
was then deemed piety. His mother, Aleth,- who has the 
same character, had seven children by her husband, of 
whom Bernard was the third. From his infancy he was 
devoted to religion and study, and made a rapid progress 
in the learning of the times. He took an early resolution 
to retire from the world, and engaged all his brothers, and 
several c^his friends in the same monastic views with him« 
self. The most rigid rules were most agreeable to his in- 
clination, and hence he became a Cistertian, the strictest 
of the orders in France, The Cistertians were at that time 
but few in number, men being discouraged from uniting* 
with them on account of their excessive austerities. Ber- 
nard, however, by his superior genius, his eminent piety, and 
his ardent zeal, gave to this order a lustre and a celebrity^' 
^hich their institution by no means deserved. At the age 
of twenty -three, with more than thirty companions, he 
entered, into the monastery. Other houses of the ordet* 
arose soon ;|fter, and he himself was appointed abbot of 
Clairval. To those noviciates who desired admission, hd 
used to say, ^*If ye hasten to those things which are with* 
in, dismiss your bbdies, which ye brought from the world ; 
let the spirits alone enter; the flesh profiteth nothing.'* 
Yet Bernard gradually learned to correct the barshnes* 
and asperity of his sentiment;s, and while he preached 
mortification to bis disciples, led them on with more mild*-' 

1 Contdaed fraw ^ Tery erroaeoiks acoovnt in the last «(Uti<Ni of Uim 9jiik» 
tjofMnr.— >£iUrQpc«|i 24t||;»zine^. naS«<^eot« Mai;;. Tol. LXI^ 

?♦ BERNARD.:. 

ness and cleisency than he exercised towards bnaself^ > Foi$ 
some time he injured his own Jiealth exceedingly; by aus-r 
terities, and, as he afterwards confessed, threw a^stujrnbliug 
block in the way of the weak, by exacting of them a de« 
gree of perfection, which he himself had not att^in^d. Afn 
ter be had recovered from these excesses, he began to 
exert himself by travelling and preaching from place to 
place, and such were his powers of eloquence, or the cha* 
racter in which he was viewed, that he soon acquired an 
astonishing prevalence, and, his word became a law to 
princes and nobles. His eloquence, great as it was, was 
aided in the opinion of his hearers by his sincerity and 
humility, and there can be no doubt that his reputation for 
those qualities was justly founded* He constantly refused 
the highest ecclesiastical dignities, among which the 
bishoprics of Genoa, Milan, and Rheims, niay be instaqced, 
although his qualifications were indisputable. Such was 
his influence, that during a schism which happened in the 
church of Rome, his authority determined both Louis VI. 
king of France and Henry I. king of England, to support 
the claims of Innocent II., one instance, among many, to* 
prove the ascendancy he had acquired. Yet sdthough no 
potentate, civil or ecclesiastical, possessed such real 
power as he did, in the Christian world, and though he 
stood the highest in the judgment of all men, he remained 
in his own estimation the lowest, and referred all he did 
to divine grace. 

. His 'power, however, was not always employed to the 
best purposes. The crusade of Louis VII. was supported 
by Bernard's eloquence, who unhappily prevailed to draw 
numbers to join that monarch in his absurd expedition, 
which was, in its consequences, pregnant with misery and 
ruin. In his dispute with the celebrated Abelard, he ap.« 
pears more in character. At a council called at Soissons 
in 1121, Abelard was] charged with tritheispi, and with 
having asserted, that God the father was alone Almighty. 
He was ordered to burn his books, and to recite the sym- 
bol of Athanasius, with all which he complied, and was set 
at liberty : but it was long after this before Bernard took 
?ny particular notice of Abelard, having either heard little 
of the controversy, or not being called upon to deliver hia 
sentiments. Abelard, however, notwithstanding his re* 
tractations, persevered in teaching his heresies; and it be- 
came^ at lengthy impossible for his errors to escape the 


observation of the abbot of Clairval. Having stadied the 
subject, his first step was to admonish Abelard in a private 
conference, but finding that that had no effect, he opposed 
hioi in some of his writings, on which Abelaifd challenged 
him to dispute the matter at a solemn assembly which was 
to be held at the city of Sens in 1140. Bernard was at 
first ynwilling to stibmit these important doctrines to a de* 
cision which was rather that of personal talent, than of de* 
liberative wisdom, and would have declined appearing,' had 
not his friends represented that his absence might injure 
the cause. He accordingly met his antagonist, and began* 
to open the case, when Abelard very unexpectedly put an 
end to the matter by appealing to the pope. Bernard, who 
afterwards wrote to the same pope an account of Abelard's 
conduct, very justly blames him for appealing from judges 
whom he had himself chosen. Notwithstanding this ap«* 
peal, however, Abelard's sentiments were condemned, and 
the pope ordered his books to be burned, and himself con^ 
fined in some monastery ; and that of Cluni being chosen, 
he remained in it until his death about two years after. 

The next opponent of consequence with whom St. Ber- 
nard had to contend, was Gilbert de Porr6e, bishop of Poio* 
tiers. The errors attributed to Gilbert, arose from cer- 
tain metaphysical subtleties, which induced him to deny, 
the incarnation of the divine nature ; but these refined no- 
tions being above the comprehension of St. Bernard, he 
opposed them with great vehemence in the council of Pa^ 
ris, 1147, and in that of Rheims, 1148: but in this latter 
council Gilbert, in order to put an end to the dispute^ of<« 
fered to submit his opinions to the judgment of the assemh 
biy, and of the Roman pontiff, by whom they were con«* 
demned. Towards the end of his days, Bernard was cho« 
sen to be mediator between the people of Mentz and some 
neighbouring princes, whom he reconciled with his usual 
skill. On his return, he fell sick of a weakness tin his sto« 
macb, and died Aug. 20, 1153, leaving nearly one hun-» 
dred and sixty monasteries of his order^ founded by his 

Bernard has had the fate of most of the eminent charac* 
ters during the early ages of the church, to be excessively 
applauded by one party, and as much and as unjustlyvde- 
preciated by the other. Of his austerities and his mura* 
cles, little nptice need be now taken. The former he was 
himself willing to allow ^ere unjuttifiable, and the latter 


wrt probably tlie forgeries of a period later than hn owh. 
In his conduct as well as his writings we see many intole« 
tant prejudices and much superstition ; a strong predilec- 
tion for the Roman hierarchy, and particularly for the mo- 
oaitjc character On the other t^ind^ although his learn« 
ing was but moderate, he could have been no ordinary man 
idio attained such influence, not only over public opinion^ 
but over men of the highest rank and power ; and he has 
Wen praised by the proteatant writers for deviating in many 
respects from the dogmas of the popish religion, and main- 
taining some of those essential doctrines which afterwards 
0tfca0ipned a separation between the two churches. He 
denied transubstantiation, allowed of only two sacraments, 
atid placed salvation on the imputation of Christ's righ- 
teousness, denying all. works of supererogation, &c. As to 
bis talents, one of his nK>dern biographers allows that his 
style was lively and florid, his thoughts noble and inge« 
nious, bis imagination brilliant, and fertile in allegories. 
He is. full of sensibility and tenderness, first gains the mind 
by a delicate and insinuating manner, then touches the 
hteirt with force and vehemence. The Holy Scripture was 
so familiar to this writer, that he adopts its words and ea;« 
pressions in almost every period and every phrase. St 
Bernard's sermons are consideled as ma^ter^-pieces (^ sen- 
timent and force. Henry de Valois preferred them to all 
those of the ancients, whether Greek or Latin. It appears 
that he preached in. French; that monks who were not 
learned assisted at his conferences, and that Latin was then 
not understood by the people* His Sermons are to be 
seen in old French at the library of the fathers Fuillautines, 
me St. Honor6 at Paris, in a MS. which is very near St 
Bemard^s time; and the council of Tours, held in the year 
8 IS, ordered the bishops when they dehvered the homi- 
lies of the fathers, to translate them from Latin into iMn-* 
gws rofimicey that the people might understand them; 
This proves -that it was the custom to preach in French 
long before the time of St. Bernard. The best edition of 
the works of St. Bernard, who is regarded as the last of 
the fathers, is that of Mabiilon, .2 vols. 1690, fol. the first 
gf which contains such pieces as are undoubtedly Bernard's; 
Those in the second volume are not of equal authoritjr^ 
Besides. the lives pre&xed to this- edition by tariduis writers, 
there are three separate lives,^ one byiLemaistDe^ Paris^ 
1649, 8iro} anodier by ViUefore> i70#, ^to^ aad« third 


hy Clemenoet, 1773, 4to» which is usufltty cotuidiered a9 
tdie^tbiiteenth Tolatne of the litecayy hiatoryr of Fcaace. ^ 

BERNARD of MENTHON, a monk in the tenth cen** 
tiiry^ who was born in the year 923, in the neigMniurheod 
of Anneoy, of one of the most illuitrioos howes of SaFoy, 
vendered hims^ not more celebrated in the annais of Yeli* 
g^on than of benevolence, by two hospitable establishmeoti 
which he formed, and where, for nine hundred y^ears, tim« 
▼eilers ha^e found reUef from the dangers of passing tbo 
Alps in the severe part of the season. Bernard, iii» 
BQenced by pious lnati1^e8 and a love of study, refused in 
his early years a proposal of marriage to which his panento 
attached great importance, and embraced the ecctoiaatieal 
life. He afterwards was promoted to be archdeacon of 
Aoste, which includes the places of official and grand^vacary 
and consequtently gave him considerable weigbt in the go** 
vernment of the diocese. This he employed in the lauda- 
ble purposes of converting the wretched inhabitants of the 
neighboaring' mountains, who were idolaters, and made 
very great progress in ameliorating their manners, as well 
as reUgious opinions. Affected at the same time with tite 
dangers and hardships sustained by the French and G«»* 
man pilgrims in travelling to Rome, be resolved to build 
on the summit of the Alps two^Aflsptifia, or hotels, for their 
reception, one on mount Joux (nions Jovis, so called frsoin 
a temple of Jupiter erected there), and the other, the co- 
kumade of Jove, so called from a colonnade or series ci 
upright stones placed on the snow to point out a safe track. 
These places of reception- were afterwards called, and are 
still known by the names of the Great and Little St. Ber* 
nard. The care of them the founder entrusted to regular 
caiwBs of the order of St. Augustin, who have continued 
without interruption to our days, each succession of monks 
during this long period, zealously performing* the duties of 
hospitality according to the benevolent intentions of St. 
Bernavd. The situation is the most inhospitabb isy nature 
tbat can be conceived ; e»en in spring, the cold is extreme; 
and the whole is covered with snow or ice, whose appear- 
ances are vatied only^ by storms and douds. Their prin-^ 
dpal monastery on Gveat St. Bernard, is probably the 
highest habitation ill Europe, being two thousand five hun*» 


* Dupin. — MosbetiD.— Milner's Church Hiftory.^-Morert, — Saxii Onomast. 
— CaTe.— Freytag^s Adparatus Ltttenrins.— Fabric. Bibl. M^d. et lofim. I^tia. 
— BhUmt's iJTM of the Saiotd, fco. 

78- BERN A K D, 

dred toises above the sea. Morning and eremitg their 
dogs, trained for the purpose, trace out the weary and 
perishing traveller, and by their means, many lives are 
!taved, the utmost care being taken to recover them, event 
i^hen recovery seems most improbable. After thus esta-^ 
blishing these hospitia, Bernard returned to his itinerant 
labours among the neighbouring countries until his death. 
May 28,' 1008. The Boilandists have publishjed, with notes, 
two authentic lives of St. Bernard de Menthon, one written 
by Richard, his successor in the archdeaconry of Aoste, by 
which it appears that he was neither a Cistertian, nor of 
ftbe regular canons, as some writers have asserted. The 
two hosfHtals possessed considerable property in Savoy, of 
which they were deprived afterwards, but the establish- 
ment still subsists, and the kind and charitable duties of it 
have lately been performed by secular priests. ^ 

BERNARD (Andr£W), successively poet laureate of 
Henry VII. and VIII. kings of England, was a native of 
Tholouse, and an Augustine monk. By an instrument in 
Rymer's Foedera, Vol. XII. p. 317, pro Poeta laureate^ 
dated 1486, the king grants to Andrew Bernard, poeta lau- 
reatOj which, as Mr. Warton remarks, we may construe 
either ^' the laureated poet," or "a poet laureat,*' a sa- 
lary of ten marks, until he can obtain some equivalent ap-^ 
pointment. He is also supposed to have been the royal 
historiographer, and preceptor in grammar to prince Ar- 
thur. All the pieces now to be found, which be wrote in 
tiie character of poet laureat, are in Latin. Among them 
are, an ** Address to Henry VIIL for the most auspicious 
beginning of the tenth year of his reign," with " An epi-. 
thalamium on the Marriage of Francis the dauphin of 
France with the king's daughter." These were formerly 
in the possession of Mr. Thomas Martin of Palgrave, the- 
antiquary ; « A New Year's gift for 1615," in fiie library 
of New college, Oxfor^i ; and " Verses wishing pros-, 
perity to his IN^jesty's thirteenth year," in the British mu* 
seum. He has also left some Latin hymns, a Latin life of 
St. Andrew, and many Latin prose pieces, which he wrote 
as historiographer to both monarcbs, particularly a ^^ Chro-: 
nicle of the life and achievements of Henry VII. to the 
taking of Perkin Warbeck," and other historical commen- 
taries on the reign of that king^, which are all in the Cot- 

1 Biog. Unirerselle;-*Dict. Hist. 

E £ a N A R D. 79 

toiiian hbnu-yr Hfe was living iii 1522, but is not men- 
lioned by Bale, Pits*, or Tanner. ^ 

BERNARD (Catharine), of the academy of the Ricov- 
rati of Padua, was born at Rouen, and died at Paris in 
17 12, She acquired some poetical fame, her works being 
'several times crowned by the French academy, and that of 
the Jeux fioraux. Two of her tragedies were represented 
9ttbe French theatre, <^ Laodamia," in 1689, and ^^ Bru- 
tus'^ in 1690. It is thought* she composed these pieces 
conjointly with Fontenelle and the two Corneilk's, who 
were her relations. She wrote also some other poems with 
ease and delicacy. Some distinction is set upon her po« 
etical petition, which has some wit, to Louis XIV. to ask 
for the 200 crowns, the annual gratification given her by 
that prince ; it is inserted in the ^' Recueil de vers choisi» 
du pere Boubours.- ' She discontinued writing for th€^ 
theatre at the instance of madame de Pont-Chartrain, who 
gave her a pension. She even suppressed several little 
pieces, which might have given a bad impression of her 
manners and religion^ Three romances are likewise as- 
cribed to her: " The count d'Amboise," in 12mo ; " The 
miseries of Love;*' and " Ines of Cordova," 12mo. Some 
of the journalists have attributed to mademoiselle Bernard 
the account of the isle of Borneo, and others to Fontenelle. 
'' It may .be doubted," says the abb6 Trublet, ^< whether 
it be her& ; and it is to be wished that it is not.*' It is ai) 
allegorical account of the religious disputes of that period. 
Beauchamps says she wrote the tragedy of ^^Bradamante,** 
represented in 1695, which is certainly the same with that in 
the workft of Thomas Corneille. Her Eloge is in the ^' His* 
toire du Theatre Franjois.*' * 

BERNARD (Charles), king*s counsellor, and histo- 
riographer of France, was born at Paris Dec. 25, 1S7I, 
and died in 1640. The chief part: of bis labours were di» 
recied to the history o£ France ; on which he wrote, l.^^La 
Conjunction des mers,'* .on the junction of the ocean with 
the Mediterranean by the Burgundy canal, 1613, 4to. 2. 
^' Discours surPetat des Finances," Paris, 1614, 4to. 3. 
*^ Histoire: des. guerres de Louis XIII. centre les religion- 
naires rebelles,'* ibid. ,1633, fol. ^ Of this only about three 

dozen copies if ere printed, but the whole was afterwards 

 .  "•  " 

* Warton's Hut oF Poetry* vol. II. p. 132— Malone's lAU of Drsrden, toL I. 
8 Diet Hill,— Biog. Urilv«rsclle.— Moreri. 


iuserted in bis history of Louis XIII. 4. ^' Csrte g^nealo^ 
gique de la royale maison de Bourbon, avec des Elogei 
des princes, &c," ibid. 1634, foi. and 1646, under the title 
9f ^^ Genealogie de la inaisoii de Bourbon." 5. ^* Hiatoire 
de Louis XIII. jusqu'a. la guerre declare eontre les Efi« 
pagnols, avec un Discours sur la vie de I'auteur,'^ ibid« 
) 6i6, fol. Thi« account of the life of the author was writ^ 
ten by Charles Sorel, hk nephew, who also continued the 
work down to 1643. The abbe de Gendre says that Ber« 
Hard is deiiciejit both in style and taste^ dealing too much 
in trifles and digressions, and too prolix in his descrip* 
tions of work/B of architecture, as well as in eoaimon-plac9 
leflections. He allows, however, that he gives a good ac- 
count of fuiUtary affairs, and developes ;wtth great skill the 
intrigues ^f the court, with which he had a good oppoftu^ 
nity of being acquainted. ^ 

JttERNARD <Clau0£), called Father Bernard, or the 
Poor Pri^t, was horn December 26, 1 5d8, at Dijon, son 
of Stephen Bernard, lieut-geu. of Cbilons^sur^Saone. He 
had a livdly imagination and wit^ which,, joined to a jovial 
temper, adade hiOL a weLcome guest in all gay" companies^ 
Going to Paris with M. de Bellegarde, governor of D^on^ 
he gave hiodself up to public amusements, and aU the va- 
nities of the ^e, making it hia businc^ss to act comedies foir 
the diversion of such persons of quality as he was ac- 
quainted with ; but jat length he grew disgusted with the 
world, and devoted himself wholly to relieving and tqm^ 
forting the poor. He assisted them by his charities and 
f^hortatipus to the end c^ his days, with incoredible fervour, 
stopping ami humbhog himself to do the meanest ofiicea 
for them. Father Bernard having persisted in refusing all 
the benefices .offered him by the court, cardinal Richelieu 
told him pne day, that he absolutely insisted on his askings 
him £pr spjfnething, and left him alone to consider of it. 
When the qardioal returned half an hour after, Bernard 
Qaid, ^^ Alonseigneur, after much study, I have at last 
found put a favour to ask of yau ; When I attend any suf- 
ferers to the gibbet to assist them in their last moments, 
we are carried in a cart with so bad a bottom, th&t we are' 
^very moment in danger of falling to the ground. Be 
pleased^ therefore, JMonseigneur, to order that some bet-^ 
ter boards may be put to the cart'* Cardinal Richelieu 

> Biof • UaiTenelle^-^Le Umg'B Bibl. Hist, de la Fnncer 


laughed heattily at this request, and gave orders directly 
ibftt the cart should be thoroughly repaired. Father Ber« 
oard was ever ready to assist the unhappy by his good of- 
6ces, for which purpose he one day presented a petition to 
a nobleman in place, who being of a very hasty temper^ 
flew into a violent passion, and said a thousand injurious 
things of the person for whom the priest interested bimselfi 
but Bernard still persisted in his request ; at which the no-* 
bleman was at last so irritated, 'that he gave him a box on 
the ear. Bernard immediately fell a\ his feet, and, pre- 
senting the other ear, said, *' Give me a good blow on 
this also, my lord, and grant my petition." The noble- 
man was so aifected by this apparent humility as to grant 
Bernard's request. He died March 23, 164K The French 
clergy had such a veneration for hi ft) as often to solicit that 
he might be enrolled in the calendar of saints. In 1639 
he founded the school of the Thirty-three, so called from 
the number of years our Saviour passed on earth, and a 
very excellent seminary. Immediately after his death ap- 
peared " Le Testament du reverend pere Bernard, et ses 
pens€es pieuses,'* Paris, 1641, 8vo, and " Le Recit dea 
choses arriv^es k la mort du rev. pere Bernard," same year. 
The abb^ Papillon also quotes a work entitled ** Entretiena 
pendant sa demiere maladie." His life was written by se- 
veral authors, by LegauflFre, Giry, de la Serre, Gerson, 
and Lempereur the Jesuit. This last, which was published 
at Paris, 1708, 12mo, is too full of visions, revelations, and 
miracles, to afford any just idea of Bernard. ^ 

BERNARD (Edward), a learned critic and astronomer, 
was born at Perry St Paul, commonly called Pauler*s Perry, 
near Towccster in Northamptonshire, the 2d of May 1638, 
He received some part of his education at Northampton ; 
but his father dying when he was very young, his mother 
sent hitti to an uncle in London, who entered him at Mer- 
cbant-taylors-school, in 1648 : here he continued tilljune 
1655, when he was elected scholar of St. John's college in 
Oxford, of which also he became afterwards fellow. Du« 
ring his stay at school, he had accumulated an uncommon 
fund of classical learning, so that when he went to the uni**^ 
versity, he was a great master of the Greek and Latm 
tongues, and not unacquainted with the Hebrew. He had 
Also previously acquirea a good Latin style, could compose 

* tvfocai.'^h'iog. Unir.— MarcbaatU 

Vol. V. G 


verses weHy and often used to divert himself with writing 
epigrams, hut he quitted these juvenile employments when 
at the university, and appUed himself to history, philology, 
and philosophy, and made himself master of the Hebrew, 
Syriac, Arabic, and Coptic. He applied himself next to 
the mathematics, under the famous Dr. J. Wallis^ He 
took the degree of B. A. Feb. the 12th, 1659 ; that of mas- 
ter, April 16, 1662 ; and that of B. D. June 9, 1668. De- 
cember following he went to Leyden, to consult several 
Oriental manuscripts left to that university by Joseph Sca- 
liger and Levinus Warner, and especially the 5th, 6th, and 
7th books of ApoUonius PergaBus's conic sections; the 
Greek text of which is lost, but which are preserved in the 
Arabic version of that author. This version had been 
brought from the East by James Golius, and was in the 
possession of his executor, who, pleased that Mr. Bernard's 
chief design in coniing to Holland was to examine this ma- 
nuscript, allowed him the free use of it. He accordingly 
transcribed these three books, with the diagrams, intend- 
ing to publish them at Oxford, with a Latin version, and 
proper commentaries ; but was prevented from completing 
this design. Abraham Echellensis had published a Latin 
translation of these books in 1661, and Christianus Ravius 
gave another in 1669 : but Dr. Smith remarks, that these 
two ^authors, though well skilled in the Arabic language, 
were entirely ignorant of the mathematics, which made it 
regretted that Golius died while he was preparing that 
work fdr the^press ; and that Mr. Bernard, who understood 
both the language and the subject, and was furnished with 
all the proper helps for such a design, was abandoned by 
his friends, though they had before urged him to under* 
take it. It was, however, at last published by Dr. Halley 
in 1710. 

At his return to Oxford, be examined and collated the 
most valuable inanuscripts in the Bodleian library ; which 
induced those who published ancient authors, to apply to 
him for observations or emendations, which he readily im- 
parted, and by this means became engaged in a very ex- 
tensive correspondence with the learned in most countries. 
In 1669, the celebrated Christopher Wren, Saviiian pro- 
fessor of astronomy at Oxford, having been appointed sur- 
veyor-general of his majesty's works, and being much de- 
tained at London by this employment, obtained leave to 
j^ame a deputy at Oxford^ and pitched upon Mr. Bernard^ 

B E R ]!if A R D. 83 

which obliged the latter to confine his application more 
particularly to the study of astronomy. In 1 672, the mas- 
ter and fellows bf his college presented him to the rectory 
of Cbeame in Surrey ; and February following, Dr. Peter 
Mews> the master, being advanced to the bishopric of Bath 
and Wells, appointed Mr. Bernard one of his chaplains* 
But the following xyear he quitted all views of preferment, 
by accepting the Savilian professorship of astronomy, va- 
cant by the resignation of sir Christopher Wren ; for, by 
the statutes of the founder, sir Henry Savile, the profes** 
sors are not allowed to hold any other office either eccle« 
siastical or civil. 

About this time a scheme was set on foot at Oxford, of 
collecting and publishing the ancient mathematicians. Mr. 
Bernard, who had first formed the project, collected all 
tiie books published on that subject since the invention of 
printing, and all the M88. he could discover in the Bod- 
leian and Savilian libraries, which he arranged in order of 
time, and according to the matter they contained. Of this 
he drew up a synopsis or view, which he presented to 
bishop Fell, a great encourager of the undertaking. This 
was published by his biographer, Dr. Thomas Smith, at 
the end of his life. As a specimen, Mr. Bernard published 
also a'few sheets of Euclid, in folio, containing the Greek 
text, and a Latin version, with Proclus's commentary in 
Greek and Latin, and learned scholia and corollaries. H« 
undertook also an edition of the *^ Parva syntax is Alexan- 
drine;*' in which, besides Euclid, are contained the small 
treatises of Theodosius, Autoiycus, - Menelaus, Aristarchus, 
and Hipsicles : but it was never published. In 1676, he 
was sent to France by Charles IL to be tutor to the dukes 
of Grafton and Northumberlajid, natural sons of the king, 
by the duchess of Cleveland, with whom they then lived 
at Paris 'j but the plainness^ and simplicity of his manners 
nbt suiting the gaiety of the duchess's family, he continued 
with them only one year, when he returned to Oxford : 
having reaped however the advantage, during his stay at * 
Paris, of becoming acquainted with most of the learned 
men in that city, particularly Justel, Huet, MabiHon, 
Quesnel, Dacier, Renaudot, and others. 

Upon his return to the university, he applied himself to 
his' former studies*, and though, in conformity to the obli- 
gation of his professorship, he devoted the greatest part of 
his time to mathematics, yet hie inclination was now mor« 

« 2 


to history, chronology, and antiquities. He undertook ft 
uew edition of Josephus, but it was never completed. The 
liistory of this undertaking is somewhat curious. Several 
years before, bishop Fell had resolved, with our author's 
assistance, to print at the theatre at Oxford a new edition 
of Josephus, more correct than any of the former. But, 
either for want of proper means to complete that work^ or 
in expectation of one promised by the learned Andrew Bo- 
sius, this design was laid aside. Upon the death of Bosius^ 
i^ was resumed again ; and Mr. Bernard collected all the 
manuscripts he could procure out of the libraries of Great^ 
Britain, both of the Greek text and Epiphanius's Latin, 
translation, and purchased Bosius^s valuable papers of his 
executors at a great price. Then he published a specimeu 
of his edition of Josephus, and wrote great numbers of 
letters to his learned friends in France, Holland, Germany, 
and other countries, to desire their assistance in that work. 
He laboured in it a good while with the utmost vigour and 
resolution, though his constitution was much broken by in-, 
tense application. But this noble undertakmg was left un<^ 
finished, for these two reasons. First, many persons com- 
plained of Epiphauius^s translation,; because it was defec- 
tive, and not answerable to the original in many places, and 
required a new version, or at least to have that of Geieniu» 
^revised and corrected. Secondly, objections were made to 
the heap of various readings that were to be introduced 
in this edition, and with the length of the commentaries, 
ip which whole dissertations were inserted without any ap-» 
parent necessity, that ought to have been placed at the 
end of the work, or printed by themselves. These thinga 
occasioning a contest between Mr. Bernard and the cura- 
tors of the Oxford press, the printing of it was interrupted tt 
>and at last the purpose of having it done at the expence of 
the university, was defeated by the death of bishop Fell* 
However, about six or seven years after, Mr. Bernard was 
prevailed upon by three booksellers of Oxfor<l to resume 
the work, and to publish it in a less form upon the model 
of his specimen ; but they not being able to bear the ex-c 
pence of it, on account of the war, after a few sheets were 
printed off, desisted from their undertaking. These re» 
.peated discouragements hindered the learned author from 
proceeding further than the four first books, and part of 
the, fifth, of the Jewish Antiquities ; and the first book^ 
and part of th^ second» of t\m DestrucUon of Jerusalem f 


which were printed at the Theatre at Oxford in 1686 and 
1687, and published in 1700, foL In the notes, the leam«^ 
' ed author shews himself an universal scholar and discern^ 
ing critic ; and appears to have been master of mo&t of the 
Oriental learning and languages. These notes have been 
incorporated into Havercamp's edition. 

In 168:^, he went again to Leyden, to be present at the- 
sale of Nicholas Heinsius^s library; where he purchased^ 
at a great price, several of the classical authors, that bad 
been either collated with manuscripts, or illustrated with 
the original notes of Joseph Scaliger, Bonaventure Vul- 
canius, the two Heinsiuses, and other celebrated critics^ 
Here he renewed his acquaintance with several persons of 
eminent learning; particularly Gr«vius, Spanheim, Tri* 
glandius, Gronovius, Perizonius, Ryckius, Gallaeus, Rul«- 
vs, and especially Nicholas Witsen, burgomaster of Am* 
sterdam, ivbo presented him with a Coptic dictionary, 
brought from Egypt by Theodore Petraeus of Holsatia ; 
and afterwards transmitted to him in 1686, the Coptic and 
£thiopic types made of iron, for the use of the printing-- 
press at Oxford. With such civilities he was so much 
pleased, and especially with the opportunities he had of 
making improvements in Oriental learning, that he would 
have settled at Leyden, if he could have been chosen pro- 
fessor of the Oriental languages in that university, but not 
being able to compass this, he returned to Oxford. He 
began now to be tired of astronomy, and his health de- 
clining, he was desirous to resign ; but no other prefermeiit 
offering, he was obliged to hold his professorship some 
years longer than he intended; in 1684 he took his de« 
gree of D. D. and in 1691, being presented to the rectory 
of Brightwell in Berkshire, he quitted his professorship^ 
and was succeeded by David Gregory, professor of mathe- 
matics at Edinburgh. In 1692, he was employed in draw- 
ing up a catalogue of the manuscripts in Great Britain and 
Irdand, which was published at Oxford 1697, foL Dr. 
Bernard's shar^ in this undertaking was the drawing up m 
most useful and complete alphabetical Index ; to which he 
prefixed this title, ^^ Librorum manuscriptorum Magnsb 
Britanniae et Hibernise, atqtie externarum aliquot BibKo- 
thecarum Index secundum alphabetum Edwardus Ber* 
narduB construxit Oxonii'* In this Index he mentions a 
great number of valuable Greek manuscripts, which are te 
be found in several foreign libraries^ as weU as our pwn; 


Towards the latter end of his life, he was much afflicted 
with the stone, yet, notwithstanding this and other infir- 
imties, he took a third voyage to Holland, to attend the 
$ale of Golius's manuscripts. After six or seven weeks ab- 
sence, he returned to London, and from thence to Oxford. 
There he fell into a languishing consumption, which put 
an end to his life, Jan. 12, 1696, before he was quite 
fifty-nine years of age. Four days after, he was interred 
in St. John's chapel, where a monument of white marble 
was soon, erected for him by his widow, to whom he had 
been married only three years. In the middle of it there 
is the form of an Heart carved, circumscribed with these 
words, according to his own direction a little before he 
died, HABEMUS COR BERNARDI : and underneath 
E. B, S. T. P. Obiit Jan. 12, 1696. The same is also re- 
peated on a small square marble, under which he was 
buried. As to this learned man^s character. Dr. Smithy 
who knew him well, gives him a very great one. " He 
was (says he) pf a miid disposition, averse to wrangling 
and disputes ; and if by chance or otherwise he happened 
to be present where contests ran high, he would deliver 
his opinion with great candour and modesty, and in few 
words, but entirely to the purpose. He was a candid 
judge of other men's performances ; not too censorious 
even on trifling books, if they, contained nothing contrary 
to good manners, virtue, or religion ; and U) those which 
displayed wit, learning, or good sense, none gave more 
ready and more ample praise. Though he was a true soa 
£>f the Church of England, yet he judged favourably and 
charitably of dissenters of all denominations. His piety 
imd prudence never suffered him to be hurried away by a^ 
immoderate ^eal, in declaiming against the errors of others. 
His piety was sincere and unaffected, and his devotions 
both in public and private very regular and exemplary* 
Of his great and extensive learning, the works he pub* 
lished, and the manuscripts he has left, are a sufficient evi- 
dence." This character is supported by the concurring 
evidence of all his learned contemporaries. The works 
he published were : 1. ^' Tables of the longitudes and lati« 
tudes of the fixed Stars." 2. « The Obliquity of the Eclip- 
tic from the observations of the ancients, in Latin.? 
i. ** A Latin letter to Mr. John Flamsteed, containing ob-p 
servations on the Eclipse of the Sun, July 2, 1684, at 

Oxford.'' All these are in the Philospphical Transacuoni^ 


4. " A treatise of the ancient Weights and Measures,'^ 
printed first at the end of Dr. Edward Pocock's Commen- 
tary on Hosea, Oxford, 1685, fol. ; and afterwards reprinted 
in Latin, wi£h very great additions and alterations, under 
this title, " De mensuris & ponderibus antiquis, libri tres," 
Oxon. 1688, 8vo. i. *' Private Devotions, with a briefs 
explication of the Ten Commandments," Oxford, 1689, 
12mo. 6. ** Orb is eruditi Literatura a charactere Sama-i 
ritico deducta ;'' printed at Oxford from a copper-plate, 
on one side of a broad sheet of paper : containing at oiie 
view, the different forms of letters used by the Phoenicians, 
Samaritans, Jews^ Syrians, Arabs, Persians, Bracbmans, 
and other Indian philosophers, Malabarians, Greeks, 
Cophts, Russians, Sclavonians, ^Ethiopians, Francs, Saxons^ 
Goths, &c. all collected from ancient inscriptions, coins, 
and manuscripts : together with the abbreviations used by 
the Greeks, physicians, mathematicians, and chymist& 
7, " Etymologicum Britannicum, or derivations of th« 
British and English words from the Russian, Sclavonian, 
Persian, and Armenian languages ; printed at the end of 
Dr. Hickes^s Grammatica Anglo- Saxonica & Moeso-Got- 
thica," Oxoh. 1689, 4to. 8. He 'edited Mr. William 
Guise's ^* Misn^ pars priiha, ordinis primi Zeraim tituli 
septem," Oxon. 1690, 4to. 9. ** Chronoldgise l^amaritanas 
Synopsis,'' in two tables; the first containing the most 
famous epochas, and remarkable events, from the begin-> 
ning of the world; the second a catalogue of the Samari- 
tan High Priests from Aaron, published in the ** Acta Eru- 
ditorum Lipsiensia," April 1691, p. 167, &c. He alsQ 
was author of the following : 10. " NotaB iii fragmentum 
Seguierianum Stephani Byzantini;" in the library of mon- 
sieur Seguier, chaneellbr of Fratice : part of which, relating 
to Dodone, were published by Gronovius, at the end of 
his " Ekercitationes de Dodone," Leyden, 1681. M. " Ad- 
notationes in Epistolam S. Barnabas," published in bishop 
Fell's edition of that author, Oxon. 1685, 8vo. 12. ** Short 
notes, in Greek and Latin, upon Cotelerius's edition of 
the Apostolical Fathers, printed in the Amsterdam edition 
of them. 13, " Veterum testimonia de Versionie LXXII 
interpf etum," printed at the end of Aristeae Historia LXXII 
interpretum, published by Dr. Henry Aldrich, Oxori. 
1692, 8vo. 14. He translated into Latin, the letters of 
the Samaritans, which Dr. R. Huntington procuired them 
to write to their brethren, the Jews in England, in 16T3| 


while he was at Sicbem. Dr. Smith having obtained m 
copy of this translation, gave it to the learned Job LudoU 
ftis, when he was in England, who published it in the col- 
lection of Samaritan Epistles, written to himself and other 
Jearned men. Besides these works, he also assisted several 
learned men in their editions of books, and collated manu- 
scripts for them ; and left behind him in manuscript many 
books of his own composition, with very large collections^ 
which, together with the books enriched in the margin 
with the notes of the most learned men, and collected by 
him in France and Holland, were purchased by the cura- 
tors of the Bodleian library, for the sum of two hundred 
pounds. They likewise bought a considerable number of 
curious and valuable books out of his library, which wero 
wanting in the Bodleian, for which they paid one hundred 
ftnd forty pounds. The rest of his books were sold by 
auction, all oien of letters striving to purchase those which 
kad any observations of Dr. Bernard's own hand. ^ 

BERNARD (Sir Francis), hart, descended from an aiv 
eient and respectable family originally of Yorkshire, was 
educated at Westminster school, where in 1725, he wa« 
elected into the college; and in 1729, became a student 
of Christ Church, Oxford, and took his master's degree in 
1736. From Oxford he removed to the Middle Temple, 
of which society he was afterwards a bencher. He prac- 
tised at the bar some years ; and, going the Midland cir- 
cuit, was elected steward of the city of Lincoln, and also 
ofEciated as recorder at Boston in that circuit. In Febru- 
ary, 1758, he was appointed governor of New Jersey ; and 
in January, 17(50, governor of Massachusetts Bay. Of this 
last province he continued governor ten years, receiving, 
during that time, the repeated and uniform approbation of 
the crown, amid many successive changes of the ministry 
at hdfne; and likewise preserving the confidence and good 
opinion of all ranks in the province, until the differences 
arising between the two countries, and the opposition 
given to the orders sent from Great Britain, made it a 
part of bis official duty to take decisive measures for sup- 
porting the authority of government ; which, although ge- 
nerally approved in this country, could not fail, on the 
spot, to weaken and gradually undermine the degree of 
popularity he before enjoyed. His conduct^ however, in 

> Bbg. Brit, from his Life by Dr. Thomas Smith, publi8h«d with bishop 
Huiitiogtoa*s Letters, 8vo. 1704. 


that trying and difficult situation gave such entire satisfac- 
tion to liis majesty^ tiiat lie was advanced while abroad, 
and without any sohcitatiou, to the dignity of a bai'ouety 
in 1769, and \yas denominated of Netdeham, the present 
family estate near Lincoln. 

The favourable sentiments which the province enter- 
tained for sir Francis before the comrQversy took place be-. 
tween Great Britain and the colonies, are shown by the 
expressions of acknowledgement and aifection in their se<*. 
veral addresses to him up to that period, and the constant 
approbation with which he was honoured by his majesty,, 
appears from the dispatches of the different secretaries of 
state laid before the House of Commons, atid printed by 
their order. His " Case before the. Privy Council," printed 
in 1770; and his "Select Letters,"^ in 1774; explain in a 
very satisfactory manner his conduct during the progress 
of the American revolution. After the war commenced, 
sir Francis returned to England, and resided mostly at 
Nether Wichendon, or Aylesbury in Buckinghamshire. 
He died June 16, 1779, leaving a numerous family, of 
whom his third son, sir Thomas, the present baronet, chan- 
cellor of the diocese of Durham, i& well known as a scholar 
and philanthropist. In 1752, sir Francis, who cultivated 
a highly classical taste, published " Antonii Alsopi Odarum 
libri duo," 4to. (See Alsoh), dedicated in an elegant, copy 
of verses to Thomas duke of Newcastle. V 

BERNARD (Dr. Francis), was chief physician to king 
James II. He was a man of learning, and what is now termed 
an able bibliographer. His private collection of books, 
which were scarce and curious, sold for upwards of 1600/. 
in 169S; a large sum at that time, when the passion for 
rare books was much more moderate than now. He died 
Feb. 9, 1697, aged 69 years. .Mr. Charles Bernard, bro-t 
ther to Francis, and surgeon to the princess Anne, daugh- 
ter of king James, had also a curious library, which was 
sold by auction in 1711. The ^' Spaccio deila Bestia tri- 
omfante,^' by Jordano Bruno, an Italian atheist, which is 
md in number 389 of the Spectator to have sold for 30/. 
was in this sale. Mr. Anies informs us that this book was 
printed in England by Thomas VautrolUer in i594. An 
English edition of it was printed in 1713. ' 

^ Nicholt*s Literary Anecdotes.— Betham's Baionetas^* 
^ lbuL-*»Dibdin's Bibliomania.— GraDger. 


BERNARD (James), professor of philosophy and ma^ 
thematics, and minister of the Walloon church at Leyden, 
vas bom Sept. 1, 1658, at Nions in Dauphin^. Here^ 
ceived the rudiments of his education in a protestant aca- 
demy, at Die in Dauphin^, and went aftervirards to Geneva^ 
where he studied philosophy, and acquired a critical know- 
ledge of the Hebrew language under the professor Michael 
Tnrretin. He returned to France in 1679, and was chosen 
sainister of Venterol, a village in Dauphin^. Some time 
after he was removed to the church of Vinsobres in the 
same province; but the persecutions raised against the 
jprotestants in France having obliged him to leave his na« 
Uve country, he retired to Geneva in 1683, and as he diti 
not think himself suiBciently secure there, he went to 
Lausanne, where he remained until the revocation of the 
edict of Nantes. He then proceeded to Holland, where 
be was appointed one 6f the pensionary ministers of Ganda^ 
and taught philosophy : but having married after he came 
to Holland, and the city of Ganda not being very popu« 
lous, he had not a sufficient number of scholars to main- 
tain his family; and therefore obtained leave to reside at 
the Hague, but went to Ganda to preach . in his tum^ 
which was about four times a year. About the same time. 
Le Clerc, who was his relation, procured him a small sup* 
ply from the town of Tergow, as preacher ; and at the 
Hague he farther improved his circumstances by teaching 
philosophy, belles-lettres, and mathematics. Before he 
went to live at the Hague, be had published a kind of po-. 
litical state of Europe, entitled ^^ Histoire abreg6e de 
TEurope," &c. The work was begun in July 1686, and 
continued monthly till December 1688; making five vo- 
lumes in 12mo« In 1692, he began his ^^ Lettres Histo- 
riques,'' containing an account of the most important 
transactions in Europe, with reflections, which was also 
published monthly, till 1698 : it was afterwards cojitinued 
by other hands, and contains a great naany volumes. ,Mr^ 
Le Clerc having left off his " Bibliotheque iipiverselle,'* 
in 1691, Mr. Bernard wrote the greatest part of the 20th 
volume, and by himself carried on the five following, to 
the year 1693 ; but as the French critics think, not with 
equal ability and spirit. In 1699, he collected and pub- 
lished " Actes et negotiations de la Paix de Ryswic," four 
vols. l2mo: a new edition of this collection* was published 
in 1707^ five vols. 12mo. He did not put his name toan^ 



ef these works, nor to the general collection of the treaties 
of peace, which he published in 1 700 ; and which consists 
of the treaties, contracts, acts of guaranty, &c. betwixt 
the powers of Europe, four vols. fol. The first contains 
the preface, and the treaties made since the year 536 to 
1500. The second consists of Mr. Amelot de la^Homssay's 
historical and political reflections, and the treaties frpm 
1500 to 1600. The third includes the treaties from 1601 
to 1661 ; and the fourth, those from 1661 to 1700, with a 
general alphabetical index to the whole. He prefixed his 
name, however, to his continuation of Bayle^s " Nouvelles 
de la Republique des Lettres,^' which was begun in 1698, 
and continued till December 1710. This undertaking en-^ 
gaged him in some disputes, particularly with one Mr. de 
Yallone, a monk, who having embraced the reformed re** 
ligion, wrote some metaphysical books concerning pre- 
destination. Mr. Bernard having given an account of one 
of these books, the author was so displeased with it, that 
he printed a libel against Mr. Bernard, and gave it about 
-privately amongst his friends. He was ilso engaged in a 
long dispute with Mr. Bayle upon the two following ques- 
tions : 1. Whether the general agreement of all nations in 
favour of a deity, be a good proof of the existence of a 
deity ? 2. Whether atheism be worse than idolatry ? 

Mr. Bernard having acquired great reputation by hit 
works, as well as by his sermons at Ganda and the Hague, 
the congregation of the Walloon church at Leyden were 
desirous to have him for one of their ministers : but they 
could not accomplish their desire whilst king William lived, 
who refused twice to confirm the election of Mr. Bernard, 
as being a republican in his principles, and having deli- 
vered his sentiments too freely in a sermon before this 
prince : yet these appear to have been the same sentiments 
which justified the revolution to which that sovereign owed 
the crown of these kingdoms. After king William^s death, 
however, he was unanimously chosen in 1705 ; and about 
the same time appointed professor of philosophy and ma- 
thematics at Leyden ; the university presenting him with 
the degrees of doctor of philosophy, and master of arts. 
In 1716, he published "A Supplement to Moferi's dic- 
tionary,'' in two vols, folio. The same year he resumed 
his " Nouvelles de la Republique des Lettres,'* and con- 
tinued it till his death, which happened the 27th of Aprii 
}7l8, in the 60th year of his age. 


^« B E R N A R I>. 

Mr. Bernard was well skilled in polite literature, dnd a 
perfect master of the Hebrew tongue. He studied the 
scriptures with great attention ; and though he was not 
reckoned of the first class of mathematicians, yet he could 
explain the principles of that science in a very clear and 
able manner. As to philosophy, he had applied himself 
to that of Des Cartes ; yet after he came into Holland, 
having learned the English tongue, he used to read the 
best books from England, and had acquired some taste for 
the Newtonian philosophy. Besides the works above men- 
tioned, he published, 1. " Le Theatre des etats du due de 
Savoie, traduit du Latin de Bleau," Hague, 1700, 2 vols, 
fol. a beautiful book, with elegant engravings. 2. ** Trait6 
de la repentance tardive," Amst. 1712, 12mo. 3. " De 
Vexcellence de la religion Chretienne," ibid. 1714, 2 vols. 
8vo ; a translation of which was published by his grandson, 
Mr. Bernard, of Doncaster, Lond. 1793, 8vo, with the 
life of the author, and notes. ^ 

BERNARD (John Stephen), a learned Dutch physi- 
cian, was born in 1718, at Berlin, where his father, Ga-> 
briel Bernard, was a minister of the reformed church. His 
son came to Holland to study physic and determined to re« 
main there. Having an extraordinary fondness for the 
study of Greek, in which he had made great progress, be 
wished to render this knowledge subservient to his profes- 
sion, and with'' that view projected a new edition of the 
lesser Greek physicians, whose works were become very 
scarce and dear. He began first at Leyden, in 1743, with 
Demetrius Pepagomenus on the gout; and next year pub* 
lisbed an introduction to anatomy by an anonymous author, 
and a nomenclature of the parts of the human body by 
Hypatius, both in one volume. In 1745, he published 
Patladius on fevers, and an inedited Chemical glossary, 
with some extracts, likewise inedited from the different 
poetical cbenfiists. The same year appeared his edition of 
Psellus on the virtues of stones. In 1749, he published 
Synesius on fevers, hitherto inedited, and wrote, in the 
ninth volume of Dorville's *^ MiscellanesB Observationes 
Novae," an account of the variations of a manuscript 
copy of the lexicons or glossaries of Erotian, and Galen. 
In 1754, when Neaulme, the Dutch bookseller, designed 

1 Gen. Diet from te Clerc in NouTelles de la Rep. des Lettres, 1618, Ma^ 
and June. — Diet. Hi8t.-^Moreri.— Biog, UlUT«neUe.<— Life prefixed to bti " Eseu 
MUence of the Christian Religion*'* 


a new edition of Longus^s romancei Bernard read the 
proofs^ and introduced some important corrections of the 
text. As be did not put his name to this edition, Messrs. 
Boden, Dutens, and Villoisoni who were also editors of 
Longus after him, knew no other way of referring to hii^ 
than as the ** Paris editor," being deceived by Neaulme's 
dating the work from Paris, instead of Amsterdam, where it 
was printed. In 1757, he superintended an edition of 
Thomas Magister, but his professional engagemefits not al- 
lowing him sufficient leisure, the, preface was written by 
Oudendorp. From this time, Bernard having ceased ta 
write, and having retired to Arnheim, was completely for- 
got until, says the editor of the Biog. Universelle, his death 
was announced by Saxius in 1790 ; but this seems a mis- 
take. Saxius gives an account of him, as of some other 
living authors, but leaves his death blank. Bernard, how- 
ever, to. contradict such a rumour, or, as his biographer ex- 
presses himself, in order to *^ show some signs of life,'^ 
published a Greek fragment on the dropsy. It was. his pur- 
pose next to publish Theophilus Nonnus, ^' De curatione 
morbonim.** This work, on which he had bestowed the 
labour of many years, and which is one of his best editions, 
was published at Gotha in 1794, a year after his death. A 
short time before this event, he sent to the society of arts 
and sciences at Utrecht, remarks on some Greek authors, 
which appeared in the first volume of the '* Acta Littera- 
ria" of that society. In 1795, Dr. Gruner published v;ni- 
ous letters and pieces of criticism, which Bernard, who was 
bis mtimate friend, had sent to him, under the title: of 
** Bemardi ReliquisB medico-criticee." Several very lewni- 
ed and curious letters from Bernard were also published in 
Beiske's Memoirs, Leipsic, 1783.* 

BERNARD (John FREnERic), an industrious and learn- 
ed bookseller of Amsterdam, distinguished himself about 
the beginning of the last century, both as author and edi-: 
tor of various works of considerable importance. He wTote 
rather learnedly than elegantly, yet with so much im par-^ 
tiality and candour, that be had many readers. The fol- 
lowing list has been given of the principal works of w tiich 
iie was editor : 1. ** Recueil de voyages an Nord, conte- 
nant divers memoires tres- utiles au commerce et a la navi- 
gation,^' Amst 1715 — 38^ 10 vols. l2mo. To thesje he 

^ Siog. (JnWifneUe.— Saicii OnOniasUcoQ* 

94 BERN A R D. 

wrote the preliminary dissertation, the two dissertations! an 
the means of useful travel, and the account of Grejsit Tar- 
tary* 2. " Memoires du comte de Brienne, ministre d'etat 
sous Louis XIV. avec des notes," ibid. 1719, 3 vols. 12aio» 
3. ,"Picart*s Religious Ceremonies," ibid. 1723 — 43, 9 vols* 
fol. 4. " Superstitions anciennes et modernes," 1733-^36, 

2 vols. fol. The second Amsterdam edition of these two 
works was printed in 1739 — 43, 1 1 vols, folio ; and in 1741  
the abbes Banier and le Mascrier published another edi- 
tion at Paris, 7 vols, folio, with Picarf s designs, but the 
articles differently arranged; and M. Poucelin gave after- 
wards an abridgment, with the same cuts, Paris, 4 vols. foL' 
Lastly, M. Prudhomme undertook a new edition of the 
Dutch copy, with many additions respecting the history of 
religion from the commencement of the eighteenth ceii- 
tury, and additional plates to those of Picart, comprised 
in 13 folio volumes, besides an additional volume of new^ 
matter. .5. ^^ Dialogues critiques et philosophiques, par 
D. Charte-Livry (J.F.Bernard)," ibid. 1730, 12mo. 6. 
** Reflections morales, satyriques et^ comiques," Liege, 
1733, 12mo. This work has been attributed to D. Durand, 
but he absolutely denied it, and Desfontaines assures us that> 
it was written by Bernard. 7. ** Histoire critique des^ 
Journaux, par Camusat," Amst. 1734, 2 vols. 12mo. 8.. 
** Dissertations melees sur divers sujets importans et cu- 
rieux," Amst 1740, 2 vols. 12mo. Of these two last Ber- 
nard is only the editor. 9. An edition of Rabelais, 1741, 

3 vols. 4to, with Picart's cuts, a well-known and most beau- 
tiful book. Bernard, who flourished a:s a bookseller of 
great eminence from the year 1711, died at Amsterdam in 

BERNARD (Nicholas), a learned English divine of. 
the seventeenth century, was educated in the university of 
Canabridge, where he took the degree of M. A. and was in- 
corporated to the same degree at Oxford, July 15, 1628, 
He was probably created D. D. of the university of Dublin, 
but this has not been exactly ascertained. He was or- 
dained by primate Usher, in 1626, in St. Peter^s church, 
Drogheda, while he was only B. A. and made his chaplain,, 
and ^oon after, by his interest, was promoted to the dean-* 
ery of Ardagh. His Grace having daily opportunities of 
takinj^ notice of the learning and judgment of Mr. Bernard^. 

1 BiQf • Umv«F9elle« 


employed him in making collections for some works he was 
then meditating, particularly for the antiquities of the Bri^* 
tish churches; which did not appear till 1639. The pri* 
mate always expressed great friendship and esteem for him ; 
and upon taking his leave of him at Drogheda in 1640, 
gave him '^ A serious preparative against the heavy sor-« 
row3 and miseries that' he should feel before he saw him 
again, and spoke of them with that confidence, as if they 
had been within his view." This serious discourse proved 
in the event to be a prophecy, as will be noticed in the 
life of that prelate. The year foUowipg, Dr. Bernard pub- 
lished a book and a sermon which gave offence. These 
were entitled, 1. ** The penitent death of a woful Sinner; 
or, the penitent death of John Atherton, late bishop of Wa-> 
terford in Ireland, who was executed at Dublin the fifth of 
December, 1640; with some annotations on several pas« 
sages," London, 1641, 4to; 1642, 8vo. 2. " A sermon 
preached at the burial of John Atherton, the next night 
after his execution, in St. John's church, Dublin," Lond. 
1641, 4to ; 1642, 8vo. Dr. Bernard had the best opportu- 
nity in the world of knowing the truth of the fact for which 
bishop Atherton suffered, having attended him in his exem- 
plary preparation for death, and in his last moments, and 
he gives us his behaviour and confessipn fairly and honestly. 
The cause of offence seems, upon the whole, to have been 
an opinion that this disgraceful affair had better be buried 
in oblivion. Archbishop Usher, however, who saw Dr* 
Bernard's good intentions, did not withdraw from him his 
favour or countenance. The same year was published a 
pamphlet of his writing, upon the siege of Drogheda, of 
which he was an eye-witness. In the summer of 1642, hav-^ 
ing lost most of his substance, he returned safe to England 
to attend on the lord primate, and carried with him Usher's 
valuable library, which was afterwards removed to Ireland, 
and is now in Trinity-college, Dublin. Upon his arrival in 
England, he was presented, by the earl of Bridgwater, to 
the rich rectory of Whitchurch in Shropshire, and after the 
declension of the royal cause, was made chaplain to the 
Protector, one of his almoners, and-preacher to the society 
of Gray's inn. Being thus comfortably settled, in 1642 he 
found leisure, from his pastoral charge, to publish ^* The 
whole proceedings of the siege of Drogheda," London and 
Dublin, 1642, 4to; and Dublin, 1736 ; and " A Dialogue 
between Paul and Agrippa," London, 1642, 4to. After 

96 B E R N A R D. 

the restofation of king Charles II. in 1660, having no con^ 
fidence in the settlement of the state of Ireland, he dedinecl 
returning and taking possession of his deanery, and conti- 
nued at Whitchurch to his death, which happened in win- 
ter, 1661. His other works were, 1. " A farewell. sermon 
ofcomfort and concord, preached at Drogheda," 1651, 8vo* 
2. " The life and death of Dr. James Usher, late archbishop 
of Armagh, primate and metropolitan of all Ireland, in a 
9ermon preached at bis funeral in the abbey of Westmin- 
ster, on the 17th of April, 1656," London, .1656^ 12mo^ 
afterwards enlarged. 3. " The judgment of the late arch- 
bishop of ArmagTi and primate of Ireland ; concerning first, 
the extent of Christ's death and satisfaction ; secondly, of 
the Sabbath, and observation of the Lord's day," &c. London, 
1657, 8vo. This treatise was answered by Dr. Peter Hey- 
lyn, in a book entitled " Respondet Petrus ; or, the aii&wer 
of Peter Heylyn, D. D. to so much of Dr. Bernard's book 
entitled * The judgment of the late primate of Ireland,' &ci 
as he is made a party by the said lord primate in the point 
of the Sabbath," London, 16^8, 4to. He also published 
several letters which passed between him and Dr. Heylyn, 
— and published and enlarged several posthumous works of 
Dr. Usher; as, ** His judgment on Babylon being the pre-» 
sent see of Rome, Rev. xviii. 4, with a sermon of bishop 
Bedell's upon the same words,". London, 1659. — " Devo^ 
tions of the ancient church, in seven pious prayers," &c. 
London, 1660, 8vo. — " Clavi trabales, or nails fastened by 
some great masters of assemblies, confirming the king's 
supremacy, the subject's duty, and church government by 
bishops; being a collection of some pieces written on 
these subjects by archbishop Usher, Mr. Hooker, bishop 
Andrews, and Dr. Hadrian Saravia; with a preface by the- 
bishop of Lincoln," Loudon, 1661, 4to.* 

BBiRNARD (Peter Joseph), a French, poet, was the 
son of a sculptor at Grenoble in Dauphin^, and bom ith 
1710. Being sent to the college of Jesuits at Lyons, he 
made rapid progress under able masters, who were desirous 
of attaching him to their body ; but the young scholar, too 
fond of liberty and pleasure^ would not consent to thai 
confinement. Being drawn to Paris by the wish to make a/ 
figure in the poetical world, he was obliged to employ him- 
self for two years as clerk to a notary. The light pieces of 

> Biof. BritaoDica.*— Wood's Fasti, vol. I.-^Lloyd'« Memoirs, foL 7Q1, 


pn^try he seni abroad at intervalsi of which the best are tb^ 
«putle to ClaudiDe, and t)ie song of the Rose, procure^ 
him a patron in the oi^qui^ de Pezay^ who took him witU 
him to the earopaign of Italy. Bernard was at the battle^ 
Qf Parma and Guastalla ; and behaved with considerably 
l^ravery. Being presented to the marechal de Coigni, wha 
commanded there, he was lucky enough to please him by 
his wit and agreeable manners. The marechal took hioi 
to be his secretary, admitted him to his intimacy, an4 
«ome time afterwards procured him the place of secretary « 
general of the dragoons. From gratitude he attached him« 
self constantly to this Maecenasi till 1756, when he wa$ 
deprived of him by death. He was in great request in all 
the select companies of the court and of Paris; whom he 
delighted by the brilliant wit, and warmth of his verses 
and airs, of which some are worthy of Anacreon. lu 
1771 the sudden loss of his memory put an end to his 
happiness, and he fell into a state of mental imbecillity. 
In this condition be went to a revival of bis opera of Castor, 
^nd was incessantly asking, <^ Is the king come ? Is the 
king pleased with it ? Is madame de Pompadour pleased 
with it ?" thinking he was all the while at Versailles ; and 
riotiug in the delirium of a courtly poet. He died in this 
unhappy state> Nov. 1, 1775. Besides his lighter pieceis 
of poetry, which got him the appellation of le gentil Bernard^ 
several operas added much to his reputation. In 1803 an 
edition of his works was published in 2 vols. 8vo, apd 4 vols* 
l8mo, comprehending several pieces not before published ; 
but upon the whole, according to the opinion of his coun- 
trymen, hb talents were not of the i^rst order, and his 
popularity appears to have been owing more to his grati- 
fying the passions than the taste of his companions and 

BERNARD (Richard), an English divine of the seven* • 
teenth century,. and rector of Batecombe in Somersetshire^ 
was author of *^ Thesaurus Blblicus," a laborious work for- 
merly much used by way of concordance. . He was also 
author of an^ '^^ Abstract and Epitome of the Bible.'^ In 
1627 he published ^< A guide to grand jurymen with .re-, 
spect to Witohes," the country where he lived being, if we 
may believe Glanville, formerly much infested with them^ 
lie died in 1641, and was succeeded by the famous noa*» 

Vol. V. H 


coDformist Richard Allein^ of whom there is an account in 
Tol. L.p. 479, of this work. Mr. Bernard, of whom we hay* 
no farther biographical memoirs, was also the author of an al- 
legorical work, entitled '^ The Isle of Man, or legal proceed- 
ing in Man-stiire against sin ;^* the tenth edition of which was 
published in 1635. This work has been lately reprinted, from 
a conjecture that Bunyan might have taken from it the plan 
of his ** Pilgrim^s Progress." The two authors agree, how- 
ever, in our opinion, only in the personification of graces 
and sins, or virtues and vices, which is of higher origin 
than either; and, if the comparative merits of the two 
works be exannined, no reader can hesitate a moment in 
giving the preference to Bunyan. * 

BERNARD (Richard), another author of whom we 
know only that he lived at Epworth in Lincolnshire, in the 
reign of queen Elizabeth, is chiefly noticeable as having 
given the first entire translation of Terence's comedies, 
published in 1598, 4to, and often reprintejl between that 
year and 1641.* 

BERNARD (Samuel), an opulent financier of France, 
was the son of Samuel Bernard, an engraver (mentioned 
by Strutt), who died in 1637. He was born in 1651, but 
how educated, or by what means he raised his fortune, we 
are not told. Under the ministry of Chamillard he became 
•a farmer general, and accumulated a capital of thirty -three 
millions, of which he made a very liberal use', but seems 
to have been proudly aware of the superiority of lender 
over borrower. When Louis XIV. wanted supplies, Ber- 
nard granted them, but always in consequence of his ma- 
jesty ^s applying to him in person. * Louis XV. when in 
need of similar help, sent certain persons to Bernard, whose 
answer was, that *Hhose who wanted his assistance might 
at least take the trouble to apply themselves.'* He was 
accordingly presented to the king, who said many flat- 
tering things to him, and ordered the courtiers to pay him 
every mark of respect Bernard was now called the saviour 
of the state ; all the courtiers entertained him .in succes* 
sion ; he dined with the marshal Noailles, and supped 
with the duchess of Tallard, and played and lost what they 
pleased. They sneered at his manners, which were ci- 
tizen-like, and he lent the millions which they demanded. 
Bernard, however, was of a benevolent turn ; the poor of 

^ Last edition of this Diet. — Granger. * Jacobus Lives. — ^Biog. Dram, 


the tniUtary order were particularly the subjects of his 
bounty, and, frequently as they might apply, they never 
y^ere refused. On his death it was found that he had lent 
ten millions^ of which he. never received a farthing in re- 
turn. In his speculations he was bi)th bold and successful. 
One day he had asked a person of distinction to dine with 
him, and had promised to treat him wiih some excellent 
mountain, not knowing at that time that his stock was ex- 
hausted. After dinner his servant announced this lament- 
able deficiency, and Bernard, not a little hurt at the un- 
seasonable discovery, immediately dispatched one of his 
clerks to Holland,' with instructions to purchase every 
drop of mountain in the port of Amsterdam, by v^hich he 
afterwards gained an immense sum. Of his family, so 
little was known, that he was supposed to be' of Jewish 
descent, but without any reason. He used to say, that if 
they would make him a chevalier, his name would no longer 
hurt their delicate feelincrs, and accordingly, he received 
letters of nobility. He then purchased several estates 
with titles, and among others, those of the counts of Cou- 
bert ; and during the last years of his life, he was generally 
called the chevalier Bernard. One of bis sons, president 
of one of the chambers of inquiry in parliament, bore the 
name of Rieux ; another was called the count de Coubert, 
and bis grandson, Anne-GabrieKHenry Bernard, assumed 
the title of marquis de Boulainvilliers. He married his 
daughter to M0I6, first president, and thus became grand- 
father to the duchess de Coss6-Brissac ; and his family^ 
by these revolutibns, became allied to the great names of 
Biron, Duroure, and Boulainvilliers. Bernard was the 
friend of the keeper of the seals, Chauvelin, and remained 
faithful to him when disgraced. It is said that he was, or 
in his old age became superstitious, and fancied his life 
connected with that of a black fowl, of which he took great 
care, convinced that its death would be the prelude to his 
own. He lived, however, to the advanced age of eighty- 
eight, dying in 1739. Another account intorms us, tnat 
tlie greater part of his thirty-three millions was dissipated 
within ten years after his death, and that one of his son^^ 
who was president of the parliament of Paris, died a bank*. 
tupt Such vicissitudes are too common in all ages to 
e^Lcite much surprize. ^ 

^ Biog. Univertclle.— Diet Hiit. 
H 2 


• •• . . 

9Q palled from Ca&tel Bolognese in the Romania^ where bq 
was born in 1495, distinguished bimself for bis admirably 
skill in engraving on precious stones. After having resided 
for several years ,with Alphonso duke of Ferrara, where his 
works excited univerisal admirationi he went to Rome, and 
attached bimself to the cardinal Hyppolito de Medicis, 
whose friendship be preferred to the brilliant offers made 
by Charles V. who was very desirous of his residing in 
Spain. At Rome, Bernard executed some medals in ho- 
nour of Clement VIL of such exquisite beauty, as to meet 
with the applause even of his rivals. . Among the chefs- 
d^ceuvre which he left, are two engravings on crystal, 
which have been particularly noticed by connoisseurs. Th^ 
subjects are the ** Fall of Phaeton," and " Tityus with 
the vulture,? from designs by Micha,el Angelo^ both which 
we^e thought to approach to the perfection of the ancients. 
Enriched by the patronage of cardinal de Medicis, and 
esteemed by all who knew him, he passed his latter days in 
a charming retreat, at Faenza, which he had enriched 
with a fine collection of pictures, and where he died in 

BERNARDI (John), usually called major Bernardi, an 
adventurer of whom there is a very prolix, but not very 
interesting account in the Biographia Britannica, was bom 
at Evesham, in 1657, and was descended from an honour* 
able family which bad flourished at Lucca in Italy, from 
the year 1097. His grandfather Philip, a count of the 
Roman empire, lived in England as resident from Genoa 
twenty -eight years, and married a native of this country. 
His father Francis succeeded to this, of&ce ; but, taking 
disgust at some measures adopted by the senate of Genoa, 
resigned, and retiring to Evesham, amused himself with 
gardening, on which he spent a considerable sum of 
money, and set a good example in that science to the 
town. John, his son, the subject of this article, of a spirited 
s^nd restless temper, having received some harsh usage 
from his father, at the age of thirteen ran away to avoid 
his severity, and perhaps without any determinate pur-» 
pose. He retained, notwithstanding, several friends, and 
was for some time supported by them, but their friendship* 
appears to have gone little farther ; for soon after he en- 

i^Biog. Univ.-*Dict. Hist 

BERNARD]. lot 


listed as a common soldier in the service of the prince of 
Or&nge. In this station he showed nncommon talents arid 
bravery, and in a short time obtained a captain's commis-> 
sion in the service of the States. In April 1677, he mar- 
ried a Datch lady of good family, with whom he enjoyed 
much conjugal happiness for eleven years. The English 
regiments in the Dutch service being recalled by James IL 
very few of them, but among those few was Bernard!; 
would obey the summons, and of course, he could not 
tign the association, into which the printe of Orange 
wished the regiments to enter. He thus lost his favour, 
and having no other alternative, and probably wishing 
for no other, he followed the abdicated James II. into 
Ireland ; who, soon after, sent him on some commissioti 
into Scotland, from whence, as the ruin of his master now 
became inevitable, he once more retired to Holland. 
Venturing, hov^ever, to appear in London in 1695, hetv^» 
committed to Newgate ]Vlarch 25j 1696, on suspicion of 
being an abettor of the plot to assassinate king William, 
and although sufficient evidence could not be brought to 
prove the fact, he was sentenced and continued in prison 
by the express decree of six successive parliaments, with 
five other persons, where he remained for more than forty 
years. As this was a circumstance whdily without i pre- 
cedent, it has been supposed thaft there must hare been 
something in his character particularly dangerous, to in- 
duce four sovereigns and six parliaments to protract his 
confinement, without either legally condemning or par-, 
doning him. 

In his confinement he had the courage to venture on a 
second marriage, which proved a Very fortunate event to 
him, as he thos not only enjoyed the soothing converse t)f 
a true friend, but was even supported during his whole 
imprisonment by the care and industry of his wife. Teti 
bhildren were the produce of this marriage, the inheritors 
of misery and confinemeht. In the mean time he is said 
to have Borne his imprisonment with such resignation and 
evenness of temper, as to have excited ihuch respect and 
love in the few who enjoyed his acquaintance. In the eai'- 
lier part of life he had received several dangerous wo\ihdi^, 
which now breaking out afi'esh, and giving hiih great tor- 
ment, afforded a fresh trial of his equanimity and firmiifesS. 
At length he died Sept. 20, 1736, leaving bis wife and 
numerous family probably iii a destitute state i but what 


became of them afterwards is. not known. Bemardi was m 
little, brisk, and active man, of a very cheerful disposition^ 
and, as may appear even from this short narrative^ of great 
courage and constancy of mind. ^ 

BERNARDINEy an ecclesiastic and saint, was born at 
Massa, in Tuscany, Sept. 8, 1380. Having lost his mo- 
ther at three years of age, and his father at, seven, his re- 
lations in 1392 sent for him to Sienna, where he learned 
grammar under Onuphrius, and philosophy under John 
Spoletantis. In 1396 he entered himself among the con- 
fraternity of the disciplinaries in the hospital de la Scala in 
that city : and in 1 400, when the plague ravaged all Italy, 
be attended upon the sick in that hospital with the utmost 
diligence and humanity. In 1404 he entered into a mo- 
nastery of the Franciscan order, near Sienna, and, having 
been ordained priest, became an eminent preacher. He 
was afterwards sent to Jerusalem, as commissary of the 
boly land ; and upon his return to Italy, visited several 
cities, where he preached with great applause. His ene- 
mies accused him to pope Mariin V. of having advanced 
in bis sermons erroneous propositions ; upon which he was 
ordered to Rome, where he vindicated himself, apd was 
allowed to continue his preaching. The cities of Ferrara, 
Sienna, and Urbino, desired pope Eugenius IV. to ap- 
point him their bishop ; but Bernardine refused to accept 
of this honour. He repaired and founded above 3G0 monas- 
teries in that country. He died at Aquila in Abruzzo, 
May 20, 1444, and was canonised in 1450, by pope Ni- 

His works were first published by Peter Rodolphus^ 
bishop of Sinigaglia, 1591, Venice, 4 vols. 4to, and father 
de Lahaye published a new edition at Paris, 1636, 5 vols, 
fol. which has been followed by one of the same number 
of volumes, at Venice, 1745. The edition of 1591 is 
thus analyzed: Volume 1. contains his ^^Quadragesimale 
de Keligione Christiana,** inchuii tg sixty-one Lent ser- 
mons. The second contains ^ QuaJragesimale de Evan- 
gelio tsterno,** or a course of Lent sermons upon the ever- 
lasting gospel. The third contains two ^' Adveiuualia/* 
one concerning the life of Christ, according to Mr. Whar- 
ton, in his appendix to Dr. Cave's Historia Littraria, or 
concerning the Beatitudes, according to Du Pin ; the 

I Biof • Brit firon s Life pnblti lied by himself. — ^TindaPs Hist of ETetbaiii. 


•tfaer concerning Inspirations. The s^me volume likewise 
includes two ^* Quadragesimalia/' one concerning the Spi« 
ritual Combat, and the other entitled the Seraphim, or of 
Love ; several sermons upon the four last things, and others 
entitled Extraordinary, to the number of twenty-five ; 
'^ A treatise upon Confession ;*' the ^* Mirror of Sinners ;** 
a discourse uppn tlie precepts of the rule of the Minorite 
friars, or a '^ Tract concerning the Precepts of a Reli« 
gious ;'' a letter to the monks of his order in Italy, con- 
cerning several regulations ; ^' Holy Breathings to God, 
for every day ;" a dialogue concerning Obedience. Father 
de la Haye is not of opinion the two Quadragesimalia in 
this volume are the genuine productions of our author, be-^ 
cause they are written in a different style, and with less 
elevation and learning than the other works of bt. Ber* 
nardine. The last volume contains his sermons upon se* 
Teral other Sundays of the year, and the festivals of our 
Saviour and the Saints, with a ^' Commentary upon the 
Apocalypse.*' We have not now extant his treatise of the 
'-' Conception of the blessed Virgin," mentioned by Tri* 
tbemius and other authors. The sermons of St. Bernardine 
are not written in a very pure style ; but they contain, a 
great deal of solid morality, and he does not fall so fre- 
quently into false conceits and puerilities, as the ottier 
preachers of that age. ^ 

BERNARDONI (PET£]t Antony), an Italian poet, was 
bom at Vignola, in the duchy of Modena, June 30, 1672. 
His early studies afforded great promise of talents, and at 
the age of nineteen he was admitted into the academy of 
the Arcadians. He resided a considerable time at Bo- 
logna, where he established a colony of Arcadians, and for 
this reason in the title of some of his works be is styled a 
Bolognese, although certainly not a native of tnat city. In 
1701 he was appointed imperial poet at the court of Vienna, 
which he would fain have given up in favour of Apostolo 
S^eoo, but the latter declined it, and Bernardoui accordingly 
filled the oflice under the two emperors Leopold and Jo- 
seph I. He died at Bologna, Jan. 19, 1714. He pub-^ 
lished .two collections of poetry: 1. " I Fiori, primizie 
poetiche, divise in rime amorose, sacre, morali, e funebri,*' 
Bologna, 1694, l2mo; and ^* Rime varie,'' Vienna, 1705, 
4to* 2. Several tragedies and musical dramas, oratorios^ 

> Geiu Diet. — Moreri; — Biog. UoWenelle.-^-Dupiiu — Cave. 

104 B E R N A R D O N L 

he. all which were collected in the edition of hiB work» 
published at Bologna, 1706 — 7, 3 vols. 8vo.' 

BERNAZZANO, a Milanese painter, flotirished about 
the year 1536. His Christian name is not known. Or« 
landi speaks of him by the name only of Bemazzano of 
Milan. His friend Csesar de S^sta, the scholar of Leonard' 
da Vinci^ being a good painter of figures, bpt deficient in 
landscape, a branch in which Bernazzano excelled, they 
agreed to a partnership in their works. Among their 
numerous paintings b a *' baptism of our Saviour,'' in which 
Bemazzano painted some fruit so naturally that birds came 
and pecked at it. Such anecdotes are not uncommon in 
the history of painting, but generally to be received with 
caution. Lomazzoinhis Trattatodell' arte della pittura,'! Mi- 
lan, 1584, 4to, does not give the date of Bernazzano's death. ', 

BERNEGGER (Matthias), who was born Feb. 8, 1582, 
at Hallstadt, in Austria, became rector of the college^ 
and professor of history at Strasburgh, where he died 
Feb. 3, 1640. He was esteemed one of the best critics of 
his time, and had particularly studied the works of Thu- 
cydides, Tacitus, Suetonius, and Sallust Niceron (vol. 
XXVII) has a large catalogue of his writings, of which 
the principal are: 1. ^' Hypobolimaea D. Marie Deiparoe 
Camera, seu Idolum Lauretanum, &c. dejectum,*' Stras« 
burgh, 1619, 4to. 2. ^* De jure eligendi reges et prin- 
cipes,^' ibid. 1627, 4to. He edited an edition of Tacitus^ 
1638, 4to, and one of Pliny the younger, with a selection 
of notes, 1635, 4to. He likewise translated Galileo from 
the Latin. Bemegger corresponded with Kepler and Gro- 
Uus, and their letters were published under the titled 
^^ Epistolas mutuee H. Grotii et Matt. Berneggeri," Stras- 
burgh, 1667, 12mo ; and <^ Epistolas Joannis Kepleri, &c.'^ 
ibid. 1672, 12mo. Freinshem was his nephew,. His '^ Ob^ 
servationes miscellanei*' on history, &c. were published by 
his son in 1669, 8vo.' 

BERNEkS (Juliana), on account of her being one of 
the earliest female writers in England, is entitled to some 
notice in this work, although the most painful research 
has discovered very little of her personal history. She 
is frequently called Juliana Barnes, but Bemers was bev 
more proper name. She was an Essex lady, and, accord* 

1 Biog. Universelle.— Quadrio's Hist. Poet. toI. III. 
• Biog. Univ. — Moren.-<i-PiIkington. 

> Biog. Univ.— Freheri Tbeatrum.— Baillet Jugeooens de SaTans.— Suit 

B E R N E R S. IbS 

itig to Mr. Ballard) was probably bom at RodiHg id that 
county, about the beginning of the fifteei\th century ; being 
the daughter of sir Jame^ Bemers of Bern'ers Rbding, and 
sister of Richard lord Berners. If, however, as is gerv^« 
niUy agreed, sir James Berners was her father, her birth 
could have been very little tfter' 1388 ; for in that year sir 
James Berners was beheaded, as an enemy to the public, 
together with other favourites and corrupt ministers of 
king Richard the second. The education of Juliana seems 
to have been the very best which that age could afford,' 
and her attainments were such, that she is Celebrated by 
various authors for her uncommon learninnr and her other 
accomplishments^ which rendered her every way capable 
and deserving of the office she bore ; which was that o^ 
prioress or Sopewell nunnery. This was a cell to, and 
very near St. Alban's, and a good part of the shell of it U 
still standing. Here she lived in high esteem, and flou- 
rished, according to Bale, Tanner, and Ballard, about 
the year 1460; butif what we have said concerning her 
birtli be the true account, sh^ must have flourished some- 
what earlier. She was a very beautiful lady, of great 
spirit, and loved masculine exercises, such as hawking^ 
hunting, &c. With these sports she used to recreate her- 
self, and so thoroughly was she skilled in them, that she 
wrote treatises of hawking, hunting, and heraldry. " Prom 
an abbess disposed to turn author," says Mr. Warton, " we 
might more reasonably have expected a manual of medita- 
tions for the closet, or select rules for making salves, or 
distilling strong waters. But the diversions of the fleld 
were not thought inconsistent with the character of a re- 
ligious lady of this eminent rank, who resembled an abbot 
in respect of exercising an extensive manerial jurisdiction, 
atid who hawked and hunted" in common with other ladies 
of distinction." So well esteemed were Juliana Berners's 
treatises, and indeed so popular were the subjects on which 
they were written, that they were published in the very 
Infanc'y of the art of printing. The first edition is said to 
have been printed at St. Alban's, in 1481. It was cer- 
tainly printed at the same place in 1486, in a small folio ; 
and again, at Westminster, by W. de Worde, in 1496,' in 
4to. Among Cryne's books in the Bodleian library, there 
is a black letter copy of this work, " imprynted at London 
in Paul** Churchy arde by me Hary Tab." It was again 
printed, itith Wooden cuts, by William Copland, without 

10< B £ R N E R S; 

date, and entitled, ** The boke of Hawkyng, Hunting, and 
Fishing, with all the properties and medecynes that are 
necessary to be kepf Here the tract on Armory is 
omitted, which seems to have been first inserted that the 
work might contain a complete course of education for a 
gentleman. The same title is in W. PoweFs edition, 1 550. 
The last impression of it was in 4to, at London, in 1595, 
under the ioiloWing title, " The gentleman's academic : 
or tiie book of St. Albans ; containing three most exact and 
excellent books ; the first of Hawking, the second of alt the 
proper terms of Hunting, and the last of AAnory ; all com* 
piled by Juliana Barnes, in the year from the incarnation of 
Christ, 1486. And now reduced into better method by 
G. M.'* This editor is certainly mistaken in saying that 
the whole work was composed in 1486. Juliana Berners 
could scarcely have been living at that time ; and even if 
she was not then dead, the book must have been written 
by her in a more early period of life. It is said, indeed, 
in the Colophon at the end of the St. Alban's edition, 
^^ And here now endith the Boke of blasyng of armys, 
translatyt and compylyt togedyr at Saynt Albons the 
yere from thyncarjiacyon of our Lorde Jhesu Crist 
MCCCGLXXXVl." But all we can justly infer from 
hence is, that that part of the work which relates to he- 
raldry was not drawn up by Juliana Berners. It is ob- 
servable, that though the whole treatise is usually ascribed 
• to her, her name is only subjoined to the book on hawking 
and hunting ; and that what relates to the biasing of arms 
contains no more than abstracts from a performance of 
Nicholas Upton, written about 1441. It is highly pro- 
bable, therefore, that this latter part, if it was compiled 
to late as in 1486, was added by another hand ; and, in- 
deed, if Juliana Berners was the daughter of sir Jame^ 
Berners, there can be no doubt about the matter. That 
part of our abbesses work which relates to hunting, is 
written in rhyme. It is spoken in her own person ; in 
which, being otherwise a woman of authority, sheaiiBumes 
the title of Dame. Mr. Warton suspects the whole to be 
a translation from the French or Latin. The barbarism of 
the times strongly appears in the indelicate expressions 
which Juliana Berners often uses^ and which are equally 
incompaiible with her sex and profession. The book ou 
armory begins with the following curious piece of sacred 
heraldry : ^* Of the offspring of the gentilman Jafetb, conitt 

B E R N £ it S. 109 

Habraham, Moyses, Aron, and the proFettys; and also 
the kyng of the r^ht iyiie oi Mary, of whom that gen* 
tilnian Jhesu» was borne, very God and man : after bis 
manhode kynge ofthe land ofJude and of Jues, gentiiman 
by his aio.lre Mary, pnn^e of cote atmure, &c " The' 
most diligent inquirers have not been able to determine 
the exact peno^l of Juliana Berner:i*s decease ; but from 
what is mentioned above, it is probable that she died 
sooner ti^an has commonly been imagined. 

The public have been recently gratified with a fac-simile 
reprint of Julittna Berners's curious work, as printeJ by 
Wynkyn de Worde, preceded by a biographical and biblio- 
graptiical dissertation, so copious and correct, as to ren- 
der all subsequent attempts superfluous. Joseph Haslewood, 
esq. the editor, has 'left no sources unexplored, and no 
means untried, by which light might be thrown upon the 
work or its supposed authoress. He is of opinion that the 
only parts of the work which can saft^Iy be attributed to her 
pen, are: 1. A small portion of the treatise on Hawking. 
2. The treatise upon Hunting. 3. A short list of the beasts 
of chase : and, 4. Another bhort one of beasts and fowls. 
This fac-simile edition, of which one hundred and fifty 
copies only were printed, is executed with uncommon ac-. 
curacy and fidelity, and does high credit to the taste, mi-v 
nuie attention, and perseverance (for all are necessary }n 
an attempt of this kind) displayed by the printer, Mr. Jo- 
seph Harding. At the late sale of tbe library of the duke 
of Roxburgh, an imperfect copy of Wynkyn de Worde'a 
edition was sold for 147/.^ 

^ BERN! (Francis), called by some writers Berna or 
Beknia, was one of the most celebrated Italian poets of 
the sixteenth century. He was born about the conclusion 
of the fifteenth, at Lamporecchio, in that part of Tuscany 
called VaUdi-Nievole, of a noble but impoveri^ihed family 
of Florence. In his nineteenth year he went to home, to 
his relation cardinal Bibiena, who according to his own ac- 
count, did him neither good nor harm. He was then obliged 
to take tbe ojBBce of secretary to Giberti, bishop of Verona, 
who was datary to pope Leo X. On this he assumed the 
ecclesiastical habit, in hopes of sharing some of that pre- 
late's patronage, but the mean and dull employment ot hif 

1 Biog. Brit.— Mr. Hatlewood's reprint.— Dibdin't Antiquitict, vol. II.—- 
JSIIis> Sp«ciiiifiis« ToL 1.— Ballard'f Memoirs.— WanoD> Hisu oi Poetry, voL 

lOS B E R N L 

office of secretary, and for which he w&s ill paid, was very 
unsuitable to his dispositioti. There was at Kome what he 
liked bettet", a society or academy of young ecclesiastics a» 
gay as himself, and lovers of wit and poetry like hin^self, 
who, no doiibt in order to point out their taste for wine, 
jtnd their thoughtless habits, were called Vignajuoliy vine- 
dresiSers. To this belonged Mauro, Casa, Firenzuola, Ca- 
pilupi^ and many others. In their meetings they laughed 
at every thing, and made verses and witticisms on the most 
grave and Solemn subjects. The compositions Berni con* 
tributed on these occasions, were so superior to the others, 
that verses composed in the sam^ style began t;o be called 
^* La poesia Bernesca/* 

Bertii was at Rome in 1527, when it was plundered by 
the army of the constable of Bourbon, and lost all he pos- 
sessed. He then travelled with his patron Giberti to Ve- 
irotta, Venice, and Padua, but being tired of the service, 
and having no longer any hopes of adding to a canonry in 
the church of Florence, which he had possessed someyears^ 
he retired to that city with a view to a life of independence 
tLvkA moderation. Here an acquaintance which he unhap* 
pily formed with two great men proved fatal to him, Alex- 
•ander de Medici, duke of Florence, and the young cardinal 
Hippolito de Medici, each of whom is supposed to have 
Contended with the other, which should first destroy his 
rival by poison. One of them is said to have been desirous 
of employing Berni in this detestable project, and he hav- 
ing refused his assistance, fell a victim to the revenge of 
his patron, by a death of similar treachery. The cardinal ^ 
certainly died in 1535, and, according to all historians, by 
poison. The death of Berni is fixed on July 26, 1535, 
from which long interval it has been thought improbable 
that the duke Alexander would have caused him to be poi- 
soned, for not having concurred in the destruction of a 
rival who had been dead probably a year ; but there is 
nothing in the character of Alexander to make us think he 
would scruple at this additional crime, and that for a veiry 
good reason, to get rid of one who was privy to his design 
tipon the cardinal. 

Berni's character was in all respects a singular one, but . 
in few deserving imitation. His morals as well as his writ* 
ings were of the licentious cast, and as to his manners, in« 
dolence seemed to predominate. He had no pleasure in 
music, dancing, gaming, or hunting : his sole delight was 

tB.E.Il.;Nl. «« 

in b^idxig not^iipg to ^pi ai>d stret^ing ^iatt^^f at fviU : lexifth 
on his bed* ^is cbi^f e%j^vc\se wa^ to eat a Mttl^ and then 
compose him^lf to sl^ep, s^d after, sl^p^ to q^n/t again. 
He observed nqither days iipr almanack^.; and bis sforvanta 
were ordered to br^ig him no nfsw& vt^betb^r gppd or bad*. 
That be was not, however, so ^Qt^rely deypted to indolence^ 
as we might, froca tb^ ch^racte^r . wJ^iicb b0 has chosen to 
give of liimself^ be iodjuced to beiliev^, sufficiently appears 
from l^s numerous writings, and particularly from his hav- 
ing reformed and nen^-modeU^d . the extensive poem of 
** Orlapdo Inqamorato*' of tliexount Bojardo. . This work 
he is said to have undertaken in competition with the 
*^ Orlando Furioso'* of Ariosto, which has giv^n occasioa 
to accuse Bemi of presumption and Qf ignorance,; but 
Berni was too well acquainted with the n$iture of bis owa 
talents, calculated only for the burlesque wd ridiculous^ 
to suppose that he could rival Ariosto. He has, however, 
both in this and in other parts of his writings, shewn thai 
he could occasionally elevate his style; and the introductory 
verses to each canto of the Orlando Innamorato, which ara 
generally his own composition, are not the least admired 
nor the least valuable parts of the work. That tlie, altera- 
tions of Berni raised the poem of Bojardo into more gene- 
ral notice, may be conjectured from the various editiona 
of the refcH'med work, which issued from the pres$ soon 
after its first appearance, and which are yet sought after 
with avidity. Some of these editions are, that of Venice, 
1541, 4to; of Milan, 1542, Svo ; and Venice with addi- 
tions, 1545, 4to; which last is in great request There 
are two very correct modern edition^ ; that of Naples^ but 
dated! Florence, 1725, and that by Molini, Paris, 1768, 
4 vols. 12mo. Berni's other works are, 1. ^' Rime bur- 
lescbe," often reprinted with those of Casa, Mauro, Molza, 
and other poets of the same class. The first edition is that 
of Venice, 1538, 8vo. . Another valuable edition is that of 
Grazzini, called Lasca, in 2 vols. Florence, 1548, and 1555, 
8vo. This last volume is the most rare, being printed only 
once, and the other twice. 2. ^^ La Catrina, atto scenico 
rusticale,'' Florence, 1567, 8vo, written in the cpmmou 
dialect of the peasantry of Tuscany, like the " Nencia'* of 
Barberino, the " Cecco" of Varlongo, &c. It was after- 
wards printed in a collection of comedtes of the sixteenth 
century, Naples, 1731, 8vo. 3. " Carmina," or Latin 
poems, to be found in the <^ Carmina quinque Etruscorum 

110 BlE R N I. 

 a - • 

paetaram,'* Florence, 1562, 8vo, and in the "Carmina 
iUustrium poetarum Icaiorum/' ibid, 17 19, 8vo. ' 

BEKNI (Count Francis), a lawyer, philosopher, orator, 
and. poet, of Ferrara, was born in 1610. After having pur- 
sued bift studies with great soccess, and taken his law de« 
grees, in the university of his native city, he was chosen 
professor of the belles lettres, then first secretary, and in 
that quality was sent to compliment pope Innocent X- on 
his election to the papal chair. He lived in considerable 
favour with that pope, as well as with AiexanJer VII. and 
Clement IX. his successors, and ths dukes of Mantua, 
Charles t. and II. who conferred upoti him the title of 
Count. His poetical talents were principally devoted to 
the drama ; and one of his plays '^ Gli Sforzi del Desiderio,'* 
represented at Ferrara in 1652, was so successful, that the 
archduke Ferdinand Charles, struck with its popularity, 
no sooner returned home than he sent for the author and 
some architects from Ferrara, to build two theatres for si- 
miiar representations. Berni was married seven times, 
and ha i, as migiit be expected, a numerous family, of 
whpiu nine sous and daughters survived him. He died 
Oct. 13, 1673. Eleven of his dramas, formerly published 
separately, were printed in one volume, at Ferrara, 1666, 
l42n)o. He published also a miscellany of discourses, pro- 
blems, &c. entitled << Accademia,'* Ferrara, 2 vols. 4to, 
without date, and reprinted iu 1658. Many of his lyric 
poems are in the collections. * 

BERNIEtt (Francis) was distinguished in the brilliant 
age of Louis XIV. as a philosopher and traveller, and his 
merit, in both respects, was enhanced by his personal ac- 
complishments, which proctired him a degree of celebrity 
when living, that has not yet perished. His treatises on 
philosophy, it is true, are no longer read, for which the 
progress of science since the seventeenth century may ac- 
count, but his voyages and travels are still in high estima- 
tion. They made the wopid acquainted with countries 
which no European had before visited, and none have 
since described so well, and threw light on the revolutions 
of India at a very interesting period, the time of Aureng- 
Zeb. George Forster places Bernier in the first class of 
Indian historians, praises his simple and engaging style, 

> Bios. tTDiTeneUe.— Roicoe't Leo.-«BaUlet Jofemem des SaTaof.— Moreru 
* Biog. Uuiylrfelle. 

BE R N I E R. Ill 

his judgment afnd his accuracy; and the letter in which 
Forsier bestows this encomium was written from Cache- 
mire, which Bemier has so well described. Bernier lived 
in intimacy with the most illustrious characters of bis time, 
and ^as particularly intimate with the celebrated Ninon 
de Lenclos, madame de la Sa,bliere, Chapelte, whose eloge 
he wrote, and St. Evremont, who represents him as deserv- 
^^Sy ^y ^^^ ^"^ figure, manners and conversation, the tstle 
of the Genteel Philosopher. He assisted Boileau in fabri- 
cating a burlesque decree in favour of Aristotle, which the 
president Lamoignon had almost signed, when he saw 
through the joke, and candidly confessed that it had pre- 
vented him from signing a decree that would have been 
fully as ridiculous. 

. Bernier was born at Angers, but in what year is not 
known. He first studied medicine, and took a doctor's 
degree at Montpellier, and then began to indulge his taste 
for travelling. In 1654, he went to Syria, and thence to 
Egypt. After remaining more than a year at Grand Cairo, 
he was attacked by the plague, but embarked some time 
after at Suez, for India, where he resided twelve year% 
eight of them as physician to the emperor Aureng Zeb. 
The favourite minister of that prince, the emir Danich- 
mend, a friend of science and literature, patronized him, 
and took him to Cachemire. On his return Bernier pub« 
lished his voyages and philosophical works. In 1685 he 
visited England, and died at Paris, Sept. 22, 1688. Hit 
works are, 1. <^ Histoire de la derniere revolution des etats 
du Grand-Mogul, &c.'* 4 vols. 1670, 1671, 12mo. Thii 
work procured him. the name of the Mogul. It has been 
often reprinted under the title of "Voyages de Francoii 
Bernier, &c.'* and translated into English, 1671, 1675, 
"8vo. 2. ** Abreg6 de la philosophie de Gassendi," Lyons, 
1678, 8 vols. 12mo, and 1684, 7 vols. His own philoso«- 
phy inclines to the Epicurean. 3. V Memoire sur le quie* 
iisme des Indes ;" " Extraits de diverses pieces envoy6e« 
pour etrennes par M. Bernier a Madame de la Sabliere,'^ 
And '* Eloge de M. Chapelle,'' inserted in the Journal de 
Savans, 1688. 4. " Trait6 du libre etdu volontaire," Amst. 
1-685, 12010, and some other papers in the literary Jour* 

^ Biof . UaiTerselle.— <3ta'. Diet— Moreri* 

lia B E R N I E K. 

BERNIEE (John), a physicis^n, bom in 1622/ at Bloi;^ 
ivhere be practised foe tweiity-eigbt years, and afterv^rd« 
fit Pari^, hs^^ the title of Physician tp Madaoie. He wrote, 
I. " A bi^tQ^'y of Blois," Paris, 1682, 4tQ, very inaccurate 
in the opinipn pf Lirgiii. 2. ^* Medical Essays,'^ 163SS 4tQ« 
3. ^* Anti-Meqagiana,'* 1693, l2mo. 4. " Critique on tho 
Works of Rabelais," Paris, 1697, 12inp, full of verbosity 
s^iid false wit. His rank of physician to Madame did not 
rescue him from poverty, and bis disappointments gave 
blip a strong tincture of chagrin and melancholy, which is 
manifest in a^U his writings. His erudition Was extremely 
superficial, but he talked incessantly* Menage used tQ 
l»y that he ought to talk well, for he did nothing else^ but, 
added he, Bernier is mr levis aryiiatune. He died May \% 
J698. » 

BERNIER (Nicholas), an eminent musician and com? 
poser, was born at Mante on the Seine, in 1664. By his 
luerit in his profession he attained to be conductor of the 
music in th^ chapel of St. Stephen, and afterwards in that 
of the king* The regent duke of Orleai!is admired his 
lyorksy and patronized their author. This prince having 
given him a motet of his own composition to examine, and 
being impatient for his observations thereon, went to the 
hoi^se of Bernier, and entering his study, found the abb^ 
de la Croix there criticising his piece, while the musician 
himself was in another room carousing and singing with a 
pompany of his friends. The duke broke in upon and in-- 
^errupted their mirth, with a reprimand of Bernier for his 
^na^tentipn to the task assigned him. This musician died 
^t Paris in 1734. His five books of Cantatas and Songs 
for one and two voices, the words of Which were written 
by Rousseau and Fuselier, have procured him great reputa- 
tion. There are besides, of his composition, ^^ Les Nuits 
d^ Sceaux,'' and many motets, which are still much ap- 
proved of. * , 

BERNINI (John Laurence), called the Cavalier Ber- 
K-iN, and by some styled the modern Michael Angelo, be- 
cause he united thb knowledge and practice of painting^ 
statuary, and architecture, owes his extensive, reputation 
principally to his excellence in the latter branch. Hjs 

> Bioff. Universelle.— Moreri. — Diet Hist, 
s fiief . UoivcrteUe,— Diet. Hifft. 

B E tt N I N L tii 

kAti l^€t€T Bernini, }0ft ^TvtBcauf wfa(Sn ycmitff^ tki^ ##M 
ldrRo«ie to dtudy paintkig and liculptiAi^. Haying alcqtlired 
•(msklefable ^kiH in both, ke removed id NApled, and pra^i 
filled with great succei^!(. Therein 1598^ hh stii, tfaesnb^ 
j^f df thisr ni^emoir, was bofn^ athd frbiti hit^ ^'riiest yt^ri 
iistovered al surprising capacity for the fine nit% bavrfig srf 
the age of eight executed a head in ma^Me, Which Mvsti 
doni^idei^ed as a prodigy. His* fETther, deiii^oos of ^dti^ 
fHfift^ m promising a g^niu^, brdtigfct Mm to^ Rome, ivfd 
Jaiparted to him a taste for the greaf ttiastei's^' wbicb' h^ 
ttvet altogether lost, dthough in thef sequeT be Aid iicA 
follow their tra<;k. The pope expressed' k' d^ire to si^^ 
Ais extraiOfdi'Aary child who had astotish^d tht artist. atM 
#hen introduced, asked him if he knew how to i^ketcb i 
head,---<< Whose head ?'' said Berriini.--" You^ know iBk€j!i 
tKf^ to drftw any 5 tet it be tbA« of St Paul/* t^pli4id th# 
pope. The boy performed^ tibe task be^re hiih in abbnt 
half ati- hbuy, a(nd the pope, ehehsLnted^ with the specimenl 
#ecbiiiittended him wailnty to cardinal Barberinj, that cele^ 
Irated ^ron of the arts. « Drrect his stndiesi,'* added HQ 
AoKnesB, ** atid he will becoiiM the Michael A'tlgelo oi^ the 
Ibge.''^ About the ^ame time,- ba^pening to be in St. Pe^i 
%t^s church, with Annibal Car^^h^^ and sotne 6l£^er odf^i 
brated artists^ Garrache, looking to the cupola, saM' it wdtild 
be very desirable to find a man of genius great enough id 
lorm and erect two objects- in the middle, and at the eiid 
tf tbat temple, which should correspond to ife diraenfsibnsi'^ 
The young Bernini instat^tly excliatimed wkh eiltbu^iaintt; 
^*'Would I were that man," little thinking thsrt^ohe day he 
#a8 t6 fulfil Carrache's wish. 

One of Bernini's first works w^i^ a portfaJtm riJiVMe of 
Ike prelate Montajo, a likeness sb sitt-iking, tlntt it ^i 
laid fo be Montajo petrified. Hie afterwards mtfdt; busttf 
^the pbpe^ some of the cardinals^ and sothe la¥g^ figtrrei/ 
aA%¥ nature ; a St. Laurence, a groupe ef MntA M& Att^ 
cbisesj aiid Datid about 16 sling the s^ht at GbliatB, of 
#ht<Hi'OQr gfeat artist sit' Joshua Reyn6ldrf.o*ta(*rve^, thaif 
Bernini has given a very mean eipre^sion to DkiitJ, I'eptc?-** 
ifenting him a^ biting his unddr Up, which is hV from bein^ 
a? ge^erai expression, and sfiH farther frontf being digni^* 
fi*d; btit BeHiini, who was as yet young, ihijghti haVe s^etf 
it iii 6iie^ or two instances,* ahd mistook accident' it>r gehe*' 
rtKtyl fte' wus but in his eighteenth year when he ex^-?* 
N Gtj^kfi his A^oUa a^d' S^^pbtne, a work, from \thicfa> as* sir 

Vol. V. r 


Joshua remarks, the world justly expected he would riral 
]fhe best productioos of ancient Greece, but this was not 
iiltiaiately the case. ' ^ We are told, however, that when, 
about the close of his life, he surveyed this groupe, he 
allowed that since that time he had made very litt)e prQ^ 
gress. In truth his style was now more pure, and had less 
pf mannej^ in it than afterwards. 

His success in the mean time was great, and Gregory 
^y. who succeeded Paul V. being equally struck with his 
pierit, created him a knight; but it was left for cardinal 
Barberini^ when he came to the pontificate, to complete 
Bernini's good fortune. Immediately after that event he 
said to Bernini, ^^ If you are happy to see me pope, I am 
more proud yet that you live under my pontificate,^' and 
from that time began to employ him in designs for emrbel* 
lishing. Ri^ne, and gave him a pension of thr^e hundred 
crowns per month. Without altogether quitting statuary, 
therefore, Bernini now employed his talents on arghitec- 
ture, and recollecting Carrache's wish, he designed the 
panopy for the principal altar, called the confessional of 
St. Peter, supported by four wreathed columns, (enriched 
with figi^res and ornaments of exquisite taste. When tliis 
inagijiiticent work was completed, in about nine ye^rs, the 
pope rewarded him with six thousand crowns, besides in- 
creasing his pensions, and extending his liberality to Ber- , 
nini's brothers. Another work of his was the fountain of 
Barcaccia, which has been praised more than it merits,- at 
least it is inferior to that of the Barberini palace. 

It would be perhaps tedious to enumerate all tlie produc- 
tions of Bernini's genius at this time, but the following are 
the principal : the Barberini palace ; the campanile. of St. 
Ipeter ; the model of the tomb of the countess Matilda, 
which. was executed by his pupils; and that of his bene- 
factor pope Urban VIII. When his reputation reached . 
. England, Charles j^ was desirous of having a bust of h^m«* 
sejf by an artist of -si^ch eminenef , and sent him three por- 
traits by Vandyke of different positions. By this means 
Bernini was enabled to make an excellent likeness^ with, 
which the king was so pleased that he took from his finger 
a diamond ring valued at six thousand crowns, and sent it 
tp Bernini to adorn the hand that could perform such won- 
ders. About the same time an Englishman came to Italy, 
and had his bust executed by our artist, for which he also 
p^^d six thousand crowns. The bust of Charles L was ori- 




ginally placed in Greenwich ho^ital, but is now in West- 
miaster hall, in a circular recess over the stairs^ leading to 
the chancellor's chamber, between the court of chancery 
tod that of the king's bench, yet it is doubted whether this 
be really Bernini's celebrated bust, or only one taken from 
it. Vertue was of opinion that the bust now existing was 
of an eiarlier date, and that Bernini's was destroyed during 
the civil war. 

In 1644, cardinal Mazarin, who had knoivn Bernini at 
Rome, endeai^oured, but in vain, to induce him to visit 
France, and offered him, oh the part of Louis XIV. places 
to the value of 12,000 crowns. Yet he was not happy at 
home. When Urban YIII. his steady patron, died, and 
Innocent X. succeeded, envy at his superior talents and 
high favour with the pontiff, began to appear. The 
campanile vi^ich he had constructed for St Peter's, over 
the portico, whicb it appeared was not on a secure founda- 
tion, threatened to fall, and immediately it was indus« 
triously reported that the weight of the campanile would' 
endanger the portic^, and perhaps even the dome itself. 
Although all this was exaggerated, it became necessary to re- 
move tha campanile, and the enemies of Beniini tridmphed, 
while the pope, prejudiced against him, deprived him of one 
part of his labours, and allowed the rest to be suspended.' 
In the mean time he executed for the church of St. Mary 
the fine groupe bf St. Theresa and the angel, one of his 
iffiost admired works ; and became at length a favourite 
with the pope by a stratagem of his ho(iness's nephew. 
The pope, having an intention of building a new fountain 
in the piazza Navona, consulted all the artists of Rome, 
with the exception of Bernini, whom he affected to forget ; 
but bis nephew prince Ludovisi having procured a model 
from our artist, contrived to shew it to the pope, who was 
so much struck with it, as to receive Bernini into favour, 
and appoint him to the work, which he executed with his 
usual taste. About the same time he built the palace of 
Monte Citorio. 

Alexander YII. who succeeded pope Innocent X. and 
who had a high respect for Bernini, and was au encoura|^et 
of the arts, requested him to make a design for the further 
decoration of St. Peter's, which produced the celebrated 
<^ircular colonnade, so appropriate to the building as to 
seem part of the scheme of the original architect. He 
was not, however, so successful in the composition 6f th#L 



I 4 

pulpit of St. Peter\ ^uppoirted by colossal figures irepre* 
^nti^g t!^e four doctors of tb^ cborcb, which, aUhough 
^tered from bis first model, has neither tbe freedom oqr 
ipirit of bi« other works ; among whicb may now be eou^ 
piflirated the Qdecbalehi palace, the rotunda. of St BJtccio, 
and tbe noviciate of tbe Jesuits at Monte Cavailo. 

jA^ltfaougb he had refused to come to France, Louts XIV« 
was still desirous to avail himself of his talents, as well as 
^ pay him a compUmenJt, by consulting him oa tbe reato- 
lation of tbe Louvre. His miaisier, Colbert,, aeeordingty 
^fiant biin the plans of ^at palaee^ sad requested htm to put 
9jj>on pa^er ^* s^me. of those admirable thoughts which waere 
so ^miliar to. bim.'' Berpiui tmmediateiy made a sketch 
iox the new baiiding, which afforded so miMh.satisfaetioii 
to thie king, that^ be wrote to.infoj^m him of the very great 
4esUe he ha4 to s^e, and become acquainted, with so 
iilusArious a character, provided this d^d not interfere 
with bis e^agagements to the pope, or hk personal com^ 
ifenience. Such condesc^ision. our artist could no k>ngei 
r^ist; and although now in his sixty-eighth year, departed 
from Romte> in 1665, with oae of bis sons, two of his 
pupils, and a. numerous suite. No arlust ever travelled 
with so much pomp or pleasure. AU the princes through 
whose dominions he passed loaded him with presents. In 
Fraace he W9» received and complimented, by the magia-* 
t^rates at tbe gates of each city, and that even at Lyons, 
where it. was customary to restrict such a compliment to 
princes of the blood only.. As he appvoaohed Paris, the 
king's nmiir^ (V hotel was seat to meet him, with ioatruc- 
tlQDs to d/) tha honours of receiving, him and conductiii|f 
him every where. This gentleman, M. de €hauteloo, wa* 
SQ sensible of the importance of bis eomiiHsaioafty that be 
wrote a journal of alt his proceedings while ia ampanyi 
with Berniui, a curious work still preserved, in. mamiscript* 
Oa bis arrival, our artist was conducted to. a hotel prepared 
for him, and where Colbert visited him m representative 
of tbe king, to whom he was afterwards introduced at St^ 
QeiHaaains, received wilh great honour,, had a long, coaver- 
sation with the kiiig, and,, as. well as his son,, was admitted 
to the minister'a table* 

Bernim now began bis operations on. the Louvre, bnt he» 
di^d not see, as has been reported, .Pernuilt's celebrated 
GolQnn^d^ the d^ign of which was not presented to the 
untU aftef his. depactuse, qos was it finished until fii» 


ytEts nfter, so that die surprize with which it Li said t6 
have struck him, and the liberal praise he bestowed tipii^h 
it, to which Voltaire has given currency in his poems^ at% 
fouiided on a mistake. During Bernini's five months resi^ 
dence at Paris, he laid the foundation, from his own de^ 
sign, of the colonnade of the Louvre, which was to joth it 
t& the Tuileries by a gallery ; but as this could have beeti 
executed only by destroying all that had been already buih, 
Pe^^rault's plan was afterwards adopted. Tti the mean time, 
t^ made a bust of Louis XIV. who frequently sat to hifAy 
ind took pleasure in his conversation, which sometimes 
appears to have been rather familiar. One day after hi& 
majesty had sat a whole hour, the artist, delighted with sd 
great an honour, exclaimed ^' A miracle ! a great monal!>chy 
young, and a Frenchman, has sat quiet for an hour!^ 
Another time, wishing to see mort of the king's forehead, 
he put back the curls of hair which covered the place, and 
said, ** Your majesty can shew your face to all the world;*' 
and the courtiers, always intent upon some frivolous com^ 
jdiment, made a fashion of this disposition of die hair, 
which they called ** la coeffure i la Bemin'* 

Bernini, however, was not wholly reconciled to his er- 
rand here. The great work for which he came was not 
carried on after bis designs, and he is said to have met 
with some disgust, which inclined him to return to Rome. 
Accordingly, on pretence that the pope required his pre** 
sence, he took leave of the king, who made him a 
present of ten thousand crowns, and settled a pension on 
him of two thousand, and another of four hundred on his 
son. The expenses of his return were also defrayed by his 
majesty, who, with a view to immortalize the visit, caused 
a medal to be struck, with a portrait of the artist, and o^ 
the reverse the muses of his art, with this inscription, 
" Singularis in singulis, in omnibus unicus?"^ Before his 
departure, Bernini engaged to make an equestrian status 
of Louis XIV. in marble, and of colossal proportion, which 
he finished in four years ; but whether from its having no 
resemblance of the king, or from some fault found with 
the composition, it was, soon after its arrival, changed into 
Curtius leaping into the gulph, and is now in the gar* 
dens at Versailles. 

On his return to Rome, he was received with the great- 
est demonstrations of joy, and the pope appointed his son 
canoa of St. Maria Maggiore^ and gave him several bene*^ 


{fices. Cardinal Rospigliosi having become pope by the 
title of Clement IX. Bernini was admitted into his favour, 
and employed in several works, particularly the embellish- 
ment of the bridge of St. Angelo, and when he Had at- 
tained his seventieth year, he executed one of bis master- 
pieces, the tomb of Alexander Y II. At the age of eighty, 
.he made a beautiful demi-figure in bas-relief, for Christina 
queen of Sweden, of our Saviour. Being even after this 
engaged on some architectural works, particularly the re- 
pairs of the old palace of the chancery, he applied himself 
with so much zeal and ardour, as to injure his health. He 
became restless and weak, and at length totally exhausted, 
dying Nov. 28, 1680, in the eighty-second year of his 
age. He was interred in the church of St. Maria Maggiore, 
with great pomp. By his will, he left to the pope a large 
painting of our Saviour, executed by himself when he 
practised that art formerly ; and to the queen of Sweden, 
the piece of sculpture we have just mentioned, which her 
majesty had refused before, thinking she could not afford 
to pay for it. He left to his children a statue of Truth, 
and a fortune of 409,000 Roman crowns. 

Bernini was of an ordinary person and dark complexion ; 
his face indicated genius ; his look was lively and sprightly, 
but strongly expressive, when in anger. Although of a 
fiery temperament, he could not bear the rays of the sun 
without being incommoded. His health was very delicate 
until he arrived at his fortieth year, but after that it ap- 
peared confirmed, and he bore the greatest fatigrues of 
body and mind, without being vbited by any illness, . dur« 
ing the whole of his long life. In his diet he was tem- 
perate, except in the article of fruit. He spoke guardedly 
of the works of other artists, and with great modesty of his 
own. Of the antique statues he gave the preference to the 
Laocoon, and to the Torso ; and used thus to class the 
great painter9, Raphael, Corregio, Titian, Annib&l Car- 
rache, &p. 

As an artist, altliough he must ever stand high, yet his 
reputation did not increase with his years. He was of 
ppinion that in order to be distinguished, the artist must 
place himself above all rules, and strike out a new path for 
himself, and this he certainly did in some degree, but his 
success was neither uniform nor permanent. But his own 
confessions, when at the close of life he reviewed bis 
works, are sufficient to silence all critticism. He then dis- 

B E R N I N I. 11& 

coiFcred that in endeavouring to remove from his^mind the 
restraint of rules, and all imitation of the antique and of 
nature, he fell into a manner ; that he mistook facility of 
execution for the inspiration of genius, and that in endea- 
vouring to heighten the expression of the graceful, he be- 
came affected, and encumbered beauty with a superfluity 
of ornament. In the mean time, however, the vast ioflu* 
ence of his name produced many imitators, and his merit, 
great as it may still be seen in his existing works, was ra- 
ther unfavourable to the advancement of the arts. The 
memoirs of Charles Perrault, published in 1759, contain 
many curious particulars of Bernini. ^ 

BERNIS (Francis Joachim de Pierres), count of 
Lyons, and a cardinal and statesman of France, was bom 
at Marcel del'Ardeche, May 22, 1715, of a noble and 
ancient family, but not very rich ; which circumstance 
induced his friends to bring him up to the church, as the 
most likely profession in which he might rise. In this they 
were not disappointed^ as he gradually attained the highest 
ecclesiastical dignities. When young he was placed at 
the seminary, of St? Sulpice in Paris, and after, remaining 
there some years, he appeared in the world with every 
personal accomplishment that could introduce |iim into 
notice ; but his morals appear to have been for some time 
an obstruction ta promotion. The cardinal de Fleury, 
then prime-minister, who had the patronage of all favours, 
and who had promised him his countenance, thinking him 
of a spirit too worldly for the church, sent for him and 
gave him a lecture on his dissipated conduct, concluding 
with these words : *^ You can have no expectations of pro- 
motion, while I live,'* to which the young abb^ Bernis, 
making a profound bow, replied, "Sir, I can wait!" 
Some think this bon moty which became very current, was 
not'Oiriginal ; but it is certain that Bernis remained for a 
long while in a state not far removed from poverty, and 
yet- contrived, by means of strict parsimony, to make a 
decent figure at the houses to which he was invited. 
Being a -writer of verses, and consequently a dealer in 
compliments, he was always acceptable, and at length by 
madaine Pompadour's interest, was introduced to Louis XV. 
The good effects of this, at first, were only an apartment 

> BJ«g. t7niy«rseIle.-*>Dict. Hist— M»reri. — Reynolds^a Worlu, roh I. p. 87 ; 
II. p. 27.-^Pennaiit's Hist, of London. — ^Dodd's C&urcb History, Tol. UL p. 98. 
-«>Walpole'f Flthsters. 

}gp B P R N I p. 

in lih^ 'Jjuilerie^, to wbicb iHf p^troD^gs |id4ed ^e 
ppd ^ pension of fifte^p bi;pdr/$d IJvre* ; yet it s^on led %• 
g^e^r matt/ers. H^vi|[ig'been appointed ^.mb^^^dor t» 
yieq^icp, |ie was retn.^rl^ed to^aye acquired the good ippiaicHi 
Bjjii iCQiifidence of a $tat^ ratbeir di^cuU to pi^ase in apt- 
ppintments of ti^is descripjuop^ ^d of this tt^ey gavi^ bim a 
gtrong proof, iii a content t.bey bad with pope Bemedvpi^ XIV. 
wbo appoipt^d j&eFni$ ag bis BiegQci^tor. On tbi9 occasioft 
^be $ta^e of Veuipe approved tb^ cboic^, jtba oon^equcvtcf 
pf yrbict^ W&lff tbat Berai^ ejected a recouciliatioo to Um 
fentire $ati$faeti|0fi pf botb parties. On bis return) he bev 
came a great favourite at court, aequired considerably in* 
^pepc^, and ^% length, being ad«)iu<sd into the coaBcily 
Wf^^ apppintfsd foreign minister. But in this situation h^ 
yf^% either unskilful or unfortunate; the disasters of the 
seven ye$irs war, and the peace of 1763^ w^re laid to hii 
c]:^arge \ but accprdiqg to OuoIqs, be'was less to blame than 
^is cplle^gues, . a^d it is certain that in some instances hm 
jjias been u^tiustly censured. It w^s said, in particulai^ 
tl^a( be ftrg)ied iQf a declaration of war against Prussia, b#9 
pause Frederick the Gr^j^t ha4 rijdipuled his poetry in tlm 
folipHring lin^, 

^' Evitez de Bemis la sterile abondance ;** 

but tb^ h^P W^s, that Bernis always cont(S)ided, in eoqucil^ 
fox ap alli^^npe with Pri^s^ia, and that in opppsitign ^ th# 
^el|-ki>pv)^n ^entipifents of Vpuis XV* and madame Poinpiia 
^our. Tbe misfortunes of bis country, l^p^revefi indupp4 
\^i^i tp T^^g^ « h\^ resignation \¥fu accepted, %nd hiai«e}f 
es^il^d i ^ prppfy perhaps, th^t hi$ advice )i^d bee^ in ppv 
l^p^itiop %Q the cpurt 6e this as it mayt be bore bis dia^ 
gi^ace )vi(b firmness, and whep th^ period pf his exile WM 
over in 1764, be (bping already a cardinal) w^ prpn|Qil;§4 
\y \\ip l^ipg t;p the archbishopric of Alby, apd^ve ye^m 
ffter $ep( to Rome as aipbassadov. A cpp^ider^ible tiiim 
qft^r t\4^t ^^ ^^ appointed prpt^p^or of ^be pbiirob^s 9f 
Fr^nce« apd ^^P^ hi^ residence ^t ^ome, ^berf b§ rets 
m^ii^ed sdmost tbe w)ioIe of his lifp, Xwo oppoftunitiqi 
occurred in which he dempustrated his (alents for qegoei^rt 
tion, tb^ cpnclaves of ^769 ^n4 U74. pp bad i^ hmdp 
likewise, in the naipe of hi^ cpurt, bu( ^gain^t bis i|wil 
opinion, in the dissolution of the Jesuits. During his re- 
sidence at Rome, bis bouse was the general rendezvous of 
strangers of distinction, and piany English trayf Upfi \^^$i 

B E RrN I S. I2i 

tfsttiiioiiy to the elegant iDnmiers and lios|Hk»Uty of tba 
i^rdui^l de'BernU. Id 1791, itb^ aunts o^ Louis XVL 
ifiv^u by the revolution from their family and couniry^ 
took up ti^ir ^boide with bim during their stay at Rome, 
but tb»t «am^ revolutioo robbed him of bis powessions and 
bis promotions, as be refused to take the oaths thenre^^ 
quired. In this distress, the court of Spain, at the s(riici« 
tation of the chevalier d*Azara, settled a pension on him, 
fvhicb be enjoyed but three years, dying at Rome Nov. 2^ 
}794, in the eightieth year of his age. 

Aft a poet, t^e cardinal was very .early noticed, and hia 
poems were so highly esteemed as to procure his being ad* 
jg^t^d into tb^ French academy long before he had risea 
^ the world. They have not, however, preserved their 
reputation, and no person perhaps could judge more 
feverely of them, than the cardinal himself, of whose 
^ents they certainly were not worthy, nor did he like to 
b^r them mentioned. After his death a poem of his 
composition wa$ published, ^^ Religion vengde,*' which was 
«t least more becoming his rank thau his juvenile effusions* 
{t contains some spirited passages and excellent sentiments^ 
but .has too much of the coldness and philosophy of age. 
His early poems were censured for being overloaded with 
gorgeous figures and flowers. Voltaire used to call him 
Babei'^la^Bfntquetier€f the name of a fat nosegay woman, 
who i:^ed to ply at the door of the Opera. In other re* 
apects^ Voltaire had a high opinion of Bernis's talents, as 
appears from their correspondence (published in 1799, 8vo.) 
in which Bernis appears to great advantage, and very su* 
perior to the flippant freedoms of his correspondent's style* 
In 1790, a volume of Bemis' letters to M. Paris du Vemey, 
was published at Paris ; but these are not very interesting, 
iinless as exhibiting some agreeable features in his charac-' 
tor. The cardinal's works, in prose and verse, have been 
0ften printed, and form 2 vols. 8vo. or 18 mo. His poem 
iHi Religion was magnificently printed by Bodoni in £ol» 
and 4to. and Didot printed a beautiful edition of his corner 
plete works in 1707, 8vo. ^ 

. BERNOULLI, the name of a family which has 
produced a succession of learned men, eminent in the 
ttudy of mathematics. Eight of its members, within the 
ifiace of a century, have been particularly distinguished 

1 Bio((. Univenelle. 

12B B E R IJ O U L L I. 



in this scjence. The Bernouilli^s were originally of Ant- 
werp, but were obliged to leave their country for the sake 
of religion, daring the pereecution raised by the duke of 
Alva. They then came to Francfort, and from that to 
Basil, where some of them arrived at the chief offices of 
the republic. The first who occurs in biographical collec- 
tions is, 

. BERNOULLI (James), who was born at Basil, Dec; 2T, 
J 654. After he bad studied polite literature, he learned 
the old philosophy of the schools ; and, having taken bis 
degrees in the university of Basil, applied himself to di- 
vinity, not so much from inclination, as complaisance to 
bis father. He gave very early proofs of his genius for 
mathematics, and soon became a geometrician, without any 
assistance from masters, and at first almost without boots : 
for he was not allowed to have any books of this kind ; and 
if one fell by chance into his hands, he was obliged to con*». 
ceal it, that he might not incur the displeasure of bis fa« 
tber, who designed him for other studies. This severity 
made him choose for his device. Phaeton driving the cha- 
riot of the sun, with these words, ^^ Invito patre sidera 
vTerso," ^^ I traverse the stars against my father's inclina- 
tion :^' it had a particular reference to astronomy, the part 
of mathematics to which be at first applied himself. But 
these precautions did not avail, for he pursued his fia.- 
vourite study with great application. In 1676 he began 
his travels. When he was at Geneva, he fell u|>on a me- 
thod to teach a young girl to write, though she had lost 
her sight when she was but two months old. At Bottr"- 
deaux he composed universal gnomonic tables, but they 
were never published. He returned from France to his 
qwn country in 1680. About this time there appeared a 
comet, the return of which he foretold, and wrote a small 
treatise upon it, which he afterwards translated into Latin. 
He. went soon after to Holland, where he applied himself 
to the new philosophy, and particularly to that part of the 
mathematics which consists in resolving problems and de- 
monstrations. After having visited Flanders and Brabant, 
he went to Calais, and passed over to England. At Lon- 
don be contracted an acquaintance with all the most emi- 
nent men in the several sciences ; and had the honour of 
being frequently present at the philosophical societies held 
at the house of Mr. Boyle. He returned to his native 
country in 1682 } and exhibited at Basil a course of expe-* 


riments. in natural philosophy and mechaflics, which con- 
sisted of a variety of new discoveries. The same year he 
published his " Essay on a new system of Comets ;^' and 
■the year following, his " Dissertation on the weight of the 
Air." About this time Leibnitz having published, in the 
Acta Eruditoram at Leipsic, some essays on his new ^* Cal- 
culus Difierentialis/' but concealing the art and method 
of it, Mr. Bernoulli and his brother John discovered, by 
the little which they saw, the beauty and extent of it : this 
induced them to endeavour to^ unravel the secret ; whicli 
they did with such success, that Leibnitz declared that the 
invention belonged to them as much as to himself. 

In 1687, James Bernoulli succeeded to the professorship 
of mathematics at Basil ; a trust which he discharged with 
great applause ; and his reputation drew a great number 
of foreigners from all parts to attend his lectures. In 1 699 
he was admitted a foreign member of the Academy of 
Sciences of Paris; and in 1701 the same honour was con-- 
ferred upon him by the Academy of Berlin : in both of 
which be published several ingenious compositions, about 
the years 1702, 3, and 4. He wrote also several pieces in 
the " Acta Eruditorum" of Leipsic, and in the " Journal 
des S^avans." His intense application to study brought 
upon him the gout, and by degrees a slow fever, which 
put a period to his life the 16th of August 1705, in the 
£l8tyear of his age. — Archimedes having found out the 
proportion of a sphere and its circumscribing cylinder, 
ordered them to be engraven on his monument : in imita- 
tion of him, Bernoalli appointed that a logarithmic spiral 
curve should be inscribed on his tomb, with these words^ 
^^ Eadem mutata resurgo ;" in allusion to the hopes of the 
resurrection, which are in some measure represented by 
the. properties of that curve, which he had the honour of 

James Bernoulli had an excellent geniu» for invention 
and elegant shnplicity, as well as a close application. He 
was emineiitly skilled in all the branches of the mathema-* 
tics^ and (contributed much to the promoting the new ana- 
lyBis, infinite series, &c. He carried to a great height 
the theory of the quadrature of the parabola ; the geo^^rj 
of carve lines, of spirals, of cycloids and epicycloids. His 
works, that bad been published, were collected, and printed 
in 2 volumes 4to, at Geneva in 1744. At the time of his 
death he was occupied on a great work entitled ^^ De Arte 




Conjectandi/* which was published in 4to, in 1713. It 
contains one of the best and most elegant introductions to 
Infinite Series, &c. This posthumous work is omitted in 
the collection of his works above mentioned, as is a letter 
of his printed fur the first time by M. Bossut in the *^ Jour- 
jDal de Physique/' Sept. 1792.* 

BERNOULLI (John), the brother of the preceding, 
and a celebrated mathematician, was bom at Basil the 7th 
pf August 1667. His father intended him for trade; but 
his own inclination was at first for the belles-lettres, which 
however, like his brother, he left for mathematics. Hi^ 
laboured with his brother to discover the method used by 
Leibnitz, in his essays on the Differential Calculus, and 
gave the fi^rst principles of the Integral Calcalus. Our 
author, with messieurs Huygens and Leibnitz, was the first 
who gave the solution of the problem proposed by James 
Bernoulli, concerning the catenary, or curve formed by a 
chain suspended by its two extremities. 

John Bernoulli had the degree of doctor of physic at 
Basil, and two years afterward was named profassor of 
mathematics in the university of Groningen. It was here 
that he discovered the mercurial phosphorus or luminouft 
barometer ; and where he resolved the problem proposed 
by his brother^concerning Isoperimetricals. On the death 
of his brother James, the professor at Basil, our author re* 
turned to his native country, against the pressing invita^ 
tions of the magistrates of Utrecht to come to that city, 
and of the university of Groningen, who wished to detain 
him. The academic senate of Basil soon appointed him to 
succeed his brother, without assembling competitors, and 
contrary to the established practice : an appointment which 
be held during bis whole life. 

In 1714 was published his treatise on *^ the management 
of Ships;" and in 1730, his memoir on '^ the elliptical 
figure of the Planets'' gained the prize of the academy of 
sciences. The same academy also divided the prize, fot 
their question concerning the inclination of the planetary 
orbits, between our author and his son Daniel. John Ber* 
jQOuUi was a member of most of the academies of Europe, 
and feceived as a foreign associate of that of Paris in 1699. 
After a long life spent m constant study and improvement 
,of all the brances of the mathematics, he died full of 


1 Gen. Dict.—Moreri.— >Bio;. Uaiv.«*8axu Onomuticon.'— Hutton's BCath. 


bonoure the first of Janoary 1748, in the Sl'st 3rear of bw 
age. Of five sons wbicb be bad, three pursaed the samd 
sciences with biinself. One of these died befoi'e him ; the 
two others, Nicolas and Daniel, he lived to see become 
eminent and much respected in the same sciences. The 
writings of this great man were dispersed through the pe* 
riodicai memoirs of several academies, as well as in many 
separate treatises. And the whole of them were carefully 
collected and published at Lausanne and Geneva, 1742', 
in 4 vols. 4to ; but this is still not quite perfect without his 
correspondence with Leibnitz, published under the titled 
^ GuL Leibnitii et Johan. Bemouillii commercium pbiioso^ 
phicum et matbematicum," Lausanne & Geneva> 1745^ 
2 vols. 4to. * 

BERNOULLI (Daniel), a celebrated physician and 
philosophy and son of John Beniouili last mentioned, wa^ 
born at Groningen Feb. the 9th, 1700, where his father 
was then professor of mathematics. He was intended by 
bis ikther for trade,^ but his genius led him to other pursuits. 
He passed some time in Italy ; and at twenty-four years of 
age he declined the honour offered him of becoming pre*^ 
sident of an academy intended to have been established at 
Genoa; He spent several years with great credit at Pe** 
tersburgh; and in 1733 returned to Basil, where hisftithef 
was then professor of mathematics; and here our author 
successively filled the chair of physic, of natural -and- of 
specuiative philosophy. In his work ^^ Exercitationes Ma^. 
thematic®,'' 1724, he took the only title be then had, vis. 
** Son of John Bernoulli, - and never would suffer any othef 
to be added to it. This work was published in Italy, while 
he was*there on his travels ; and it classed him ii> the ranb 
of iivvetitors. In his work,." Hydrodynamica,*' published 
in 4to at Strasbourg, in 1738, to the same title was also* 
added that g§ Meet. Prof. Basil. 

Daniel Bemoulli wrote a multitude of other pieces, which^ 
have been published in the Mem. Acad, of Sciences ar 
Paris, and in those of other academies. He gaiived and^ 
divided ten prizes from the academy of sciences^ which 
w«K^ contended for by the most illustrious mathematicians- 
in Europe. The only person who has had similar success* 
of the same kind, is £uler, his countryman, disciple, rival*, 

1. GeiK Piot-*«*M!iMreri.-^Bior Voir.— Saxii Oirofontieoii.— fliittoD*t Math. 

12(5 BERN a U L L I. 

mad friend. His first prize fae gained at twenty-four yes^rs 
«f agev In 1734 be divided one- with his father; wbicb 
Iicirt the family union ; for the father considered the con* 
teit itself as a want of respect ; and the son did not spf-* 
ficiently conceal that he thought (what was really the 
case) hi9 own piece better than bis father's. And besides, 
be declared for Newton, against whom his father had con- 
tended all bis life. In 1740 our author divided the prize^ 
f' Ou the Tides of the Sea,*" with Euler and Maclaurin, 
The academy at the same time crowned a fourth picce,^ 
whose chief merit was that of being Cartesian ; but this was 
the last public act of adoration paid by the academy tb the 
authority of the author of the Vortices, which it had 
obeyed too. long. In 1748 Daniel Bernoulli succeeded his 
father John in the academy of sciences, who had succeeded 
his brother James ; this place, since its first erectioiv in 
1699, having never been without a Bernoulli to fill it. 

Our author was extremely respected at Basil ; and to 
bow to Daniel Bernoulli, when tbey met him in the streets, 
was one of the first lessons which every father gave every 
child. He was a man of great simplicity and modesty of 
BiaoDers^ He used to tell two little adventures, whitrh he 
sa^rd bad given him more pleasure than all the other bo« 
Bours he had received. Travelling with a learned i^tranger, 
who, being pleased with his conversation, asked his name ; 
^\ I am Daniel Bernoulli," answered he with great mo* 
d^sty ; '* And I,'* said the stranger (who thought he meant 
tQ laugh at him), ^^ am Isaac Newton.^' Another time 
having to dinner with him the celebrated Koenig the ma* 
thematician, who boasted, with some degree of self-com- 
placency, of a diffi^lt problem he had resolved with much 
trouble, Bernoulli went on doing the honours of bis t^ble, 
and when they went to drink coffee he presented Koenig 
with a solution of the problem more elegant than his own. 
After a long, useful, and honourable life, Daniel Bernoulli 
died the L7th of March 1732, in the eighty •third year of 
his age. * 

BERNOULLI (John), the grandson of the preceding 
John, was born at Basil Nov. 4, 1744, and died at Berliii 
July 13, 1807. He studied at Basil and Neufchatel, at* 
taching himself chiefly to philosophy, mathematics,' aud 

1 Gen. Dict.->Moreri.-*-Biof . UniT.— ^xii OnomasticoB.-— Huttoa's Math. 


ftfti*anomy. At the age of nineteen^ be was invited to th« 
place of astronomer in the academy of Berlin, and some 
years after, having obtained permission to travel, hevi^ 
sited Germany, England, and France, and in bis sabse-* 
quent travels, Italy, Russia, Poland, &c. From the year 
1779, he resided at Berlin, where he was appointed head 
of the mathematical class of the academy. He was also a 
member of the academies of Petersburgh and Stockholm, 
and of the royal society of London. Like all the other 
branches of his family, he was a laborious writer. The 
following are the principal productions of his pen, I . ^^ Re- 
cueil pour les Astronomes,'' 1772 — 76, 3 vols. 8vo. 2. 
^ Lettres sur differents sujets, ecrites pendant le cours 
d^un voyaged par TAilemagne, la Suisse, la France meri- 
diooale, et PItalie,inl774. and 1775," 3 vols. 8vo.l777— 79. 
3. *^ Description d'un Voyage en Prusse, en Russie, et eu 
Pologne, en 1777 et 1778," first published in German, 
1779; 6 vols, but afterwards in French, Warsaw, 1782. 4: 
^^ Letlxes Astronomiques," 1781, according to our autho- 
rity ; bttt he published a wock under this title about 1772y 
after he had made a literary excursion in 17 $8 to England, 
France, and Germany,, containing his observations on the 
actual state* of practical astronomy at Gottingen, Cassel, 
'^and other parts of Germany, and. at Greenwich, Oxford, 
Cambridge, London, and Paris. 5. ^^ A collection of voy- 
ages," in German, 16 vols. 1781—1785. 6. ^«*The Ar- 
chives, or records of History and Geography," in German, 
8 vols. 1783 — 1788. 7. " De la reforme. politique des 
Juifs," translated from the German of Dohm, 1782, 12mo« 
8. *^ Elemens d^Algebre d^Euler," from the German, Ly- 
ons, 1785, 2 vols. 8vo. 9. *^ Nouvelles litteraires de divers 
pais,'* Berlin, 1776 — 79, 8vo. He edited also, in con- 
junction with professor Hindenburg, for three years, the 
'^ Mathematical Magazine," and wrote many papers in the 
Memoirs of the Berlin Academy, and the Astronomical 
Ephemerides, published in Berlin. ^ 

BERNSTORF (John Hart wig Ernest, Count), minis* 
ter of state in Denmark, was born at Hanover, May 13,1712. 
Some relations he happened to have in Denmark invited 
him thither, where his talents were soon noticed, and em- 
ployed by the government .After having been ambassa- 
dor in several courts, he was placed by Frederick V. at 

, I Biof. UniTerielle^ 

t2S B E R N S T O R F. 

the hedd of foreign affairs. During the seVen. ye«r» ihif 
(175*5 — 62).he preserved a system of strict neutrality^ whidi 
prored eminently serviceable to the comnnerce and intet'*- 
nal prosperity of Denmark. In 4 761, when the^tcfkp&M 
of Russia, Peter III. threatened Detima^rk with war, and 
marched bis troops towardir Hoistein, Bemstorf txtttei 
the utmost vigour in contriving means for the defence of 
the country, attd the suddenf death of Peter banring averted 
this istorm, be employed his skill in bringing about an al«« 
Kance between the courts of Copenhagen and St. Peters^ 
burgh. In 1767 he succeeded in concluding ar provisionai 
treaty, by which the dukedom of Holstein,. which Paah^ 
the grand duke of Russia, inherited by the death of Petef 
III. was excbangjed for Oldenburgh,. which belonged to. 
the king of Denmark: This finally took place i» 1773^ 
and procured an important addition to the DaTtisfa^ terriw 
tories; Soon after Bernstorf put a stop to thfe long cotitei^ 
that bad been maintained respecting the house of Hok^elA 
having a right of sovereignty over Hamburgh, ancV tbttt c&ii^ 
1^13 declared independent oirbondition of not claittHJhg te^ 
payment of t^fae money the city had advanced to thie king of 
Denmark and the dukes of Hoktein. These measarevcon-^ 
titibut^d highly to the reputation of count Bernstorf 'at • 
politician, but perhaps he derived as* much credit fmm hit 
conduct in othier refispects. He had acquired a large' estettf 
in the neighbourhood of Copenhagen, the peasant? on 
^sdxich, as was- the case in Denmark at tbat time, wei^ 
slaves, and transferred like other property. Bernsteri^ 
bowetei', not only gave them th^ir liberty,, but grais<Ded' 
tfhem long^ leases, and encouraged them to eultivate th^ 
Land, and feel that they bad an interest in it^' Hiat^^naiMRi^ 
soon sensible ofi the humanity and wisdom^of his* eondaoiv 
agreed to express their gratitude by eifecting. an obelisb 
in honour of him on the side of the great road leading t(t 
Copenhagen. Bernstorf was likewise a liberal patron of 
manufactures, commerce, and the fiine arts. It was hd 
who induced Fi^ederick V. to give a pension for life to t^he 
poet Ktopstock* Ou the dea& of thatmonarci^ Be^mstorft 
was continued in die ministry for the fiitst yeslitt- of cbtf 
i>ew reiguy mitil LTTOv wbe» Struenzee being pfafco^ atf 
the bead ofi the council;. Bernstorf was allowed to resigtti 
vritb a pension. He then retired to Hamburgh^ but aftcNP 
the catastrophe of Struenzee, be was recalled, and was 
about to set out for Copenhagen when he died of an apo* 

B E R N S T O H F. 129 

plexy, Feb. 19, 1772. The political measures of this states- 
man belong to history, but his private character has been 
the theme of universal applause. Learned, social, affable^ 
generous, and high spirited, he preserved the affections 
of all who knew him, and throughout his whole administra- 
tion had the singular good fortune to enjoy at the same 
time courtly favour and popular esteem. His nephew^ 
count Andrew Peter Bernstorf, who was bom in 1735, and 
eventually succeeded him as foreign minister for Denmark^ 
displayed «qual zeal and knowledge in promoting the true 
interests of his country, which yet repeats his name with 
fervour and enthusiasm. It was particularly his object to 
preserve the neutrality of Denmark, after the French re- 
volution had provoked a combination of most of the powers 
of Europe ; and as long as neutral rights were at all re- 
spected, he succeeded in this wise measure. His state 
papers on the " principles of the court of Denmark con- 
cerning neutrality," in 1780, and his " Declaration to the 
courts of Vienna and Berlin,'^ in 1792, were much adf- 
mired. In private life he followed the steps of his uncle, 
by a liberal patronage of J^rts, commerce, and manufactures, 
and like him was as popular in the country as in the court. 
He died Jan. 21, 1797.' 

BERpALD, or BEROALDE (Matthevi^), was born at 
St. Denis near Paris, and was educated at the college of 
the cardinal Lemmne, where he made great proficiency in 
the learned languages, and became an able theologian, 
mathematician, philosopher, and historian. In 1550 he was 
at Agen as preceptor to Hector Fregosa, afterwards bishop 
of that city, and here he was converted to the Protestant 
religion along with Scaliger and other learned nien. When 
he arrived at Paris in 15'58, he was chosen preceptor to 
Theodore Agrippa d'Aubign^ ; but the persecution arising, 
he was arrested at Constance and condemned to be burnt, 
a fate from which he was preserved by the kindness of an 
officer who favoured his escape. He then went to Orleans, 
Eochelle, and Sancerre^ and distinguished himself by his 
courage during the siege of this latter place by the marshal 
de Lachatre. In 1574 we find him at Geneva, officiating 
as minister and professor of philosophy. His death is 
supposed to have taken place in 1576. He wrote a curious 
book entitled ^^ Chronicon, sacrae Scrip turse auctoritate 

1 Biog. Universelle, ^c. 

Vol. V. K 

130 B E R O A L D, 

constitutam,'' Geneva, 1575, fol. In this he maintainiJ that 
all chronological authorities must be sought in the holy 
3criptures. Vossius and Scaliger speak highly of his ta- 
lents. Draudius, in his " BibliothecaClassica," mentions 
another work in which he was concerned, " G. Mercatoris 
et Matthei Beroaldi chronologia, ab initio mundi ex eclip- 
sis et observationibus astronomicis demonstrata,'' Basil, 
1577, Cologne, 1568, fol. We have some doubts whether 
this is not the same as the work mentioned above. ' 

BEROALDE de Verville (Francis), son to the pre- 
ceding, was born at Paris, April 28, 1558, and educated 
in the principles of the reformed religion, but after his 
father's death, returned to those of the church of Rome^ 
and became an ecclesiastic, having in 1593 obtained a 
canonry of St. Gatien of Tours. From his youth he ap- 
plied with enthusiasm to scientific pursuits, and was 
scarcely twenty years old when he published in Latin and 
French, Besson's " Theatre of mathematical and mechani- 
cal instruments," with explanations. At that time, if he 
may be credited, he had made many discoveries in mathe- 
matics, was an expert watchmaker and goldsmith, and his 
knowledge of the classics would have recommended him to 
the place of tutor to the son of a person of rank : but he 
was extremely vain, and perpetually flattering himself that 
he possessed invaluable secrets, and had discovered the 
philosopher's stone, perpetual motion, and the quadrature 
of the circle. His works certainly show that he had accu- 
mulated a considerable stock of various knowledge, but he 
was very deficient in judgment His style is diffuse, and 
so perplexed even in his poems, that his works have had 
but few readers, and are in request only by the collectors 
of curiosities. The greater part of these were collected 
and published under the title of " Apprehensions spiri- 
tuelles," Paris, 1583, 12mo: among them is a poem in 
imitation of sir Thomas More's Utopia. His translation 
of Columna's Hypnerotomachia is only that of John Mar- 
tin altered and disfigured. Niceron has given a list of his 
other works (vol. XXXIV.) among which are, 1. " Histoire 
veritable, ou Le Voyage des Princes fortunes^" Paris, 1610^. 
8vo. 2. " Le Cabinet de Minerve, &c." Rouen, 1601, 12mo. 
3. " Moyen de parvenir," printed under the title of " Sal- 
migondis/' and that of ^^ Coup-cu de la MeIancbolie>" a 

^ Oea Diet.— Biof. VoiT.—Moreri. 



collection of licentious tales/ in much request with a cer- 
tain description of collectors. Beroalde's death is conjec- 
tured to have happened in 1612. ^ 

BEROALDO (Philip), thft elder, one of the most emi- 
nent schf lars of the fifteenth century, descended from an 
ancient aind noble family of Bologna, was boirn there, 
Dec. 7, 1453. Having lost his father in his infancy, he 
was brought up by his mother with the greatest care, able 
masters being provided for his education, whose pains he 
rewarded by an uncommon proficiency, aided by an asto- 
nishing memory. Besides the lessons which they gave him, 
he studied so hard by himself, that at the age of eighteen, 
he fell into a very dangerous disorder, from which he reco* , 
rered with much difficulty. When it was discovered that 
he could learn nothing more irom his tutors, it was thought 
that the best way to increase his knowledge was to employ 
him in teaching others. When only nineteen, therefore, 
he opened a school first at Bologna, and afterwards at 
Parma and Milan. After continuing this for some time, 
the high reputation of the university of Paris made hio^ 
very anxious to visit that city, which accordingly he ac- 
complished, and gave public lectures for some months 
to a very large auditory, some say, of six hundred scholars. 
Every thing in science then was done by lecturing, and 
Beroaldo, no doubt gratified by the applause he had met 
with, would have remained longer at Paris had he not been, 
recalled to his own country, his return to which created a 
sort of public rejoicing. His jirst honour was to be ap-. 

i)ointed professor of belles-lettres in the university of Bo* 
ogna, which he retained all his life, and although he would 
have been content with this, as the summit of his literary 
ambition, yet this promotion was followed by civic honours. 
In 1489 he was named one of the ancients of Bologna, 
and some years after made one of a deputation from the 
city, with Galeas Bentivoglio, to pope Alexander VI. He 
was also for several years, secretary of the republic. 

Amidst so much study and so many employments, Be- 
roaldo had his relaxations, which do not add so much to 
bis reputation. He was fond of the pleasures of the table, 
and passionately addicted to play, to which he sacrificed 
all he was worth. He was an ardent votary of the fair sex; 
a.nd thought no pains nor expence too great for accomplish- 

K 2 

1S2 B E R O A L D 0. 

ing his wishes. • He dreaded wedlock, both on his own ac* 
count and that of his mother, whom he always tenderly 
loved. But at length he found a lady to his mind, and all 
those different passions that had agitated the youth of Be^ 
loaldo were appeased the moment he was marriied. The 
mild and engaging manners of his bride inspiredhim with 
prudence and ceconomy. Beroaldo was from that time 
quite another man. Regular, gentle, polite, beneficent, 
envious of no one, doing no one wrong, and speaking 
no evil, giving merit its due, unambitious of honours, and 
content with humbly accepting such as were offered him. 
He had scarcely an enemy, except George Merula, whose 
jealousy was roused by Beroaldo's admiration of Politiau, 
whom himself once admired, and afterwards took every 
opportunity to traduce as a scholar. Beroaldo^s weak state 
of health brought on premature old age, and he died of a 
fever, which was considered as too slight for advice, July 
7,1505. His funeral, was uncommonly pompous; the body, 
robed in silk and crowned with laurel, was followed by all 
persons of literary or civic distinction at Bologna. 

Beroaldo's chief merit was his publication of good edi- 
tions of the ancient Roman authors, with learned commen- 
taries. His own style, however, some critics think, is af- 
fected, and more like^ that of his favourite Apuleius than 
that of Cicero, and his judgment is rather inferior to bis 
learning. Among his publications we may enumerate, 
(referring to Niceron, vol. XXV. for the whole), 1. ^^Caii 
Plinii historia naturalis,'' Parma, 1476,. Trevisa, 1479, and 
Paris, 1516, all in fol. He was not more than nineteen 
when he wrote the notes to this edition of Pliny, whom be 
afterwards took up and meant to have given more ample 
illustrations, but the copy on which he had written his notes 
being stolen at Bologna, he expressed at his dying hour 
his regret for the loss. 2. ^^ Annotationes in commentarios 
Servii Virgilianos," Bologna, 1482, 4to. 3. " Propertii 
opera cum commentariis," Bologna, 1487, Venice, 1493, 
Paris, i 604, all in fol. 4. ^^ Annotationes in varios au-* 
thores antiquos," Bologna, 1488, Venice, 1489, Brescia, 
1496, fol. 5. f* Orationes," Paris, 1490, Lyons, 1490 
and 1492, Bologna, 1491, &c. 6. A second collection, 
entitled " Orationes, prefationes, praelectiones, &c." Pa- 
ris, 1505, 1507 (or 1508), 1509, 1515, 4to. There are 
in this collection some small pieces of other authors, but 
near thirty by Beroaldo^ both in prose and verse. Besides 


these, our authority states^ that there have been six more 
editions, and yet it is ranked among the rare books. 7. 
** Declamatio ebriosi, scortatoris, et aleatoris," Bologna, 
1499, Paris, 1505, 4to, &c. According to the title of a 
French translation, for we have not seen this work, it is a 
debate between a drunkard, gallant, and gamester, which 
of them, as the worst character, ought to be disinherited 
by his father. The French have two translations of it, 
one a sort of paraphrase, Paris, 1556, 12mo, the other 
versified by Gilbert Damalis, Lyons, 1558, 8vo. Besides 
these, Beroaldo edited Suetonius, Apuleius, Aulus Gel- 
lius, Lucan, and some other classics, with notes. — He had 
a son, Vincent, who is ranked among the Bolognese wri- 
ters, only for having given an explanation of all the words 
employed by Bolognetti in his poem " II Constante." — 
Bolognetti was his uterine brother, and he wrote these 
explanations from the poem when in manuscript, and when 
it consisted of twenty cantos, but as it consisted of sixteen 
when published in 1566, his friend Maltacheti, to whom 
he bequeathed his explanation, published only what re- 
lated to these sixteen, under the title of " Dichiarazione 
di tutte le voci proprie del Constante, &c." Bologna, 1570, 

BEROALDO (Philip) the younger, a noble Bolognese, 
was born at Bologna, Oct. 1, 1472. He was the nephew 
and pupil of the elder Beroaldo, the subject of the pre« 
ceding article, under whose instructions he made such 
early proficiency in the Greek and Latin languages, that 
in 1496, when he was only twenty-four years of age, he 
was appointed public professor of polite literature at Bo* 
logna. Having afterwards chosen the city of Rome as his 
residence, he there attracted the notice of Leo X. then 
cardinal de Medici, who received him into his service, as 
his private secretary ; and when Leo arrived at the ponti- 
ficate, Beroaldo was nominated president of the Roman 
academy, but probably relinquished this office on being 
appointed librarian of the Vatican. Bembo, Bibiena, 
Molza, Flaminio, and other learned men of the time, were 
his particular friends at Rome. He appeared also among 
the admirers of the celebrated Roman courtesan Imperiali, 
and is said to have been jealous of the superior pretensions 

* Biog. Universelle.— -Moreri, — GresweU*9 Politian. — Bail let JuGremens des 
C»vaQS«— Freytag's Adparatus I^itterarius. — Blounts Censura. — Saxit Oaopast, 



of Sadoleti (afterwards cardinal) to her favour. The 
warmth of his temperature, indeed, sufficiently appears in 
some of his poems, but such was the taste of that age, and 
particularly of the licentious court of Leo X. His death, 
which happened in 1518, is said to have been occasioned 
by some vexations which he experienced from that pontiff, 
as librarian, but this seems doubtful. 

He was equally learned with the elder Beroaldo, and 
wrote with more taste, particularly in poetry, but he 
was less laborious, his only productions being, 1. " Taciti 
Anualium libri quinque priores," Rome, 1515, Lyons, 1542, 
Paris, 1608, all in fol. This edition is dedicated to Leo X, 
at whose request it was undertaken, and who gave five hun- 
dred sequins for the manuscript, from which it was copied, 
to Angelo Arcomboldo, who brought it from the abbey of 
Corvey in Westphalia. Leo was likewise so pleased with 
what Beroaldo had done, that he denounced the sentence 
of excommunication, with the penalty of two hundred 
ducats, and forfeiture of the books, against any persons who 
should reprint the book within ten years without the ex- 
press consent of the editor. The other books of Tacitus, 
formerly published, are added to the editions above speci- 
fied. 2. ** Odarum libri tres, et epigrammatum liber 
unus," Rome, 1530, 4to. These were received with such 
applause, particularly by the French nation, that he has 
bad no less than six translators in that country, among- 
whom is the celebrated Clement Marot. A part of them 
were incorporated in the " Delitiae poet. Italorum" of 
Toscano. * 

BEROLDINGEN (Francis de), an eminent mineralo- 
gist, was born at St. Gall, Oct. 11, 1740, and died March 
8, 1798. He was acanon of Hildesheim and Osnaburgh, 
a member of several literary societies, and had travelled 
into various countries, to investigate the nature of the 
soil, the structure of mountains, and their mineral produc- 
tions. By this means he accumulated a great stock of in* 
formation which has given a value to his works, notwith- 
standing his inclination to hypotheses, and the indulgence 
of certain prejudices. All his works are in German. Their 
subjects are, 1. "Observations, doubts, and questions on 
Mineralogy, &c." 2 vols. 1778 — 1793, 8vo. 2. "Ob- 
servations made during a tour to the quicksilver naines of 

> Biog. Universelle. — ^Roscoe's Leo.— Morcri.— Saxii Onomastlcon, 

B E R G L D I N G E N. 135 

the Palatinate, &c." Berlin, 1788, 8vo. 3. " The Vol- 
canos of ancient and modern times considered physically 
and mineralogically," Manheim, 1791, Svo. 4. " A new 
theory on the Basaltes," printed in Crell's supplement to 
the annals of Chemistry. 5. " A description of the foun- 
tain of Dribourg," Ilildesheim, 1782, Svo. * 

BEROSUS, priest of the temple oi: Belus at Babylon, in 
the time of Ptolemy Pbiladelphus. He wrote the history 
of Chaldea, which is frequently quoted by the ancients, 
and of which some curious fragments are preserved to us 
by Josephus ; but he attributed an ideal antiquity to his 
country, and mingled his accounts with astrology. His 
predictions, according to Pliny, induced the Athenians to 
place a statue of him in their gymnasium with a gilded 
tongue. Five bool^s of antiquities were printed under the 
name of Benosus, Antwerp, 1545, Svo, by Annius Viterbo, 
but they were soon discovered to be forgeries, * 

BERQUIN (Arnaud), a miscellaneous French writer, 
whose principal works are well-known in this country^ 
was born at Bourdeaux, about 1749, and made his first 
appearance in the literary world in 1774, as the author of 
some Idyls, admired for their delicacy and sensibility. 
The same year he versified the " Pygmalion" of Rousseau ; 
and after publishing in 1775, Svo, " Tableaux Anglais,'* 
a translation of several English essays, he wrote some ro« 
mances, of which-his " Genevieve de Brabant'* was reckon* 
ed the best. He afterwards applied himself to the com- 
position of books for children, particularly his '^Ami des 
£nfans," which has been translatjed into English, his ^' Lec- 
tures pour les Enfans, &c." and published translations of 
^^ Sandford and Merton," and some other English books 
calculated for the same purpose. All these are included 
in the edition of his works published by M. Renouard, Pa- 
ris, 1803, 20 vols. ISmo, except his *^ Tableaux Anglais.** 
I'he ^^ Ami des Enfans," the most celebrated and popu* 
lar of all his works, was honoured with the prize given by 
the French academy for the most useful book that ap- 
peared in 1784. He was for some time editor of the Mo- 
niteur ; and, in conjunction with Messrs. Ginguen6 and 
Grouvelle, conducted the " Feuille villageoise.'* la 

' Biog. Universelle. 

* Morcri. — Biog. Uaivers«Ue.— Dupii]»<«-Saxii Oaomaitico^. 

136 B E R Q U I N. 

1791, he was proposed as a candidate for tutor to the 
Dauphin, but died the same year at Paris, Dec. 21.^ 

BERQUIN (Lewis De), a gentlemaa of Artois, and a 
man of great learning, was burnt for being a Protestant, 
at Paris, 1529. He was lord of a village, whence he took 
his name, and for some time made a considerable figure at 
the court of France, where he was honoured with the title 
of king^s counsellor. Erasmus says, that his great crime 
was openly professing to hate the monks ; and hence arose 
bis warm contest with William Quernus, one of the most 
violent inquisitors of his time. A charge of heresy was 
contrived against him, the articles of his accusation being 
extracted from a book which he had published, and he was 
committed to prison, but when the affair came to a trials 
he was acquitted by the judges. His accusers pretended 
that he would not have escaped, had not the king inter* 
posed his authority ; but Berquiu himself 'ascribed it en- 
tirely to the justice of his cause, and went on with equal 
courage in avowing his sentiments. Some time after, Noel 
Beda and his emissaries made extracts from some of his 
books, and having accused him of pernicious errors, he 
was again sent to prison, and the cause being tried, sen* 
tence was passed against him; viz. that his books be com- 
mitted to the flames, that he retract his errors, and make 
a proper submission, and if he refuse to comply, that he 
be burnt. Being a man of an undaunted inflexible spirit, 
he would submit to nothing ; and in all probability would 
at this time have suffered death, had not some of the judges, 
who perceived the violence of his accusers, procured the 
af&ir to be again heard and examined** It is thought this 
was owing to the intercession of madame the regent. In the 
mean time Francisl. returning from Spain, and finding the 
danger his counsellor was in from Beda and his faction, wrote 
to the parliament, telUng them to be cautious how they 
proceeded, for that he himself would take cognizance of 
the affair. Soon after Berquin was set sit liberty, which 
gave him such courage, that he turned accuser against his 
accusers, and prosecuted them for irreligion, though, if he 
had taken the advice of Erasmus, l^e would have esteemed 
it a suflicient triumph that he had got free from the per^ 
secution of such people. He was sent a third time to pri- 

} Biog. UniveneUe.-y^Dict. Hist. 

B E K Q U I N. 137 

son, and condemned to a public recantation and perpetual 
imprisonment. Refusing to acquiesce in this judgment, 
he was condemned as an obstinate heretic, strangled on the 
Greve, and afterwards burnt. He suffered death with 
great constancy and resolution, April 17, 1529, being then 
about 40 years of age. The monk, who accompanied him 
on 'the scaffold, declared, that he had observed in him 
signs of abjuration : which Erasmus however believes to be 
a falsehood. *^ It is always," says he, " their custom in 
like cases. These pious frauds serve to keep up their 
credit as the avengers of religion, and to justify to the 
deluded people those who have accused and condemned 
the burnt heretic." Among his works are, I.**' hevvBi 
moyen de bien et catholiquement se confesser," a transla* 
tion from the Latin of Erasmus, Lyons, 1542, 16mo. 2. 
** Le Chevalier Chretien," 1542, another translation ft*om 
Erasmus. Of his other writings, we have some account in 
the following extract from Chevillier's History of Printing, 
" In 1523, May 23, the parliament ordered the books of 
Lewis de Berquin to be seized, and communicated to the 
faculty of divinity, for their opinion. The book " De'ab- 
rogand^ Miss^^' was found upon him, with some others of 
Luther's and Melancthon's books; and seven or eight 
treatises of which he was the author, some under these 
titles : " Speculum Theologastrorum ;" " De usu & ofHcio 
Missae, &c." ** Rationed Lutheri quibus omnes Christianos 
esse Sacerdotes molitur suadere," ** Le D6bat de Pi6t6 & 
Superstition." There were found also some books which 
he had translated into French, as ** Reasons why Luther 
has caused the Decretals and all the books of the Canon 
Law to be burnt ;" " The Roman Triad," and others. The 
&iculty, after having examined these books, judged that 
they contained expressly the heresies and blasphemies of 
Luther. Their opinion is"dated Friday, July 26, 1523, and 
addressed to the court of parliament. After having.given 
their censure upon each book in particular, they conclude 
that they ought all to be cast into the 6re ; that Berquin 
having made himself the defender of the Lutheran here- 
sies, be ought to be obliged to a public abjuration, and to 
be forbidden to compose any book for the future, or to 
makp any translation prejudicial to the faith." \ 

I (Jen. pict— 'Foppen Bibl. Bejgica,— Moreri. 

ns B E R R E T I N I. 

BERRETINI (Pietro) PA CORTONA, an eminent 
artist, was born at Cortona, in 1596, and according to 
some writers, was a disciple of Andrea Commodi, though 
ottiers affirm that he was the disciple of Baccio Ciarpi ; and 
Argenville says, he was successively the disciple of both. 
He went young to Rome, and applied himself diligently to 
^tudy the antiques, the works of Raphael, . Buonaroti, and 
Polidoro ; by which he so improved his taste and his hand, 
that he distinguished himself in .a degree superior to any 
of the artists of his time. And it >seemed astonishing that 
two such noble designs as were the Rape of the Sabines, 
and the Battle of Alexander, which he painted in the Pa« 
lazzo Sacchetti, could be the product of so young an 
artist, when it was observed, that for invention, disposi- 
tion, elevation of thought, and an excellent tone of colour, 
they were equal to the performances of the best masters* 
He worked with remarkable ease and freedom ; his figures 
are admirably grouped ; his distribution is elegant; and the 
Chiaroscuro is judiciously observed. Nothing can be more 
grand than his ornaments ; and where landscape is intro* 
duced, it is designed in a superior taste ; and through his 
whole compositions there appears an uncommon grace. 
But De Pile^ observes, that it was not such a grace as wa» 
the portion of Raphael and Correggio ; but a general grace, 
consisting rather in a habit of making the airs of his heads 
always agreeable, than in a choice of expressions suitable 
to each subject By the best judges it seems to be agreed, 
that although this master was frequently incorrect ; though 
not always judicious in his expressions ; though irregular 
in his draperies, and- apt to design his figures too short ' 
and too heavy ; yet, by the magniticence of his composi- 
tion, the delicate airs of his faces, tlie grandeur of his de- 
corations, and the astonishing suavity and gracefulness of 
the whole together, he must be allowed to have been the 
most agreeable mannerist that any age hath produced. He 
bad an eye for colour; but his colouring in fresco is far 
superior to what he performed in oil ; nor do his easel pic-* 
tures appear as finished as might be expected from so great 
a master, when compared what what he painted in a larger 
size. Some of the most capital wbvks of Pietro, in fresco, 
are in the Barber ini palace at Rome, and the Palazzo Pitti 
at Florence. Of his oil-pictures, perhaps none excels the 
altar-piece of Ananias healing St. Paul, in the church of 

B E R R E T I N I. 13d 

the Concezione at Rome. Alexander VII. created him 
knight of the golden spur. The grand duke Ferdinand IL 
also conferred on him several marks of his esteem. That 
prince one day admiring the figure of a cjiild weeping, 
which he had just painted, he only gave it one touch of 
the pencil, and it appeared laughing ; then, with another 
touch, he put it in its former state ; " Prince," said Berre- 
tini, ** you see how easily children laugh and cry." He 
was so laborious, that the gout, with whicii he was tor- 
mented, did not prevent him from working ; but his seden- 
tary life, in conjunction with his extreme application, 
augmented that cruel disease, of which he died in 1669.' 

BERRIMAN (William), a pious and learned English 
divine, was borri in London, September 24, 1688. Hi» 
father, John Berrimah, was an apothecary in Bishopsgate- 
street; and his grandfather, the reverend Mr. Berriman, 
was rector of Bedington, in the county of Surrey. His 
grammatical education he received partly at Banbury, in 
Oxfordshire, and partly at Merchant-taylors' school, Lon- 
don. At seventeen years of age he was entered a com- 
moner at Oriel college, in Oxford, where he prosecuted 
his studies with great assiduity and success, acquiring a 
critical skill in the Greek, Hebrew, Chaldee, Arabic, and 
Syriac. In the interpretation of the Scriptures, he did not 
attend to that momentary light which fancy and imagina- 
tion seemed to flash upon them, but endeavoured to e:^plain 
them by the rules of grammar, criticism, logic, and the 
analogy of faith. The articles of doctrine and discipline 
which he drew from the sacred writings, he traced through 
the primitive church, and Confirmed by the evidence of 
the fathers, and the decisions of the more generally re- 
ceived councils. On the 2d of June, 1711, Mr. Berriman. 
was admitted to the degree of master of arts. After he 
left the university, he officiated, for some time, as curate 
and lecturer of Allhallows in Thames-street, and lecturer 
of St Michael's, Queenhithe. The first occasion of his 
appearing in print arose from the Trinitarian controversy. 
He published, in 1719, *^ A seasonable review of Mr. Whis- 
ton's account of Primitive Doxologies," which was followed, 
in the same year, by " A second review.'* These pieces 
recommended him so effectually to the notice of Dr. Ro- 
binson, bishop of London, that in 1720, he was appointed 

. ^ PilkiDgtoD*— D'Ar^anville^ £&c« 


B E R R I M A N, 

his lordship's domestic chaplain ; and so well satisfied wad 
that prelate with Mr. Berriman's integrityi abilities, and 
application, that he consulted and entrusted him in most 
of his spiritual and secular concerns. As a further proof 
of his approbation, the bishop collated him, in April 1722^ 
to the living of St. Andrew-Undershaft. On the 25th of 
June, in the same year, he accumulated, at Oxford, the 
degrees of bachelor and doctor in divinity. In 1723, Dr. 
Berriman lost his patron^ the bishop 6f London, who, in 
testimony of his regard to his chaplain, bequeathed hin^ 
the fifth part of his large and valuable library. In conse* 
quence of the evidence our learned divine had already 
given of his zeal and ability in defending the commonly- 
received doctrine of the Triility, he was ajppointed to preach 
lady Moyer's lecture, in 1723 and 1724. The eight ser- 
mons he had delivered on the occasion, were published in 
1725, under the title of "An historical, account of the 
Trinitarian Controvery." This work, in the opinion of 
Dr. Godolphin, provost of Eton college, merited a much 
greatep reward than lady Moyer's donation. Accordingly, 
he soon found an opportunity of conferring such a reward 
upon Dr. Berriman, by inviting him, without solicitation, 
to accept of a fellowship in his college. Our author was 
elected fellow in 1727, and from that time he chiefly re- 
sided at Eton in the Summer, and at his parsonage-house 
in the Winter. His election into the college at Eton was a 
benefit and ornament to that society. He was a faithful 
steward in their secular afiairs, was strictly observant of 
their local statute3, and was a benefactor to the college, in 
his will. While the doctor's learned productions obtained 
for him the esteem and friendship of several able and va- 
luable men, and, among the rest, of Dr. Waterland, it is 
not, at the same time, surprising, that they should excite 
antagonists. One of. these, who then appeared without a 
name, and who at first treated our author with decency 
and respect, was Dr. Conyers Middleton ; but afterwards, 
when Dr. Middleton published his Introductory Discourse 
to the Inquiry into the miraculous powers of the Christian 
church, and the Inquiry itself, ha chose to speak of 
Dr. Berriman with no small degree of severity and con* 
tempt. In answer to the attacks made upon him, our di- 
vine printed in 1731, "A defence of some passages \n 
the Historical Account." In 1733, came out his *^ Brief 
remarks on Mr. Chandler'^ introduction to the history of 

fe E R R I M A N. 141 

the Inquisition," which was followed by " A review of the 
Remarks. His next publication was his course of sermons 
at Mr. Boyle's lecture, preached in 1730, 1731, and 1732, 
and published in 2 vols. 1733, 8vo. The author, in this 
work, states the evidence of our religion from the Old 
Testament ; vindicates the Christian interpretation of the 
ancient prophecies ; and points out the historical chain 
and connection of these prophecies. In the preface, he 
asserts the authority pf Moses, as an. inspired historian and 
law-giver, against his old antagonist Dr. Middleton ; who, 
in a letter to Dr. Waterland, had disputed the literal ac- 
count of the fall, and had expressed himself with his usual 
scepticism concerning the divine origin of the Mosaic in- 
stitution, as well as the divine inspiration of its founder. 
Besides the writings we have mentioned. Dr. Berrimau 
printed a number of occasional sermons, and, among the 
rest, one on the Sunday before his induction to his living 
of St. Andrew Undershaft, and another on Family Religion. 
He departed this life at his house in London, on the 5th 
of February, 1749-50, in the 62d year of his age. His 
funeral sermon was preached by the rev. Glocester Ridley, 
LL. B. containing many of the particulars here noticed. 
Such was Dr. Berriman's integrity, that no ill usage could 
provoke him, no friendship seduce him, no ambition tempt 
him, no interest buy him, to do a wrong, or violate his con- 
science. When a certain right reverend prelate, unso- 
licited, and in pure respect to his distinguished merit, 
offered him a valuable prebend in his cathedral church of 
Lincoln, the doctor gratefully acknowledged the generosity 
of thp offer, but conscientiously declined it, as he was 
bound from accepting of it by the statutes of his college. 
The greatest difficulty of obtaining a dispensation w^as from 
himself. In the year of his decease, forty of his sermons 
were published, in two volumes, 8vo, by his brother, John 
Berriman, M. A. rector of St. Alban's, Wood-street, under 
the title of " Christian doctrines and duties explained and 
recommended.'' In 1763, nineteen sermons appeared in 
one volume, under the same title. With respect to Dr. 
Berriman's practical discourses, it is allowed that they are 
grave, weighty, and useful ; and well fitted to promote 
pious and virtuous dispositions, but belong to a class which 
have never been eminently popular. 

The Rev. John Beuriman, above-mentioned, was born in 
.1689, and educated at St. Edmund hall, Oxford, and 

142 B E a R I M A N. 

after taking orders, i^as for many years curate of St Swithifr^ 
and lecturer of St. Mary Aldermanbury^ but in 1744 was 
presented to the rectory of St. Alban's, which he retained 
until his death, Dec. 8, 1768, being then the oldest incum'- 
bent in London. He published a sermon on the 30th of 
January, 1721 ; and in 1741, "Eight Sermons at lady 
Meyer's lecture," entirely of the critical kind, and giving 
an account of above a hundred Greek MSS. of St Paul's 
Epistles, many of them not before collated.* 

BERRUGUETE (Alonzo), an eminent Spanish pain- 
ter, sculptor, and architect, was born at Parades^ de Nava,. 
near Valladolid. He went when young into Italy, studied 
under Michael Angelo, and became the friend and inti- 
mate of Andrea del Sarto, Baccio, Bandinelli, and other 
celebrated artistfj. After having finished his education, he 
returned to Spain, and afforded eminent proofs of his ta- 
lents in the Prado of Madrid, and the Alhambra of Gre- 
nada. The emperor Charles V. who admired his extensive 
and various talents^ bestowed on him the order of knight- 
hood, and appointed him gentleman of his chamber. After 
establishing a high reputation and a great fortune, Ber- 
ruguete died at Madrid in 1545, advanced in years. In 
the cathedral of Toledo, is one of his finest sculptures, the 
Transfiguration, and some other beautiful carvings in the 
choir, one side of which was thus decorated by him, the 
other by Philip de Borgona. His style possessed much of 
the sublime manner of his great master, and he was justly 
admired by his countrymen, as being the first who intro- 
duced the true principles of the fine arts into Spain. * 

BERRUYER (Joseph Isaac), a celebrated French wri- 
ter, of the order of Jesus, was born at Rouen in Nor- 
mandy, Nov. 7, 1681. He was designed for the pulpit, 
but the weakness of his frame not allowing him to declaim, 
he gave himself up to the quiet but severe studies of the 
closet, and produced some critical works of importance, 
which his countrymen in their spirit of intolerance thought 
fit to suppress : and the reading of his " Histoire du peu- 
ple de Dieu" was forbid by the archbishop of Paris, which 
the Sorbonne were six years reviewing. The first part of 
' this work made its appearance in 8 vols. 4to, with a sup- 
plement, 1728, reprinted in 1733, 8 vols. 4to, and 10 vols. 

* Biog. Brit — Nichols's Literary Anecdotes.— Harwood^s Alumni Etonenses. 
— Dr. Ridley's Fun. SermoD. — biographical Dictionary, 2d edit. 1784. 

* Sio^. Universelle.— Cumberlaad's Aaecdotes of Spanish painters, voL L 2X 

B E R II U Y E R. 143 

12mo ; this ends With the times of the Messiah : the second 
part came out in 1753 in 4 vols. 4to, and 8 vols. 12moi 
and the third part in 2 vols. 4 to, or 5 vols, in 12mo, con- 
taining a literal paraphrase of the epistles, was printed ia 
1758, notwithstanding it was censured and condemned by 
the pope and clergy as containing abominable errors. 
Abominable absurdities it certainly contained, the history 
of the Jews being detailed with all the affectation of senti-- 
mental romance* The author died at Paris, Feb. 18, 

BERRY (Sir John), a naval commander, a native of 
Devonshire, where he was born in 1635, became success- 
ful against the Buccaneers who infested the Atlantic ocean, 
and distinguished himself at the famous battle of South- 
wold-bay, for which he wasTcnighted. In 1682, he com- 
manded the Gloucester frigate, on board of which the 
duke of York embarked for Scotland ; but by the careless- 
ness of the pilot, the vessel was lost at the mouth of the 
Humber. In the midst of this confusion, sir John retained 
that presence of mind for which he was always remarkable, 
and by that means preserved the duke and as many of his 
retinue as the long-boat would carry. Soon after he was 
promoted to a flag, and commanded as vice-admiral under 
lord Dartmouth, at the demolition of Tangier, and on his re- 
turn was made a commissioner of the navy ; which post he 
enjoyed till his death. He was in great favour with king 
James II. who made choice of him to command under lord 
Dartmouth, when the prince of Orange landed in Eng- 
land ; and when his lordship left the fleet, the whole com- 
mand devolved on sir John Berry, who held it till the ships 
were laid up. Aftfer the revolution sir John continued iu 
his posts, and was frequently consulted by king William, 
who entertained a high opinion of his abilities in military 
affairs; but he was poisoned in the beginning of February, 
1691, on board one of his majesty's ships at Portsmouth, 
where he was paying her off, in the 56th year of his age. 
The cause of this catastrophe was never discovered, and it 
was probably accidental. His body was brought to Lon- 
don and .interred at Stepney, and a fine monument after- 
wards erected to his memory. * 

BERRY (William), an ingenious Scotch artist, was one 
of those who owe more to nature than to instruction: of 

* Bioj. Universelle.— Diet. Hist. » Prinpe's Worthies of DeroH. 

144 B E R R Y. 

his parentage we have no account, but he appears to have 
been born about 1730, and at the usual time bound appren- 
tice to Mr. Proctor, a seal engraver in Edinburgh. How 
long he remained with him is uncertain, but for some years 
after he began business for himself, he pursued the same 
branch with his teacher. At this time, however, his designs 
were so elegant, and his mode of cutting so clean and sharp, 
as soon to make him be taken notice of as a superior artist. 
At length by constantly studying and admiring the style 
of the antique entaglios, he resolved to attempt something 
of that sort himself; and the subject he chose was a head 
of sir Isaac Newton, which he executed in a style of such 
superior excellence, as astonished all who had an oppor- 
tunity of observing it. But as he was a man of the most 
unaffected modesty, and as this head was given to a friend 
in a retired situation in life, it was known only to a few in 
the private circle of his acquaintance ; and for many years 
was scarcely ever seen by any one who could justly appre- 
ciate its merit. Owing to these circumstances, Mr. Berry 
was permitted to waste his time, during the best part of hi* 
life, in cutting heraldic seals, for which he found a much 
greater demand than for fine heads, at such a price as 
could indemnify him for the time that was necessarily spent 
in bringing works of such superior excellence to perfection. 
He often told the writer of this account, that though some 
gentlemen pressed him very much to make fine heads for 
them, yet he always found that, when he gave in his bill 
for an article of that kind, though he had charged perhaps 
not more than half the money that he could halve earned in 
the same time at his ordinary work, they always seetned 
to think the price too high, which made him exceedingly 
. averse to employment of that sort. 

The impulse of genius, however, got so far the better of 
prudential considerations, that he executed, during the 
course of his life, ten or twelve heads, any one of which 
would have been sufficient to insure him immortal fame 
among judges of excellence in this department.  Among 
these were the heads of Thomson the poet, Mary queen of 
Scots, Oliver Cromwell, Julius Caesar, a young Hercules, 
and Mr. Hamilton of Bangour, the poet. Of these only 
two copies were from the antique, and they were executed 
iu the finest style of those celebrated entaglios. The 
young Hercules in particular, which, if we mistake not, 
belongs to the earl of Findlater, possessed that unaffected 

]3 E R R Y. 145 

plain simplicitjr, and natural concurrence in the same ex*' 
pression of youthful innocence through all the features^ 
conjoined with strength and dignity, which is, perhaps, the 
most difficult of all expressions to be hit off by the most 
faithful imitator of nature. 

Mr. Berry possessed that very nice perceptive faculty, 
which constitutes the essence of genius in the fine arts, in 
fiuch a high degree, as to prove even a bar to his attaining 
that superior excellence in this department, which nature 
had evidently qualified him for. Even in his best per- 
formance he thought he perceived defects, which no one 
else remarked, and which the circumstances above alluded 
to prevented him from correcting. While others admired 
with unbounded applause, he looked upon his own per- 
formances with a kind of vexation, at finding the execu- 
tion not to have atcaitied the high perfection he conceived 
to be attainable. And not being able to afford the time to 
perfect himself in that nice department of his art, he be- 
came extremely averse to attempt it. Yet, in spite of this 
aversion, the few pieces above named, and some others, 
were extorted from him by degrees, and they came gra- 
dually to be known : and wherever they were known, they 
were admired, as superior to every thing produced in 
modern times, unless it was by Piccler of Rome, who in 
the same art, but with much greater practice in it, had 
justly attained a high degree of celebrity. Between the 
excellence of these two artists, connoisseurs differed in 
opinion ; some being inclined to give the palm to Berry, 
while others preferred Piccler. The works of these two 
artists were well known to each other ; and each declared^ 
with that manly ingenuousness, which superior genius alone 
can confer on the human mind^ that the other was greatly 
his superior. 

Mr. Berry possessed not merely the art of imitating 
busts, or figures set before him, in which he could observe . 
and copy the prominence or the depression of the parts, 
but he possessed a faculty which presupposes a much nicer 
discrimination ; that of being able to execute a figure in 
relievo, with perfect justness, in all its parts, which was 
copied from a drawing or a painting upon a fiat surface. 
This was fairly put to the test in the head be executed of 
Hamilton of Bangour, a person he never saw : it was not only 
one of the most perfect likenesses that could be wished for, 
although he had only an imperfect sketch to copy, but there 

VoJL. V. L 

146 B E R R V 

was a correctness in the outline, and a trihh and delicacy 
in the expression of the features, highly emulous of the 
best antiques, which were iVideed the models on which he 
formed his taste. 

Besides the heads above named, he also execuled some 
full length figures both of men and other animals, in a 
style of superior elegance. But that attention to the in- 
terests of a numerous family, which a man of sound prin- 
ciples, as Mr. Berry was, could never allow him to lose 
sight of, made him forego these amusing exertions, for the 
more lucrative, though less pleasing employment, of cut- 
ting heraldic seals, which may be said to have been his 
constant employment from morning to night, for forty 
years together, with an assiduity that has few examples in 
modem times. In this department, he was without dispute 
the first artist of his time ; but even here, that modesty 
which was so peculiarly his own, and that invariable desire 
to give full perfection to evety thing he put out of his 
hands, prevented him from drawing such emoluments frOm 
his labours as they deserved. Of this the following anec- 
dote will serve as an illustration, and as an additional testi- 
mony of his very great skill. A certain noble duke, when 
he succeeded to his estate, was desirous of having a seal 
cut with his arms, &c. properly blazoned upon it. But as 
there were no less than thirty-two compartments in the 
shield, which was of necessity confined to a very small 
space, so as to leave room^ for the supporters, and other 
ornaments, within the compass of a seal of an ordinary size, 
he found it a matter of great difficulty to get it executed. 
Though a native of Scotland himself, the duke never ex- 
pected to find a man of the first-rate eminence in Edin- 
burgh ; but applied to the most eminent seal-engravers in 
London and Paris^ all of whom declined it as a thing be- ^ 
yond' their power. At this time Berry, of whom he had 
scarcely heard, was mentioned to him in such a manner 
that he went to him, accompanied by a friend, and found 
him, as usu^l, sitting at his wheel. Without introducing 
the duke, the gentleman showed Berry an impression of a 
seal that the duchess dowager had got cut a good many 
years before by a Jew in London, who was dead before the 
duke thought of his seal, and which had been shewn to the 
others as a pattern, asking him if he would cut a seal the 
same with that After examining it a little, Mr. Berry 
answered readily that he would. The duke, pleased and 

BERRY. 147 

astonished at the same time, cried out, *^ Will you, in* 
deed P' Mr. Berry, who thought this implied some sort of 
doubt of his abilities, was a little piqued at it; and turning 
round to the duke, whom he had never seen before, nor 
knevV ; ^^ Yes (said he,) sir ; if I do not make a better seal 
than this, I shall take no payment for it." The duke, 
highly pleased, left the pattern with Mr. Berry, and went 
away. The_ pattern seal contained, indeed, the various 
devices on the thirty-two compartments, distinctly enough 
to be seen, but none of the colours were expressed. Mr. 
Berry, in a proper time, finished the seal ; on which the 
figures were not only done with superior elegance, but the 
colours on every part so distinctly marked, that a painter 
could delineate the whole, or a herald blazoi:\ it, with the 
most perfect accuracy. For this extraordinary exertion of 
talents, he charged no more than thirty- two guineas, though 
the pattern seal bad cost seventy-five. Thus it was, that, 
notwithstanding he possessed talents of the most superior 
kind, and assiduity almost unequalled, observing at all 
times a strict economy in his family, Mr. Berry died at 
last, in circumstances that were not affluent, on the 3d of 
June, 1783, in the 53d year of his age, leaving a numerous 
family of children. Besides his eminence as an artist, he 
was distinguished by the integrity of his moral character, 
and the strict principles of honour which on all occasion^ 
influenced his conduct. ' 

BERRYAT (John), physician in ordinary to the king; 
and intendant of the mineral waters of France, a corre- 
spondent of the academy of sciences, and member of that of 
Auxerre, who died in 1754, is chiefly known as the projec- 
tor of the ^* CoUectiqn Acad^mique,'' containing extracts 
of the most important articles in .the memoirs of various 
learned societies. He published the first two volumes at 
Dijon, 1754, 4to. The plan was good, but he gave the 
articles so much at length, that an abridgment would b^ 
necessary to render it useful. It was continued by Me^rs. 
Guenau de Montbeillard, Buflbn, Daubenton, Larcher, &c. 
and forms 33 vols. 4to, with the tables of the abb6 Rozier. 
Berryat also published " Observations physiques et medi- 
cinales sur les eaux minerales d'Epoigny,'' in the neigh- 
bourhood of Auxerre, and printed at Auxerre, 1752,12mo.' 

I Dr. James Anderson's Bee, or Literary IntelH^enceri for March, 1793. 
« Bio5. UniT.— Diet. HisU 

L 2 

148 B E R S M A N N. 

BERSMANN (GREGOftY), a native of Germany, wa« 
born March 11, 1538, at Annaberg, a little town of Misnia^ 
near the river Schop, on the side of Bohemia. He was 
educated with care, and made great progress in the sciences. 
He was particularly fond of the study of medicine, physics, 
the belles-lettres, and the learned languages. He excelled 
in Latin and Greek, and took delight in travelling over 
France and Italy for forming acquaintance with those who 
were in most reputation among the literati. On his return, 
he was successively professor of poetry and Greek at Wit- 
temberg and Leipsic, but being unwilling to sign the for- 
mulary of concord, he was dismissed in 1580, and went 
into the territories of the prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, where he 
died the 5th of October 1611, in the seventy- third year of 
his age. Bersmann put into verse the Psalms of David, and 
published editions of Virgil, 1581, Ovid, 1582, -^sop,1590, 
and of Horace, Lucan, Cicero, and other ^uthors of an- 
tiquity. He was not less fertile in body tlian in mind ; 
having fourteen sons and six daughters by^his marriage 
with a daughter of Peter Hellebron. Freyer, however, 
says that he had only four sons. ^ 

BERTAUT (John), first chaplain to queen Catherine 
de Medicis, secretary of the cabinet and reader to Henry 
in. counsellor of state, abbot of Aulnai, and lastly bishop 
of Seez, was bom at Caen in the year 1522, and died the 
8th of June 1611, aged fifty-nine. He was the contem- 
porary and friend of Ronsard and Desportes, and was 
thought superior to either. Some of his stanzas are writ- 
ten with ease and elegance ; and have not been excelled 
by the best poets of our own times. He has left poems 
sacred and profane, canticles, songs, sonnets, and psalms. 
They are .interspersed with several happy thoughts, but 
turned in points, a taste which he caught from Seneca. 
He seems to have conducted himself with great propriety 
after his being advanced to the prelacy^ and the bishop 
blushed at the gaiety of the courtier, but he had too 
much fondness for his early productions to consign them 
to oblivion, and he published them with his pious pieces, 
^' the bane and antidote.'* He left also a translation of 
some books of St, Ambrose, several controversial tracts, 
imperfect ; sermons for the principal festivals of the church, 

^ Biog. Univ.— Diet Hiit.-^7reyeri Theatnim.— Melchior Adam in vitk 
Thilof .— SaxU Onomatt. 

B E R T A U T. 149 

aod a funeral discourse on Henry IV. to whose conversion 
be had greatly coutiibuted. lie was oincle to niadame de 
Motteville, first woman of the bedchamber to Anne of 
Austria, and who published the memoirs of that princess. 
His ^* Oeuvres poetiques'* were printed at Paris, 1602, 8vo, 
and with additions in 1605 ; but the Paris editions of 1620 
and 1623, 8vd, are the most complete. ^ 

BERTEL, or BEtlTELS (John), in Latin Bertelius, 
was born at Louvain, and, in 1576, embraced the monastic 
life, in the monastery of St Benedict, of which he was. 
abb^ for nineteen years. He then removed to the abbey 
of Ecbternach, but was taken prisoner by the Dutch in 
1596, and was not released without paying a very large 
sum. He died at Echternach, June 19, 1607. He pub- 
lished, 1. ^^ In regulam D. Benedicti, dialogi viginti sex : 
catalogus et series abbatum Externacensium'' (of Echter* 
nach) Cologne, 1581, 8vo. 2. ^^ Historia Luxemburgensis^ 
seu Commefftarius quo ducum Luxemburgensium ortus^ 
progressus ac res gestae accurate describuntur,'^ Cologne^ 
I605p 4to.' At the end of this is a dissertation on the god$ 
and sacrifices of the ancient inhabitants of Luxemburgh.. 
The ^^ Respublica Luxemburgica,'' one of Bleau*s little 
^^ Republics,^' 1635, 24mo, was merely an extract from 
BertePs history. ' 

BERTHAULD (Peter), a French historian, was born, 
at Sens in 1600, and entered early into the congregation 
of the oratory, where he taught rhetoric at Marseilles^ after 
that college had been founded in 1625. In 1659, he be-, 
came titular of the archdeaconry of Dunois in the church 
of Chartres, and next year he obtained a canonry, and in 
1666 was promoted to the deanery of the same church. 
His << Florus Gallicus," and *^ Florus Franciscus," which 
were long popular works, and esteemed the best abridg- 
ments of French history, are praised by Le Long for their * 
style ; but the work from which he derived most reputation 
was his learned dissertation ^^ De Ara," Nantes, 1633. He 
had some talent also for Latin poetry, and published oc- 
casional pieces of that kind, as his encomium on the city of 
Troyes, where he was educated, 1631, 8vo, and the de- 
liverance of Casal, ^^ Casallum bis liberatum." Cardinal 
Richelieu, who valued bim^ would have promoted him to 


^ Moreru— Baillet Jagemeni d« Sayans.— Biog. UoiT.— Diet. HiiU 
s Biog. Unif.^Foppen Bibl. Belg. 

150 B E R T H A U L D. 

a bishopric, bu,t he was dissuaded by father Sancy de Har- 
lay, who, among all Berthauld's powers, did not discover 
that of governing a diocese. He died Oct. 19, 1681.* 

BERTHEAU (Charles), a learned French protestant 
divine, long resident in London, was born in 1 660 at Mont- 
pelier : he studied philosophy and divinity, partly in France 
and partly in Holland, and was admitted a minister in the 
synod held at Vigan in 1681, and was next year chosen 
pastor to the church of Montpelier ; but he did not make 
any long stay in that city, for he was soon* after promoted 
to be one of the ministers of the church of Paris. On the 
revocation of the edict of Nantz, Mr. Bertheau found him- 
self obliged to quit his native country. He accordingly 
came to England in 1685, and the following year was 
chosen one of the niinisters of the Walloon church in 
Threadneedle street, London, where he discharged the 
duties of the pastoral office for about forty^four years, in 
such a manner as procured him very general applause. He 
died 25th Dec. 1732, in the seventy-third year of his age. 
He possessed considerable abilities, was distinguished for 
his good sense and sound judgment, and for a retentive 
memory. He was a very eloquent preacher, and has left 
behind him two volumes of sermons printed in French, the 
first in 1712, the second in 1730, with a new edition of 
the first. One of these sermons is on a singular subject, 
which, probably, would not have occurred to him so readily 
in any city as in London, " On inquiring after news in a 
Christian manner," from Acts xvii. 21.* 

BERTHET (John), a learned Jesuit, was born at Ta- 
rascon in Provence, Feb. 24, 1622. Possessed of a remark- 
able memory, he made great piroficiency in ancient and 
modern languages, and acquired much fame as a teacher 
of humanity, philosophy, and divinity in the various col- 
* leges of his order. He also engaged in public disputations 
at Lyons, with the clergry of Geneva and Grenoble, but 
was dismissed from the Jesuits by order of Louis XIV. for 
having had the weakness or curiosity to consult a pro-* 
phetess who made a noise among the credulous at Paris. 
Re then entered among the Benedictines, and died at their^ 
college at Oulx, in 1692. He published, 1. " Trait6 de 
la presence reelie.** 2. *' Trait6 historique de la charge de 
grand aumonierde France,'' a very curious work. 3. "Traits 

* Biog. Uni?. — ^Morejri.<-^Sa]iu OdodusI^ * Blog. Brit. 

B E R T H E T. J51 

sur la chapelle des dues de Bourgogne." He wrote also 
several other pieces on the Tiietouic order, the abbey of 
Cluni, the rights of the king to Avignon and Venaissin, the 
East Indies, the Italian language, and chronology ; some 
of which still remain in manuscript; and various Latin, 
French, Italian, and Provencal pieces of poetry. His cor- 
respondence with men of learning both in France and fo- 
reign countries was very extensive. ' 

BERTHIER (William Francis), a French writer of 
considerable note, was born at Issoudun en Berri April 7, 
1704, and entered among the Jesuits in 1722. He was 
professor of humanity at Blois, of philosophy at Rennes 
and Rouen, and of divinity at Paris. The talents he dis- 
played in these offices made him be chosen in 1742 to 
succeed father Bnimoy, in the continuation of his "His- 
tory of the Gallican Church." This he executed with 
general approbation. In 1745 his superiors enjployed him 
on the Journal de Trevoux, which he conducted for seven- 
teen years, to the satisfaction of the learned and the pub- 
lic in general. This employment, says the abb6 de Fon- 
tenay, procured him a high reputation, by the care and 
accuracy evident in the analysis of the works that came 
before him, and by the style of a masterly, impartial, and 
intrepid critic. But this exact impartiality was displeasing 
to several writers, and especially to Voltaire, When that 
poet published, without his name, his panegyric on Louia 
XV. pere Berthier saw it in no other light than as the at- 
tempt of a young man who was hunting after antitheses,^ 
though not destitute of ingenuity. *|iSo humiliating a cri- 
tique was sensibly felt by Vokaire^ ^wbo made no hesita- 
tion to declare himself the author of the work so severely 
handled. His mortification was increased when pere Ber- 
thier having given an account of a publication, wherein the 
poet was characterised under the title of " the worthy rival 
of Homer and Sophocles," the journalist put coldly in a 
iiote, " We are not acquainted with him.*' But what 
raised the anger of Voltaire to its utmost pitch, was a very 
just censure of several reprehensible passages in his essay 
on general history. The irritated poet declared openly in 
1759 against the Jesuit in a sort of diatribe, which he 
placed after his ode on the death of the margravine of Ba- 
reitb* The Jesuit repelled his shafts with a liberal and 

' Biof. Umv.— Diet Hist. . ' . 

L . 

15J V B E K T H I E R. 

manly spirit in the Journal de Trevoux.. Upon this the 
poet, instead of a serious answer, brought out in 1760 a 
piece of humour, entitled "An account of the sickness^ 
confession, and death of the Jesuit Berthier." The learned 
Jesuit did not think proper to make any reply to an adver- 
sary who substituted ridicule for argument, .and continued 
the Journal de Trevoux till the dissolution of the society 
in France. He then quitted his literary occupations for 
retirement. At the close of 1762 the dauphin appointed 
him keeper of the royal library, and adjunct in th,e educa** 
tion of Louis XVL and of motisieur. But eighteen months 
afterwards, when certain events occasioned the dismission 
of all ex-jesuits from the court, he settled at Ossenbourg, 
from which the empress queen invited him to Vienna ; and 
he was also offered the place of librarian at Milan, but he 
refused all; and after residing here for ten years, obtained 
permission to go to Bourges, where he had a brother and 
a nephew in the church. Here he died of a fall, Dec. 15, 
1782, just after being informed tliat the French clergy 
had decreed him a pension of a thousand livres. The 
chapter of the metropolitan church gave him distinguished 
honours at his interment; a testimony due to a man of 
such eminent piety, extensive erudition, and excellent 

During his residence at Ossenbourg and at Bourges, he 
composed his ^^ Commentaire sur les Psaum^s et sur Isaie/* 
15 vols. 12mo. He published also his ** Oeuvres spiritu- 
elles," 5 vols. 12mo, the best edition of which is that of 
Paris, 1811; " RefuUtion du Contrat Social," 1789, 12mo, 
An *^ Examination of the fourth article of the Declaration 
of the Clergy pf France in 1682," lately printed at Liege, 
1801, and Paris 1809, has been very unjustly and unfairly 
attributed to him. ^ 


BERTHOLON (de St. Lazare), a French philosopher, 
a native of Lyons, who died in 1799, was first distinguished 
at Montpelier, as professor of natural philosophy, an of- 
fice established by the states of Languedoc, and after- 
wards as professor of history at Lyons. He was a man of 
mild manner, communicative and accommodating, and of 
great industry. He was the friend of Dr. Franklin, an4 
according to bis plan, was employed to erect a gr^^^t nun^-^ 

1 Biog. UniverwUe,— Diet Hbtt 

B E R T H O L O N. 153 

ber of conductors, to preserve buildings from lightning, 
in Paris and at Lyotis. Few writers on subjects of natural 
philosophy, &c. have been so successful^ scarce a year 
passing without two or three prizes being adjudged to him 
by the academy, for the best dissertation on the subject 
proposed. The month of August, in which the prizes are 
usually distributed, he used familiarly to call his harvest. 
His principal works are, 1. " Moyen de determiner le 
moment ou le vin en fermentation a acquis toute sa force," 
1781, 4to, a prize essay at Montpelier. 2. " De I'elec-. 
tricit6 du corps humain en etat de sant6 et de maiadie," 
1781, 8vo, a prize dissertation at Lyons, 3. " De I'elec- 
tricit^ des vegetaux," Paris, 1783, 8vo. which the Mbnthly 
Reviewer terms ** a new conquest added to the empire 
which electricity is assuming over the natural world.'* 

4. *^ Preuves de l'efficacit6 des paratonneres," 1783, 4to. 

5. " Des avantages que la physique et lea arts peuvent 
retirer des aerostats,'* 1784, 8vo. 6. " Memoires sur les 
moyens qui ont fait prosperer les manufactures de Lyon," 
&c. 1782, 8vo. 7. " De Pelectricit6 des meteores," 1787. 
8. "Theorie des incendies, &c." 1787, 4to. 9. « De 
I'^au la plus propre a la vegetation," 1786, 4to. Ber- 
tholon was also for some years editor of the Journal of na-- 
tural history, begun in 1787, and of the " Journal dea 
sciences utiles," begun in 1791.* 

BERTHOUD (Ferdinand), an eminent French marine 
clock-maker, a member of the institute, of the royal so-* 
ciety of London, and of the legion of honour, was bora 
March 19, 1727, at Plancemont in Neufchatel. His fa- 
ther, who was an architect and justiciary, had destined him 
for the church ; but the youth having had an opportunity, 
when only sixteen years of age, to examine the mechanisnl 
of a clock, became so fond of that study as to attend to 
nothing else. His father then very wisely encouraged an 
enthusiasm so promising, and after having employed an 
able workman to instruct his son in the elements of clock- 
making, consented that he should go to^Paris to perfect 
his knowledge of the art. He accordingly came to Paris in 
1745, and there constructed his first specimens of marine 
clocks, which soon were universally approved and adopted, 
Berthoud and Peter Leroi were rival makers of these Ion- 

1 Qi^. Uuirerselle.^-^Dict Hist. neiUier of which have given us hii Christian 
name. In his works he is called the abbi Bertholon de St lAZtatt, which w* 
have adopted.-— Monthly Review, vol. LXIV. and LXX. 

154 B E R T H O U D. 

gitudinal clocks, and came very near each other, although 
by different methods, in the construction of them,; but 
Berthoud's superior experience made the preference be 
given to his workmanship. They had both deposited the 
description of their clocks with the secretary of the acade- 
my of sciences, sealed up, more than ten years before 
Harrison^s clocks were proved. Berthoud went twice to 
London, when the inquiries were making concerning Har- 
rison's invention, but returned each time without being 
able to satisfy his curiosity; and therefore, his biographer 
adds, owes nothing to the English artist. Berthoud^s 
works, which are numerous, all relate to the principles of 
his art. 1. "Essay sur THorlogerie," 1763, 2 vols. 4to, 
reprinted 1786. 2. " Eclaircissements sur ^invention des 
Houvelles machines propos6es pour la determination des 
longitudes en mer, par la mesure du tempo," Paris, 1773, 
►4to. 3. " Trait6 des horologes marines," 1773, 4to. Of 
this the reader will find a very ample criticism and analysis 
in vols. L. and LL of the Monthly Review, and an exa- 
mination of Berthoud's pretensions to superiority, com- 
pared with the prior attempts of Hooke aiid Harrison. 
4. " De la mesure du temps," a supplement to the preced- 
ing, 1787, 4to. 3. " Les longitudes par la mesure du temps," 
1775, 4 to. 6. ^^ La mesure du temps appliquee a la navi- 
gation,'' 1782, 4tp. 7. ^^ Histoire de la mesure du tempa 
paries horologes," 1802, 2 vols. 4to. 8. " L'Art de conduire 
et de regler les pendules et les montres." This, although 
mentioned last, was his first publication in 1760, and has 
often been reprinted. He wrote also some articles on his 
particular branch in the French Encyclopedia. Berthoud, 
by means of a regular and temperate system, preserved 
his faculties to the last« He died of a dropsy in the chest, 
June 20, 1 807, at his house at Groslay, in the canton of 
Montmorency. His nephew, Louis, his scholar and the 
heir of his talents, carries on the business of marine-clock 
making with equal success, and is said to have brought these 
machines to a superibr degree of exactness. ^ 

BERTI (Alexander Pompey)^ a learned Italian, was 
born at Lucca, Dec. 23, 1686. He entered when sixteen 
into the congregation, called the Mother of God at Naples, 
and prosecuted his studies with success and perseverance. 
On his return to Lucca he acquired great reputation as a 
general scholar and preacher^ and in 1717, taught rheto- 

1 Bio;. Unhrenelle.— Diet. Hi8t.—MonUi]y Reriew^ ubi supra. 

B E R T L 155 

ric at Naples. The marquis de Vasto having appointed 
him to be bis librarian, he increased the collection with a 
number of curious books, of which he had an accurate 
knowledge, and also greatly enlarged the library of bis 
convent. He introduced among his brethren a taste for 
polite literature, and formed a colony of Arcadians. In 
J 739, he settled finally at Rome, where he was appointed 
successively vice-rector, assistant-general, and historian of 
his order. He was one of the most distinguished members 
of the society of the Arcadians at Home, and of many 
other societies. He died at Rome, of an apoplexy, March 
23, 1752. Mazzuchelli has given a catalogue of twenty-* 
four works published by him, and of twenty-one that re- 
main in manuscript. Among these we may notice, 1. "La 
Caduta de' decemviri della Romana repnbiica per la fun- 
zione della serenissima repiiblica di Lucca," Luccd, 1717* 
2. " Canzone per le vittorie contro il Turco del principe 
Eageiiio," ibid, without date, 4to. 3. The lives of 8eve-» 
ral of the Arcadians, printed in the prose memoirs of th^t 
academy, under his academic name of Nicasio Poriniano« 
4. Translations into the Italian of several French authors ; 
^nd poetical pieces in various collections. 5. We owe 
to him chiefly an important bibliographical work, ^* Cata* 
logo della libreria Capponi, con annotazioni in diversi 
luoghi," Rome, 1747, 4to. It is the more necessary ici 
notice this work, because the editor Giorgi, who has 
given very little of his own, does not once mention Berti's 
name. Among his unpublished works is one of the bio- 
graphical kind, ^^ Memorie degli scrittori Lucchesi,'' a 
collection of the lives of the writers of Lucca. It being 
well known, as early as 1716, that this was ready for the 
press, Mai^zuchelli, who had waited very patiently for 
what was likely to be of so much service to himself, at 
lengtli, in 1739, took the liberty to inquire of ' Berti the 
cause 4>f a delay so unusual. Berti answered that the diffi- 
culties he had met with had obliged him to re-write his 
work, and dispose it in a new order ; tBat the names were 
ranged according to the families ; the most ancient families 
had been replaced by new ones in the various offices of 
dignity in that little republic, and the new heads and all 
their relations were not very fond of being reminded that 
their, ancestors were physicians, men of learning, and 
*^ people of that sort." * 

> Bio|;. Universelle.— MazzuclielU.«->Saxu OBomaBticom 

156 B E R T I. 



BERTI (John Lawrence), a famous Augustine monk, 
born May 28, 1696, at Serravezza, a small village in Tus- 
cany, was called to Rome by his superiors, and obtained 
the title of assistant-general of Italy, and the place of pre- 
fect of the papal library. His great proficiency in theolo- 
gical studies procured him these distinctions, and appeared 
to advantage in his grand work, '* De disciplinis theologi- 
cis,'' printed at Rome in 8 vols. ^to. He here adopts the 
sentiments of St. Augustine in tlieir utmost rigour, after 
the example of Bellelli his brother^monk. The' archbishop 
of 'Vienna [Sal6on], or rather the Jesuits who managed 
him, published under his name in 1744, two pieces against 
the two Augustine theologues, inveighing against them as 
being too severely Augustine. The first is entitled, 
*^ Baianismus redivivus in scriptis pp. Bellelli et Berti," in 
4to. The second bore this title : ^* Jansenismus redivivua 
in scriptis pp. Bellelli et Berti,*' in 4to. At the same time 
father Berti was accused to pope Benedict XIV. as a disci- 
ple of Baius and of Jansenius. The prudent pontiff, with- 
out returning any answer to the accusers, advised Berti to 
defend himself; which he accordingly did in a work of 
two vols. 4to, 1749. In this apology, rather long, though 
learned and lively, he laid down the difference there is 
between Jansenism and Augustinianism. After this piece 
Berti broi^ght out several others, the. principal of which is 
an ecclesiastical history in Latin, in 7 vols. 4to : it made 
however but little way out of Italy, by reason of the dry- 
ness of the historian, and of hi$ prejudices in favour of 
exploded tenets. He speaks of the pope, both in his the- 
ology and in his history, as the absolute monarch of king- 
doms and empires^ and that all other princes are but bis 
lieutenants. Berti wrote also dissertations, dialogues, pa^ 
negyrics, academical discourses, and some Italian poems, 
which are by no means his best productions. An editioa 
in folio of all his works has been printed at Venice. He 
died at the age of 70, May 26, 1766, at Pisa, whither he 
had been called by Francis I. grand duke of Tuscany. ^ 

BERTIE (Robert), earl of Lindsey, and lord high 
chamberlain of England in the reign of Charles I. was the 
eldest son of Peregrine 'lord Willoughby, of Eresby, by . 
Mary, daughter to John Vere earl of Oxford, and grand- 
son of Richard Bertie, esq. by Catherine, duchess of Suf» 

1 Biog. Univertelie.— Mazzuchelli^ Tol. n.«— Fabroni Vlts Italorunij yol. lU 
p. 43.— Diet. HiiU 

BERTIE. 157 

folk. He was born in 1582, and in 1601, upon the death 
of his father^ succeeded to his title and estate. In the first 
year of the reign of James I. he made his claim to the 
earldom of Oxford, and to the titles of lord Bulbech, 
Sandfbrd, and Badlesmere, and to the office of lord high 
chamberlain of England, as son and heir to Mary, the sole 
heir female of that great family; and, after a considerable 
dispute, had judgment given in his favour for the office of 
lord high chamberlain, and the same year took his seat in 
the house of lords above all the barons^ On the 22d of 
November, 1636, he was advanced* to the dignity of earl 
of Lindsey ; and four years after made knight of the gar- 
ter ; and the next year constable of England for the trial 
of the lord Rea and David Ramsey, in fhe court military. 
Ill 1635 he yvsLS constituted lord high admiral of England ; 
and a fleet of forty ships of war was sent out under him. 
Jn 1639, upon the Scots taking arms, he was made gover- 
nor of Berv^ick. The year following he was appointed 
lord high constable of England at the trial of the earl of 
Straffijrd. In 1642, he was constituted general of the 
king's forces ; and on the 23d of October the same year 
received his death's wound in his majesty's service at the 
battle of Edgehill in the county of Warwick. 

The fortune, which he inherited from his ancestors, wa» 
a veiy considerable one ; and though he did not manage it 
with such care, as if he desired much to improve it, yet 
he left it in a very fair condition. He was a man of great 
honour, and spent his youth and the vigour of his age in 
military actions and commands abroad. And though he 
indulged himself in great liberties, yet he still preserved 
a very great interest in his country; as appears by the 
supplies, which he an^ his son brought to the king's army, 
the companies of his own regiment of foot being com- 
manded by the principal knights and gentlemen of Lin- 
colnshire, who engaged themselves in the service princi- 
pally out of their personal affection to him. He was of a 
very generous nature, and punctual in what he undertook, 
and in exacting what was due to him ; which made him 
bear the restriction so heavily, which was put upon him by 
the commission granted to prince Rupert, who was gene* 
ral of the horse, in which commission there was a clause 
exempting him from receiving orders from any but the 
king himself; and by the king's preferring the prince's 
opinion in all matters relating to the war before his. Nor 

158 BERTIE. 

I , 


did he conceal his resentment ; for the day before the bat« 
tie, he said to some friends, with whom he had used free- 
dom^ that he did not look upon himself as general ; and 
therefore he was resolved, when the day of battle should 
come, that he would be at the head of his regiment as a 
private colonel, where he would die. He was carried out 
of the field to the next village ; and if he could then have 
procured surgeons, it was thought bis wound would not 
have proved mortal. A&^soon as the other army was com« 
posed by the coming on of the night, the earl of Essex 
about midnight sent sir William Balfour, and some other 
officers, to see him, and designed himself to visit him. 
They found him upon a little straw in a poor house, where 
they had laid him in his blood, which had run from him in 
great abundance.. He said, he was sorry to see so many 
gentlemen, some whereof were his old friends, engaged in 
so foul a rebellion ; wishing them to tell the earl of Essex, 
that he ought to throw himself at the king's feet to beg his 
pardon; which if he did. not speedily do, his memory 
would be odious to the nation. He continued his discourse 
with such vehemence, that the officers by degrees with- 
drew themselves, and prevented the visit, which the earl 
of Essex intended him, who only sent him the best sur- 
geons ; but in the very opening of his wounds he died, 
before the morning, by the loss of blood. He had very 
many friends, and very few enemies, and died generally 
lamented. His body was interred at Edenham in Lincoln- 

He married Elizabeth, only child of Edward, the first 
lord Mountagu of Boughton in Northamptonshire, and had 
issue by her nine sons and five daughters, and was suc- 
ceeded in his titles and estate by his eldest, Mountagu, who 
at the battle of Edge-hill, where be commanded the royal 
regiment of guards, seeing his father wounded and taken 
prison, was moved with such filial piety, that he volun- 
tarily yielded himself to a commander of horse of the 
enemy, in order to attend upon him. He afterwards ad- 
hered firmly to his majesty in all his distresses, and upon^ 
the restoration of -king Charles II. was made knight of. the 
garter. * 

scendant of the preceding, was bom in 1740, and suc- 

^ Birch's Lives. — Biog. Brit » 


ceeded his father William^ the third earl, in 1760. His 
lordship was educated at Geneva, where he probably im- 
bibed some of the democratic principles of the philoso- 
phists in that republic. He generally opposed the mea* 
sures of administration .with declamatory vehemence, and 
his frequent^speeches in the house of peers were singularly 
eccentric,* but added little weight or dignity to the cause 
he supported. The editor, however, of Mr. Wilkes's 
speeches (in all probability Mr. Wilkes himself) characi' 
terises this noble earl *^ as one of the most steady and in- 
trepid assertors of liberty in this age. No gentleman was 
ever more formed to please and captivate in private life, 
or has been more deservedly, more generally, esteemed 
and beloved. He possesses true honour in the highest de-> 
gree, has generous sentiments of friendship, and to supe-^ 
rior manly sense joins the most easy wit, with a gaiety of 
temper which diffuses universal chearfulness : it is impos- 
sible not to be charmed with the happy prodigality of na- 
ture in his favour ; but every consideration yields with him 
to a warm attachment to the laws and constitution of Eng* 
land.'* Much of this character may be just, yet his lord- 
ship was less respected as a public character or partizan than 
^he himself thought he deserved. He had, in particular, a 
very high opinion of his speeches, and that the public 
might not lose the benefit of them, be sent copies to the 
different newspapers with a handsome fee, which ensured 
that prominence in the debate which nright not otherwise 
have been assigned to them. This custom was no doubt 
gratifying to himself and his friends, but it proved on one 
occasion peculiarly unfortunate. Having made a violent 
attack on the character of an attorney belonging to the 
court of king's bench, and sent the speech containing it, 
as usual, to the papers, he was prosecuted and sent to 
prison for some months, as the publisher of a libel. 

Ih 1777, he published a pamphlet which excited much 
attention, entitled, "Thoughts on the letter of Edmund 
Burke, esq. to the sheriffs of Bristol, on the affairs of 
America," Oxford, 8vo. This went through six editions, 
from that time to 1780. An anonymous reply was pub- 
lished, much admired for its force of irony ; and major 
Cartwright addressed a letter to the earl, discussing a po- 
sition relative to a fundamental right of the constitution, 
1778 : this induced his lordship to add a dedication to his 
sixth edition, " To the collective body of the people of 

reo B E R T 1 E. 

England.'* He is also the reputed author of " A Lettef 
to lady Loughborough^ in consequence of her presentation 
of the colours to the Bloomsbury and Inns of Court A8so<» 
ciatiou ; with a public letter to the university of Oxford," 
1798 ; a rhapsodical epistle, which the influence of his 
lordship^s name operating on curiosity, carried through 
eight or nine editions. His lordship died in 1799. ^ 

BERTIER (Joseph Stephen), of the oratory, was borof 
at Aix in Provence, in 1710, and died Nov. 15, 1783. 
He is known by two worksr which at the time made some 
noise among the naturalists ; one is entitled, ^^ Physique 
des cometes,'* 1760, r2nio; the other, "Physique des 
corps animus," 1755, 12mo. The author had cultivated 
the sciences with success ; and in person had a striking re* 
semblance to pere Malebranche. His character appears 
to have been very excellent. Of all the men of learning 
in Paris, he was the most obliging, and strangers were aU 
ways desirous of a recommendation to Bertier, as a sure 
means of being introduced to the most celebrated charac* 
ters, and to every object of curiosity. In philosophy he 
was a Cartesian long after that System had been given up. 
Louis XV. called him, on this account, le pere aux tour^ 
billons. He was the author of some other works besides 
those above mentioned, but they are not in much repute. * 

BERTIN ' (Anthony), a mqdern French poet of the, 
Ovidian cast, was born in the isle of. Bourbon, Oct. 10, 
1752, and died at St. Domingo June 1790. He was 
brought to France for education at the age of nine, and 
after studying for some time in the college of Plessis, en« 
tered the military service, and became a captain of horse 
and a chevalier of l^t. Louis. In his twentieth year he dis- 
tinguished himself as a poet, although his effusions were 
circulated principally among bis friends; but in 1782, 
when he published four books of elegies under the title of 
** Amours," a very honourable rank appears to have been 
assigned to him among the minor poets of France. He 
was intimately connected widi chevalier de Parny, another 
poet of the amatory class, and who was termed the French 
TibuUus, and they lived together in the utmost amity^ al- 
though rivals in the public favour. About the end of the 
year 1789, Bertin went to St. Domingo to marry a young 

A Gent Mag. 1798, 1799.— Park's Royal and Noble Authors. 
* Biof . UBiyerselle.— Diet. Hist 

B E R T I N* t€l 

t^reole, with whom he had formed an acquaintarice iii Paris^ 
biit on the day of marriage he was seised with a Tiolent 
fe^er, of which he died in a few daysi His works, were 
collected and published at Paris in 1785, 2 vols. 18mo. 
and reprinted in 1802 and 1806. ^ 

BERTIN (ExWKRius Joseph), an eminent Fif^nch ana- 
tomist, was born at Tremblay in Britanny, Sept. 21, 1712. 
At the age of three he was left an orphan, yet learned 
Latin almost without a master, aud was sent afterwards toi 
Rennes to complete his education. He then went to Parisf 
and studied medicine with such success, that, in 1737, he 
took his doctor's degree at Rheims, and in 1741 was ad- 
mitted a regent member of the faculty of Paris. About the 
end of that year he accepted the place of physician to the 
prince of Moldavia^ but after two years returned to France, 
The academy of sciences which had in his absence chosen 
him a corresponding member, now^ in 1744, admitted him 
to the honour of being an associate without the intermedi- 
ate rank of adjunct The fatigues, however, which he had 
encountered in Moldavia, and his assiduous application to 
anatomical studies, had at this time impaired his . healthy 
and, joined to a nervous temperament, threw him into a 
state of mental debility which interrupted his studies for 
three years. He was afterwards recommended to travel^ 
and it was not until the year 1750 that he recovered his 
health and spirits, and was enabled to resume his studies 
at Gahard, a retired spot near Reniies* There also he em- 
ployed some part of his time in the education of his children^ 
and bis reputation brought him extensive practice. On 
Feb. 21, 1781, he was seized with a complaint in his 
breast, which carried him off in four days. Before and 
after his long illness, he had furnished several valuable 
papers to the memoirs of the academy of sciences, parti>^ 
cularly three on the circulation in the foetus. His princi- 
pal publications were, l."Trait6 d'Osteologie," 1754> 
4 vols. 12mo, a very popular work at that time^ and still 
deserving of perusal. It was intended as the first part of a 

general course of anatomy. "2. " Lettre au D ^ sur le 

nouveau systeme de la Voix,^' Hague, 1745, 8vo. This 
being answered by Ferrein, or his pupil Moutagnat, our 
author, without putting his name to it, defended his door 
trine in " Lettres sur le nouveau ^systeme de la Voix, c^t 
sur les arteres lympbatiques,*' 1748; -v^. ^' Consultation sur 

> Biag» UniTertelle,— Diet; HlH. 

Vol. V. M 

163 B E R T I N: 

la legitimit^ defli nai«sances tardives/* 1764andlt65y $ro. 
His chief argument here- seems to be the sinfiple position 
that if there are early births^ there may also be laie births^ 
4«-^f Memoire sur les consequences relatives a la prati^ 
que, deduites de la structure des os parieiaux,*' inserted ia 
the Journal de Medicine, 1756. He left in manuscript 
Memoirs on Moldavia, which his son Ren4 Joseph, an 
eminent physician of Paris, intends to publish* ' 

BERTIN (Nicholas), painter, and disciple of Jouvenfet 
and de BouUogne the elder, ?ms born at Paris in 1664. 
His father wa^ a sculptor. The academy of painting de-> 
creed him the first prize at the age of eighteen, and admitted 
him afterwards of their number. During his stay at Rome 
he completed his studies. At his return to France he was 
appointed director of the Roman school ; but an afiair of 
gallantry, which rendered it unsafe for him to return to 
Rome, prevented him from accepting that place. Louis 
XIV. and the electors of Mentz and of Bavaria employed 
him successively in various works. The last was desirous 
of attaching him to himself by handsome pensions ; but 
Bertin would never consent to quit his country. He died 
at Paris in 1736. His manner was vigorous and graceful ; 
but his escellenoe lay chiefly in small pictures. At Paris 
there are several works of his in the church of St. Luke> 
the abbey of St. Germain des pres, and in the halls of the 
academy. ' 

BERTINI (Anthony Francis), an Italian physician, 
and a man of learning and §ki}l, yet perhaps less known 
for these qualities, than for his literary disputes, was born at 
Castel Fiorentino Dec. 28, 1655. After studying at 
Sienna and Pisa a complete course, not only of medicine^ 
but mathematics, astronomy, belles-lettres, &c. he was, 
in 1678, created doctor in philosophy and medicine, and 
then settled at Florence, where after very successful prac- 
tice for many years, he died Dec. '10, 1726. His first 
publication was entitled ** La Medicina difesa contra- la 
calunnie degli nonrini volgari e dalle opposiziotii de* dotti, 
divisa in due dialoghi,*' Lucca^ 1699, 4to. and ibid. 170^. 
In the second of these dialogues be pays high compliments 
to three physicians belonging to the court of Tuscany, but 
Miits Moneglia, the fourth, which brought on a control. 
"weny between Bertini akid him ;' and soniie time aft^warda 

1 Biog. Univ. — Eloges by Condorc«t, vol. II. p; 283, 
^ D'Argenville.— PiHdDgtoiu— Bior. UniverscUe* 

B E R T I N t. 16tf 

he was InTObred in two other disputes with bis brethren, hy 
which neither party gained much credit. His son Joseph 
Maria Xavier, who died in 1756, ivasalso a physician, and 
of far more <:elebrity as a practitioner ; but he published 
9Qly a discourse pronounced in 1744, on the medical use 
of mercury in general, which at that time excited the at« 
tention of the learned in no small degree. It was entitled 
*^ DelV uso esterno e interno del Mercurio, discorso, &c.*' 

, BERTIUS (P£T£R)^ cosmographer and historiographer 
to Louis XIIL of France, and regius professor of mathe« 
maties, was born at Bevereu in Flanders, on the confines 
of the dioceses of Bruges and Ypres, Nov. 14, 1565. He 
was brought into England when but three months old, by 
bis parents, who dreaded the pensecution of the protestants 
which then prevailed in the Netherlands. He veceived the 
rudiments of his education in the suburbs of London, under 
Christian Rychius^ and his learned daughter-in-law, Petro* 
nia Lansberg. He afterwards completed his education at 
Leyden, whither his father, then become protestant mini* 
ster at Rotterdam, removed him' in his twelfth year. In 
1582, when only seventeen years of age, he began the 
employment of teaching, which he carried on at Dunkirk^ 
Ostend, Middleburgh, Goes, and Strasburgh ; but a de« 
sire for increasing his own stock of learning induced him 
to travel into Germany with Lipsius, and the same object 
led him afterwards into Bohemia, Silesia, Poland^ Russia^ 
and Prussia. On his return to Leyden he was appointed 
to a professor's chair, and to die care of tbie library, of 
which, after arranging it properly, he published a cata- 
log^. In 1606, he was appointed regent of the coUegOi 
but afterwards, havihg taken part with the disciples of Ar« 
minius, and published several works against those of Go- 
marus, he was dismissed from all his employments, and 
deprived of every means of subsistence, with a numerous 
family. In March 1620, he presented a petition to the 
States of Holland for a pension, which was refused. Two 
^ years before, Lodis XIIL had honoured him with the title 
of his cosmographer, and now constrained by poverty and 
the distress of his family, he went to France and embraced 
the popish religion, a change which gave great uneasiness 
to the protestants. Some time after he was appointed 
professor of rhetoric in the college of Boncourt, then histo- 
riographer to the king, and lastly assistant to the regiua 

M 2 

164 B E R T I U S. 


professor bf mathematics. He died Oct. 3, 1629. A rery 
fine engraving of him occurs at the bacK of the dedication 
to Louis XIII. of his ** Theatrom Geographice veteris,** 
but (the collectors will be glad to hear) only in some copies 
of that work, which are supposed to have been presents 
from the author. 

Bertius W9A the author of a great many works, which 
inay be divided into two classes, theological and geogra- 
phical ; the former, which were the cause of all his mis* 
fortunes, are now forgotten, but the latter are still read 
or consulted. The most in demand is his ** Theatrum 
Geographic vetemm,'' 2 vols. fol. 1618 and 1619, yet this 
collection, of which Bertius was only the editor, and not 
a very careful editor, seems to have enjoyed more repu- 
tation than it deserves. The first volume is entirely com* 
posed, of Ptolomey's Geography, in Greek and Latin, re- 
printed from . an edition published about fourteen years 
before by Montanus, and conmoonly called Mercator*s edi- 
tion, and Bertius hsis only added some various readings 
from a manuscript in the Palatine library, with which Syl- 
burgius had furnished him ; but on the other hand, he has- 
neglected to correct a great many errors in Montanus's 
edition. The second volume contains Antoninus's Itinerary, 
and the works of other geographers, without a single note 
from his own pen. His other geographical works are, 1* 
** Commentariorum rerum Germanicarum libri tres,*' Am- 
sterdam, 1616, 4to, and 1635, 12mo. 2. '^ Notitia cho- 
rographica episcopatuum Galliae/' Paris, 1625, fol. 3. 
•* Breviarium orbis terrarum,'* Leipsic, 1662, 12mo. This 
is added at the end of Cluverius's Introduction to^univer- 
sal Geography, Amst. 1676, 4to. 4. '^ Imperium Caroli 
M. et vicinsB regioues, Paris, fol. a map, which has been 
since added to Hondius^s Atlas. 5. ** Variie orbis universe 
et ejus partium tabulse, &c.'' oblong 4to. 6. '' De agge- 
ribus et pontibus hactenus ad mare extructis digestum 
novum,*' Paris, 1629. Bertius was also editor of *^ lUus- 
U'ium et clarorum virorum epistolas selectiores,'' Leyden, 
1617, 8vo, and wrote prefaces to various editions of books. * 

SERTOLI (John Dominici:), an Italian antiquary of 
the last century, was born of a noble family, at Mereto in 
the Frioul, March 13, 1676, and after studying atVeniee, 

1 Biog. Udit. — Chaufepie Diet. Hist. — ^Moreri. — Meursii Athens Batave.— » 
Toi>peii Bibl. Belg.— -Baillet Jugemens des Savan«. — ^Fieheri Theatrum.^-SaxiA 
OiMina«.-<-JB«nBMiii*s Syllofe Epist. vol. 1. p. 67& 

B E R T O L I. 16S 

was ordained a priest in 170a The same year he became 
canon* coadjutor of the patriarchal church of Aquileia, and 
soon after titular. He had already acquired a decided taste 
for the study of antiquities, and was in a country abound^ 
ing with objects to gratify it, most of which/ however, had 
been greatly neglected, and even destroyed by the ignorant 
inhabitants, who converted every remains of antiquity in 
stone to the common purposes of building. To prevent 
this for the future, Bertoli formed a society of men of 
learning and similar taste, who began with purchasing 
every valuable relic they could find, and placed the col- 
lection in the portico of the canons' house, where it soon 
became an object of curiosity, not only to travelFers, but 
to the Aquileians themselves. At the same time he copied, 
or caused to be copied, all the monuments in the town, and 
in the whole province, and entered into an extensive cor- 
respondence with many eminent characters, particularly 
Fontanini, to whom he liberally communicated his disco- 
veries, in hopes they might be useful to that learned pre* 
late; but be having deceased in 1736, Bertoli resolved to 
take upon himself what he had expected from him, and 
was encouraged in this design by Muratori and Apostolo 
Zeno. Accordingly he began to publish a series of me- 
moirs and dissertations on subjects of antiquity, which he 
wrote at his native place, Mereto, where he resided for 
such periods as his official duties at Aquileia permitted. 
In 1747 he was elected a member of the Columbarian so- 
ciety of Florence, and next year of that of Cortona, and 
died a few years afterwards, but the date is not ascertained 
in either of our authorities. His principal publication is 
entitled '< Le Antichita diAquileja profane e sacre," Ve- 
uiae 1739, foL He had made preparations for a second 
and third volume, but did not live to complete them. Se- 
veral of his letters and dissertations relative to this work, 
and to various subjects of antiquity, are printed in Calo- 
g^ra's valuable collection, vols. XXVI. XXXIII. XLIII. 
XLVIL XLVIII. &c.; others are inserted in the Memoirs of 
r the Columbarian Society of Florence, and in similar col- 
lections. ^ 

BERTON (WilliamJ, an eminent divine of the four- 
teenth century, and doctor in that faculty, flourished about 
the year 1381, in the reign of Richard II. and was some 

' Bio|;. Univ.— ^SaxtiOaomasticoQ. 

16« B E R T O N* 

time chancellor of the university of Oxford. He is' chiefly 
remarkable for bis opposition to the doctrines of WicklifF: 
for, by virtue of bis office, as governor of the university^ 
be appointed twelve censors, six of the order of mendi* 
cants, and six seculars, consisting of divines and lawyers, 
to examine WicklifF*s opinions ; who accordingly declared 
bim an heretic. He wrote likewise several pieces upon the 
subject of WickliflF's pretended heresy ; particularly ** De- 
terminations against WicklifF; a treatise concerning his just 
condemnation ;^' and another ^< against the Articles ex« 
tracted from his writings.*' Bale and Pits give him very 
different characters, according to their principles. ' 

BERTOUX (William), a French Jesuit, was bom Nov. 
}4, 1723. On the suppression of his order he retired to 
Senlis, where he had a canonry given him, and where be 
died, but when is not mentioned. He wrote the following 
books which were much esteemed in France, but would 
not suffer his name to appear to any of them : 1. ^^ Histoire 
poetique tir^e des poetes Frangais, Paris, 1767, 12mo, and 
a fourth edition, 1786. 2. '^ Anecdotes Fran^aises depuis 
Tetablissement de la monarchie jusqu'au regue de Louist 
XV." ibid. 1767, 8vo. 3. " Anecdotes Espagnoles et Por- 
tugaises," Pafis, 1773, 2 vols. 8 vo.* 


BERTRAM (Cornelius Bonaventure), minister, and 
professor of Hebrew at Geneva, at Frankentbal, and at Lau*** 
sanne, was bom atThouars in Poitou, in 1531, of a re- 
putable family, allied to the house of la Trimouille, and 
escaped the massacre of St. Bartholomew by flying to Cahora 
and afterwards to Geneva. He died at Lausanne in 1594* 
He gave to the world, 1 . ^^ A dissertation on the Republic 
of the Hebrews,'^ Geneva, 1580; again at Leyden in 164^1^ 
8vo, written with precision and method. 2. ^^ A revision 
of the French Bible of Geneva, according to the Hebrevr 
text,'' Geneva, 1588. He corrected that version (bji Cal- 
vin and Olivetan) in a great number of places; but iu 
others he has too closely followed the authority of the Rab* 
bins, and not sufEciently that of the old interpreters. It 
is the Bible still in use among the Calvinists. 3.. A new 
edition of the ^' Thesaurus lingu^ sanctsB*' of Pagninus. 
4. " A parallel of the Hebrew Tongue with the Arabic.'* 

1 Bioff. Brit— Ba1e.-»Pit8.-*Wood*s Annals of Oxford. 
• Bioi;. Univ.— DieU Hist, 

BERTRAM.. l€7 

S. ^ Luciibrationes Frankendalenses,*' 1685, or explana- 
tions on difficult passages of the New Testament, so called 
because written at Frankentbal. ' 

BERTRAM (Phiup-Ebnbst), professor of law at HaUe^ 
was born at Zerbst, in 1726, and studied at Halle and 
Jena. In 1746 he was governor of the pages at Weimar ; 
in 1753, private secretary, and then secretary of state, 
which he resigned in 1761, in order to retire to Halle, 
where he became professor of law, and died Oct. 13, 1777. 
He was ^-man of high reputation for learning, especially 
in history and feudal law.^ His principal works, which aro 
all in German, are, 1. *^ An Essay on the History of Learn-* 
ing,*' Gotha, 1764, 4to. 2. <^ History of the house and 
principality of Anhalt,*' continued by M. J. C. Krause, 
part I. 1780, 8vo. 3. ** Ferreras' History of Spain", con- 
tinued down to his own time, vols. 11, 12, and 13, 1762«*-« 
1772, 4to.» 

BERTRAND (Euas), an ingenious Swiss writer, long 
known by his labours in various branches of philosophy 
and literature, and especially in natural history and poli* 
tical and rural economy, was born at Orbe in Swisserland, 
in 1712. In 1739 he was pastor of that village, and in 
1744 preacher at Bern, whence he was called by the late 
king of Poland, ^ preside at a boai:4 <>f commerce, agri- 
culture, and useful^ arts, the operations of which (and, if 
we are not mistaken, its very existence) were suppressed 
by the subsequent troubles of that unhappy country. He 
was also a member of the academies of Stockholm, Ber<* 
lin, Florence Lyons, &c. His principal works are, 1. ^ Ser* 
mons prononc^s k Berne a Toccasion de la decouverte 
d^une Conspiration centre I'etat," 1749, 8vo. Two of 
these are by Bertrand, the third by J. J. Altmann. 2. *^ Me« 
moires sur la Structure interieure de la Terre,'* 1752, 8vo. 
3. ** Essais sur les usages des montagnes, avec un lettre 
sur la Ni V 1754, 4to; a work which Denina styles ex^ 
cellent. His object is to prove that divine wisdom ia 
strongly manifested in the creation of mountains ; and that 
they are not, as many authors have asserted, imperfections 
of the terrestrisil globe, much less the effects of a ruined 
world. This he proves with considerable skill, but in some 
respects is rather fanciful. 4. ^^Memoires pour servir i 

i-Biog. Univ.— Diet. Hitt— Moreri.-*Baillet Jagemcns daa ffiiTnnii — fistii 
OBomaH. > Biog« UnivefieUe. 

1«8 B E R T R A N D. 


B^.instruire des tremblements de terre de la Suisse, princU 
p^Iement pour Fannie 1755, avec quatre Sermons pro- 
nonc6es a cette occasion/' 1756, 8vo. 5. The same " Me- 
moires,'* published separately, 1757, 8vo, and much en- 
larged, a work embracing all that was known before on the 
subject, and enriched with many candid and able illustra* 
tions by the author. 6. " Le Philanthrope," 1758, 2 vols. 
i2mo, 7. ^^ Recherches sur les langoes anciennes et mo« 
dernes de la Suistse, et priucipalement du pays de Vaud,'* 
1758, 8vo. 8. A translation of Derham's Astro- theology ; 
and of BuUinger's Confession of Faith, both in 1760. 9. 
** Museum," 1763. 10. ** Dictionnaire Universel des Fos- 
siles propres, etdes Fossils accidentels," 1763, 2 vols. 8vo. 
11.^^ Recueil de divers trait^s sur Thistoire naturelle de la 
Terre etdes Fossiles," 1766, 4to. 12. " Morale de TEvan- 
gile,'' 1775, 7 vols. 8vo. 13. "LeThevenon, ou les Jour- 
nees de laMontagtie, 1777, 12mo, 1780, 2 vols. 8vo. 14. 
^^ Essai philosophique et moral sur le Plaisir,'' 1778, 12mOy 
an excellent work, which, from the account given of it in 
the Monthly Review, seems highly disserving of a transla- 
tion. 15. ^^ Le solitaire du Mont-Jure, recreations d'un 
philosophe,'' 1782, 12mo. The time of this writer's death 
is not ascertained, but he was considerably advanced in 
years at the period of this last publication. ^ 

BEBTRAND (John Baptist), a French physician, 
and member of the academy of Marseilles, was born at 
Martigue in Provence, July 12, 1670. He was at first 
intended for the church, and went through a theological 
course, but his inclination leading him to medicine, he 
studied the same at Montpellier. After having practised 
for some time in his native country, he removed with his 
family to Marseilles. His three colleagues at the Hotel- 
Dieu of that city having withdrawn their services during 
the contagious fever of 1709, he remained alone to pre- 
scribe for the poor suiferers, and escaped without an attack, 
which probably encouraged him to show the same. zeal 
during the • plague in 1720. On this occasion, however, 
he saw almost his whole family fall a sacrifice to their hu-« 
mane care of the sick, and was himself attacked with the 
disorder, but at length recovered, and the government, in 
fionsideration of his services, granted him a pension, which 
)ie enjoyed until his death, Sept. 10, 1752. He was a 


1 Bioff. Univ.— Month. EeY. vol LVIXI. 

B E RT R A N D. 16^ 

man of amiable temper, disinterested^ kind and ingenuous. 
HeVrote, 1. ^< Relation historique de la Peste de Mar* 
. seille," Lyons, 1721, 12mo. 2. " Lettres sur le mouve- 
ment des Muscles et sur les Esprits Animaux." 3. *^ Re- 
flexions sur le systeme de la Trituration,^' published in the 
Journal de Trevoux. 4. " Dissertation sur Tair maritime,'* 
Marseilles^ 4to, &g. * 

BERTRANDI (John Ambrose Maria), an eminent ana-- 
tomist and surgeon, was born at Turin, Oct. 18, 1723. His 
father, who was oiriy a poor phiebotomist and barber, con- 
trived to give him an education, and intended to bring him 
up to the church, which was thought most likely to afford 
him a maintenance, but one of their friends Sebastian 
Klingher, then professor of surgery, induced him to study 
that branch, in which he soon evinced *great talents^ He 
was only twenty-two when he read a dissertation on Oph- 
thalmography, on which Haller and Portal bestowed the 
highest praise. The celebrated Bianchi connected him^ 
self with him, but after a few years their friendship was 
interrupted by the literary disputes which took place be- 
tween Bianchi and Morgagni, and Bertrandi preferring 
what he thought truth to a friendship which was of great 
importance to him, was obliged to leave Bianchi. In 1747 
be was elected an associate of the college of surgery, and 
the same year published his " Dissertation on the Liver,'* 
which, Haller says, contains many useful observations. In 
1752, the king, Charles Emmanuel, offered to bear his ex- 
penses to Paris and London. He accordingly went to Paris, 
where he increased his knowledge and practice of the art 
of surgery, and in consequence of his two papers read in 
the academy, ** De Hydrocele,'' and ** De hepatis absces- 
sibus qui vulneribus capitis superveniunt," - was admitted 
as a foreign member. In 1754 he went to London, and 
lodged for a year with sir William Bromfield, our late 
eminent surgeon, during which time» as at Paris, he stu- 
died hospital practice, and cultivated the acquaintance of 
men of science. On his return to Turin, the king founded 
for his sake a new professorship of practical surgery and 
anatomy, and at Bertrandi's request, built a handsome 
amphitheatre in the hospital of St. John. He was after- 
' wards appointed first surgeon to the king, and professor 
«f chemistry in the university. Surgery now, which had 

1. Biog. UniTerselle. 

% • 

170 B E R T R A N D I. 

been practised iu Piedmont only by regimental surgeoM, 
, began to wear a new face > and a literary society, whicb 
was afterwards completely established under the title of 
the *^ Boyal Academy of Sciences/' b^an now to hold its 
meetings, and Bertrandi contributed some valuable papers 
to the first volume of their Memoirs. His principal pnbli*^ 
cation was his '^ Trattato delle operazioni di Chirurgia,** 
Nice, 1763, 2 vols. 8vo, whidi was afterwards translated 
into French and German. He was employed on a treatise 
on anatomy and a comparative history of ancient and mo-* 
dern surgery, when death deprived science and humanity 
of his valuable labours, in 1765, in his forty-second year. 
His works already published, and bis posthumous works^ 
edited by Pencbienati and Brugnone form 13 vols, 8vo»' 

BERULLE (P£t£R), aD eminent cardinal, was borii iii 
1575, at the chateau de Serilli,near Troyesin Champagne^ 
of a noble family, and havitig embraced the ecclesiastical 
state, distinguished himself early in life by his piety and 
bis learning. He got great reputation in the famous con* 
ference of Footainbleau, where du Perron contended with 
du Plessis-Momay, called the pope of the Hugueuots. He 
was sent by Henry IV.. to whom he was chaplain, into 
Spain, for the purpose of bringing some Carmelites to 
Paris, and it was by his means that this order flourished so 
much in France. Some time afterwards he founded^he 
Congregation of the Oratory of France, of which he was the 
first general. This new institution was approved by a bull 
of pope Paul V. in 1613, and has always been reckoned by 
the catholics a great service done to the church. In that 
gregation, according to the expression ' of Bossuet, the 
members obey without dependance, and govern withoot 
ccunmanding ; their whole time is divided between study 
and prayer. Their piety is liberal and enlightened, their 
knowledge useful, and almost always modest. Urban VIIL 
rewarded the merit of Berulle by a cardinal's hat. Henry 
IV. and Louis XHI. vainly strove to make him accept of 
considerable bishoprics ; on Louis's telling him that he 
should employ the solicitation of a more powerful advocate 
than himself (meaning the pope) to prevail upon him to 
accept the bishopric of Leon, he said, ^^ that if his majes- 
ty continued to press him, he should be obliged to quit 
las kingdom.*' This cardinal came over with Henrietta 

1 Biog. Uoifenelle. 

B E R U L L E. 171 

Maria, queen of Charles I. to England^ as her confessor, 
to the court of which he endeared himself by the sanctity 
of his morals, and the extreme propriety of his behaviour^ 
although his errand had afterwards its weight in enoreasing 
the fatal unpopularity of the royal family. He died sud« 
denly, Oct. 2, 1629, aged fifty-five, while he was cele-* 
brating the sacrament, and had just repeated the words, 
^' banc igitur pbiationem,'* which gave occasion to the foU 
lowing distich : 

'* Coepta sub extremis nequeo diun sacra sacerdos 
Perficere^ at saltern victima perfWiam." 

**' In vain the reverend pontiff tries 

To terminate the sacrifice $ 

Himself within the holy walls "* 

The heaven-devoted victim falls/* 


St. Francis de Sales, Caesar de Bus, cardinal Bentivog* 
lio, &c. were among his friends and the admirers of his 
virtues. An edition of his controversial and spiritual works, 
published in 1644, 2 vols, folio, was reprinted in 1647, 
1 vol. folio, by father Bourgoing, third general of the ora- 
tory. His life was written in French, by the abb6 Cerisi, 
Paris,* 1646, 4tQ, and in Latin by Doni d'Attichi, after- 
wards bishop of Autun, 1649, 8vo, and lastly by Carrac- 
cioli, Paris, 1764, 12mo.* 

BERYLLUS, bishop of Bostra in Arabia, flourished 
about the year 230. After he had for a long time govern* 
ed his see with great prudence and fidelity, be fell into 
several new and uncommon opinions, asserting" that Christ 
before his incarnation had no proper subsistence, nor any 
divinity, but that of the Father residing in him. Th© 
bishops being assembled in order to dissuade him from this 
error, and having had several conferences with him upon 
that subject, Origen was desired to engage in the dispute, 
' which be did with such success, that Befyllus immediately 
retracted his opinion. He wrote several treatises and, 
epistles, particularly to Origen, in which he returned him 
thanks for the pains which he had taken in recovering hioi 
from his errors. Eusebius tells us, that he left behind hin^ 
several monuments of an elegant genius ; by which Henry 
Valesius in his notes upon that passage supposes that he 
means the hymns and poems which Beryllus probably wrote. 

» Biog. Universellc-^Dupin. — Moreri. — Perault's " Hommta Illustrcf."— 
Crcn. Dict.-HSeward's AAf cdotes. 

172 B E R V L L U S. 

There was extant in St Jerom's time, the dialogue between 
Origen and our bishop, in which the latter was convinced 
of bis erroneous notions ; and this seems to be the same 
work which is mentioned by Eusebius in his Ecclesiastical 
History, where he tells us, that there were extant at that 
time the acts of Beryllus and the synod assembled upon 
his account, in which were inserted the questions of Origen 
iirged against him, and the whole series of the conference 
between them. * 

BESIEflS (Michael), a canon of St. Septilchre*s at 
Caen, and a member of the academies of Caen and Cher->v 
burgh, was bom at St. Malo, and died at Caen, Dec. 17S2. 
He published, 1. *^ Chronologic historique des baillis et 
des gouverneurs de Caen,'* 1769, 12mo. 2. *^ Histoire 
sommaire de la ville de Bayeux," 1773, 12mo. 3. ** Me- 
moires historiques sur Porigine et le fondateur de la colie* 
giale du St. Sepulcre a Caen, avec le catalogue de sies 
doyens.'' 4. Various dissertations in the literary Journals^ 
in D'Expilly*s " Dictionnaire de France," and in that of 
the nobility, &c. * 

BESLER (Basil), a botanist, who was born in 1561, at 
Nuremberg, where he carried on the business of an apothe- 
cary, and died there in 1629, is entitled to notice chiefly 
for having published the most beautiful botanical work that 
had then appeared, the celebrated " Hortus Eystettensis,'* 
Nuremberg, 1613, folio. It contains, a description, and 
places of the greater part of the plants which the bishop of 
AichstaBdt, John Conrad d^ Gemmingen, a liberal patroa 
of the arts, had cultivated in his gardens and orchards on 
mount St. Willibald, on the top of which is his episcopal 
seat. This work, executed with uncommon magnificence, 
at the expence of the bishop, made a new sera in the his- 
tory both of botany and engraving. It is illustrated by three 
hundred and sixty-five plates of the atlas folio sis^e, deacrip* 
tive of one tbousahd and eighty-six plants, the first, after 
the " Pbytobasanos" of Columna, that were engraved on 
copper, all botanical engr£^vings being formerly on wood. 
They are in general well designed, but do not point out 
the parts of fructification, and are classed only according 
to the seasons. Basil Be3ler had the care of this work, aqd 
although he was deficient in literature, and was not evei\ 

» Gen. Diet.— Cave. — Lardner's Works. — ^Dapin.— Moreri, 

• Biog, Universelle. •. . 

B E S L E R. 17S 

icquainted with Latin, yet his zeal and love of the science 
enabled him to perform his task with considerable skill. 
Jerome Besler, his brother, a man of more learning, sup* 
plied the synonymy of the plants, and part of the descrip- 
tions, and Louis Jungermann, professor at Giessen, was 
tbe author of the text. A second edition appeared at Nu« 
rembergin 1640, at the expence of Marquard IL bishop 
of Aichstaedt, in large folio, but is inferior to the first. 
Basil Besler also collected a museum of many of the curio- 
sities of the three kingdoms of nature, which he had en- 
graven at his own expence, and published under the title 
of '^ Fasciculus rariorum et aspectu di^niorum, varii gene- 
ris quse collegit et suis impensis seri ad vivum incidi cura- 
vit Basilius Besler,^* Nuremberg, 1616 — 1622. In ho- 
nour of Besler, Klumier named a genus of plants Besleria. \ 

BESLER (Michael Robert), a physician at Nurem- 
berg, the son of Jerome and nephew of Basil, who was 
born in 1601, and died in 1661, wrote, 1. <^ Gazophyla- 
cium rerum naturalium,^' Nuremberg, 1642, with tbirty- 
fiiur plates; Leipsic, 17S3, foL with thirty-five plates, 
forming a continuation of his uncle Besler^s work. In 1716, 
J. Henry Lochner repaired the plates, and with some ad- 
ditions to the text, published them under the title of '* Ra- 
riora mussel Besleriani," Nuremberg, 1716, fol. 2. ** Ad- 
mirandsB fabricse humanse mulierispartium, &c. delineatio,^' 
Nuremberg, 1640, folio, the figures as large as life^ and 
on copper-plate. 3. '^Observatio anatomico*medica, &c.** 
an account of a monstrous birth, Nuremberg, 1642, 4to. 
4. ^' Mantissa ad viretum stirpium Eystettense-Besle- 
rianum,^' ibid. 1646 and 1648, fol. forming a supplement 
to the " Hortus Eystettensis." * 

BESLY (John), king's advocate at Fontenaye-Ie-Comte, 
and an able French antiquary, was born at Coulonges-Ies- 
Royaux in Poitou, in 1572, and died in 1644. In 1614, 
he distinguished himself in the assembly of the states by 
opposing the receiving of the council of Trent, but he was 
better known by his assiduous attention to the antiquities 
of France ; and his works published after his death by his 
son and Peter I>upuis his friend, justly entitle him to be 
considered as an accurate and judicious historian. These 
are, 1. ^' Histoire des comtes de Poitou et dues de Gui- 

S Biog. UniTerselle.— >Sa»i Onoraasticoo. 

• iM<L— fialUr'i Bibl. BoUn.-^Fr«htri TbMtrum. 

n* ^ B E S L Y. 

cnne," Paris, i647, foL This was the result of forty jrears 
research, and the extraordinary light ht has been able to 
^hrow upon eircumstances before in comparative obscurity^ 
may form a sufficient apology for some few mistakes. 
2. " Des eveques de Poitiers, avec lespreuves," 1647, 4to. 
This is a collection of useful documents, but without any 
arrangement, and evidently left unfinished by the author. 
He wrote also some pieces of less note, such as a ^* Com* 
mentaire sur Ronsard,^' something of which kind wafi at« 
tempted by many of his contemporaries.^ 

BESOIGNE (Jerome), a doctor of the Sorbonne, wa^ 
born at Paris in 16S6, of an old family of booksellers, and 
after prosecuting his studies with great success, became 
professor of philosophy in the college of Plessis, and as-* 
sistant to the principal. His particular talent for the reli- 
gious instruction of his pupils occasioned his being fre- 
quently invited to other colleges of the capital for his ad-^ 
vice and assistance ; but his opposition to the famouis bull 
Unigenitus, gave so much offence to the higher powers 
that he was expelled the college of Plessis^ deprived of the 
privileges of his doctorate, and at last banished the king- 
dom. This sentence, however, being taken off after a 
year, he returned to his friends,' and employed himself in 
writing the following works, 1. ** Concorde des livres de 
la Sagesse, on Morale du St Esprit,'' 1737, 1746, 12mo. 
2. '^Concorde des Epitres canoniques, ou Morale des 
Ap6tres,'* 1747, 12mo. 3. " Principes de la perfection 
Chretienne et religieuse,'' 1748, 12mo, often reprinted. 
4: " Histoire de Tabbaye de Port-royal," 1756, 8 vols. 
12mo. 5. ^^ Reflexions theologiques sur le premier voL 
des lettres de rabb6 de Villefroi a ses eleves, &c.'* 1759, 
respecting a controversy with Villefroi and his disciples 
on the conduct of God towards his church. 6. ^ Priiicipes 
de la Penitence et de la Justice,'* 1762, 12mo. Besoigne 
has th^ character of a pious man and an able divinei, but it 
is objected that some of his works of the practical kind are 
rather deficient in that unction, as the French term it, which 
gives success and popularity to works of that description. 
Besoigne died of a nervous disorder, the nature of which 
his physicians could not discover, Jan. 25, 1763.* 

BESOLD, or BE80LDUS (Christopher), an eminent 
lawyer, and law-professor at Ingolstadt^ was bom atTubin- 

1 Bio|f. UniT. — ^Aforeri. — Niceron, vol. XLI« 
* Btog. Unir.-^Dict. Hist. 

B E S O L D. 175 

fen in 1577, and was professor of law in 1635, when he 
lurned Ronian catholic, and left his place to become coun- 
sellor at the court of Austria, wl/ence he went to Ingolstadt, 
and died there Sept 15, 1638. At this juncture the pope 
was about to have offered him a professor's chair at Bo- 
logna, with a pension of four thousand ducats. He was 
the author of a great many works on subjects of law and 
history, all which shew that he had accumulated a greater 
stock of learning than he had time or judgment to me- 
thodize. 1. " Synopsis rerum ab orbe condito gestarum, 
usque ad Ferdinandi imperium,'' Franeker, 1698, 8vp. 
2. ^ Synopsis doctrinse politicoe.'' 3. ** Historia imperii 
Constantinopolitani et Turcici.^' 4. " Series et succincta 
narratio rerum a regibus Hierosolymarum, Neapoleos et 
SicilisB gestarum." 5. " Dissertationes philologicae," 1642, 
4to. One of these, on the history of printing, may be 
teen in Wolf's ** Monumenta typographica.** 6. " Pro- 
dromus vindiciarum ecclesiast. Wirtenbergicarnm,'* 1636, 
4to. 7. " Documenta rediviva monasteriorum Wirtemb," 
Tubing. 1636, 4to. These two works, although surrepti- 
tiously printed at Vienna in 1723 and 1726, fol. are un- 
commonly rare, as they were suppressed along with the 
following articles. 8. " Virginum sacrarum monumenta^ 
jtc.** 9. ^' Documenta concementia ecclesiam collegia- 
tarn Stuttgardiensem.'^ 10. ** Documenta ecclesiae Back- 
henang,'^ These last five, which the Germans enumerate 
among their rarest bibliographical curiosities, are all in 4to, 
and printed at Tubingen, 1636. Saxius mentions a work 
emitted in the above list, and probably Besold's first pro- 
duction, *' Discussiones qaasstionum aliquot de usuris e% 
annuis reditibus,'' Tubing. 1598, 4t0. * i 

BESPLAS (Joseph Mary Anne Gros de), doctor of 
the Sorbonne, chaplain to monsieur, and abbot of TEpau, 
was born at Castelnaudari in Languedoc, Oct. 13, 1734, 
dnd died at Paris, Aug. 26, 1783. He at first connected 
JiiiDself with the community of St. Sulpice, and discharged 
with not less fortitude than charity, the painful office of 
accompanying and exhorting the criminals sentenced to 
die« Afterwards, devptit)g his talents to the pulpit, he 
preached with applause at Versailles and at Paris, though 
Hhe rapidity of his utterance diminished somewhat of the 
effect of his discourses. His sermon on the last supper 

1 Blof. UDiTir.---Sakii OnonMit.— Koreri.— Nle«roD» roLXSiCiy. 

176 B E S P L A S. 

presented a piece of eloquence so aflecting on the sad con« 
dition of the prisoners in the several gaols, that the imme- 
diate regulation of them, aft to accommodations and healthy 
with the establishment of the H6tel de Force, were among, 
the happy effects of it. The abbe de Besplas was service- 
able to humanity, not only by his discourses, but by his 
works. We have by him a treatise, " Of the causes of 
public happiness," 1769 and 1778, 2 vols. 12mo, replete 
with excellent suggestions, political and moral, enriched 
with great and noble ideas, to which nothing is wanting 
but a more methodical arrangement and a style less 
pompous. The same censure might be passed upon 
his ^^ Essay on the eloquence of the pulpit," a production 
of his youth, of which the second edition of 1778 was care- 
fully retouched. The abb6 de Besplas was beneficent as 
much from inclination, as from principle; he had the art of 
uniting virlaoity with gentleness, of pleasing without, afford-: 
ing room for scandal, of being instructive without pedantry^ 
and tolerant without indifference ; in his whole figure and 
deportment was seen that serenity, that gentle gaiety, which 
ever accompanies a contented mind.V 

BESSARION (John), one of the revivers of literature 
in the fifteenth century, was born, not at Constantinople, 
as some writers assert, but at Trebisond, in 1389, a date 
which is ascertained by his epitaph written by himself, but 
as all the copies of this epitaph do not agree, Bandini, 
one of his biographers, gives 1395,' as the time of his birth* 
He entered into the order of St. Basil, and passed twenty- 
one years in a monastery of Peloponnesus, employed in 
the study of divinity and polite literature. The philosopher, 
Gemistus Pletho was one of his masters. In 1438, when, 
the emperor John Paleologus formed the design of going 
to the council of Ferrara, to re-unite the Greek with the 
Latin church, he drew Bessarion from his retirement, 
made him bishop of Nice, and engaged him to accompany 
him into Italy with Pletho, Marcus Eugenius, archbishop 
of Ephesus, the patriarch of Constantinople, and several 
other Greeks eminent for talents or rank. In the sittings 
of this council, the archbishop of Ephesus distinguished 
himself by his powers of reasoning, and Bessarion by the 
, charms of his eloquence, but unfortunately from being 
rivals in talents, they soon became enemies. Eugeniua 

1 Diet Hist,— Biof . Umvenelle.— Moath. Rer. toL XU 

B E S S A R I O N. 171 

WAS not favourable to the scheme of uniting the Gfeek m4 
Latin churches ; and Bessarion, after having been of a con* 
trary opinion, declared for the Latins, which was the sido* 
the emperor took. The union was accordingly announcedy 
and in December 1439, pope Eugenius IV. to reward Hbm 
zeal of Bessarion, created him a cardinal priest 

Being now, in consequence of his new dignity, fixed ia 
Italy, a step which was at the same time rendered necessary 
by the commotions in Greece, where he was very unpopu* 
lar, and the union universally rejected, Bessarion returned 
to the studious and simple life he had led in his convent io 
the Peloponnesus* His house became the resort of the 
learned, and when he appeared abroad, his train was com* 
posed of such men as Argyropulus, Philelphus, Valla^ 
Theodore Gaza, George of Trebisonde, and Cadderino* 
He obtained the confidence and friendship of .several 
popes. Nicholas V. appointed him archbishop of Siponto^ 
and cardinal-bishop; and Pius II. in 1463, conferred upon 
him the title of Patriarch of Constantinople. On the death 
of Nicholas V. the college of cardinals would have elected 
him his successor, but this purpose was defeated by the 
intrigues of cardinal Alain. Some years after, Bessarion 
was likely to have succeeded Paul IL but to accomplish 
this, it was necessary to secure the vote of the cardinal 
Orsini by an act of injustice, which he refused. Orsini^ 
however, tendered bis vote on the same terms to the car* 
dinal de Rovere, who had none of Bessarion's scruples, and 
was elected. Paul Jovius tells a foolish story of Bessa- 
rion's having lost this election, by the blundering reply of 
his servant; and Gibbon, credulous enough when the 
object of belief is worth nothing, has repeated it after him, 
nor knowing that our countryman Hody had amply re* 
futed it. 

Bessarion was employed on four embassies of a delicate 
and difficult kind. Three of them he conducted with sue* 
ces9, but the fourth was less fortunate. Being sent into 
France by Sixtus IV. to reconcile Louis XL with the duke 
of Burgundy, and obtain assistance against the Turks, he 
not only failed in these undertakings, hut it is said that the 
king, in full court, offered him the grossest personal in* 
dignities. Bessarion on this set out on his way to Rome, 
and died at Ravenna, Nov. 19, 1472, of chagrin, accord* 
ing to soipe authors, but more probably from age and 
jinfirmity, being now eighty- three years old,, or at least^ 

Voi. V. N 


Hi B E S S A R I O N. 

according to Bandinrs calculation, seventy-seven. His body 
was brought to Rome, and the pope attended the funeral, 
an* honour never bestowed before on any cardinal. He 
was celebrated in Latin by Platina, and in Greek by Mi- 
chael Apostolius. Of Platina's eloge there have beert 
many editions, but that of Apostolius was not. published 
until 1793, by M. Fulleborn. Bessarion bequeathed his 
library to the senate of Venice. It was particularly rich in 
.manuscripts, which he collected at a great expence from 
all parts of Greece. Tomasini drew up a catalogue of the 

• Bessarion's writings are numerous. Almost all those on 
theological subjects remain in manuscript, except some 
that are inserted in the acts of the council of Florence, in 
vol. Xin. of Labbe's collection, and in vol. IX. of Har- 
douin*s. Complete catalogues of bis philosophical treatises, 
discourses, and letters, may be consulted in Fabricius's Bibl. 
Grace, and in Hody. His most celebrated works were his 
Latin translations of Xenophon's Memorabilia, and Aris- 
totle's Metaphysics, and his treatise " Contra ealumnia- 
torem Platonis." That calumniator was George of Trebi- 
^ond, and Bessarion composed the work during the heat 
of the violent contest supported about the middle of the 
fifteenth century, between the followers of Plato and those 
of Aristotle, of which Boivin wrote the history in the se- 
cond volume of the Academy of Belles Lettres. Gemistiis. 
Pletho, an enthusiastic admirer of Plato, wrote a small tract 
in which he attacked the Peripatetic philosophy with viru- 
lent invective. Three learned Greeks of the age, Genna- 
dius, George of Trebisond, and Theodore Gaza, had taken 
up their pens in vindication of Aristotle. Bessarion en- 
deavoured to reconcile the parties by shewing that Plato 
and Aristotle were not so far removed from each other ki 
opinion as was usually thought ; and having a gteat respect 
for these two sages, he rebuked, in strong terms, the in- 
considerate zeal of young Apostolius, who, without under* 
standing the question, had written a violent and unreason- 
able declamation against Aristotle. George, however, far 
from following the example of this moderation, published^ 
in Latin, under the title of " Comparatio Platonis et Aris- 
totelis,^* a long dissertation, in which he endeavoured to 
demonstrate the vast superiority of Aristotle, and inveighed, 
with great violenee, against Plato and his followers. - Bes- 
sarion then wrote the treatiise above-mentioned aga^inst this 

B K S S A R I O N. 179 

calumniator of Plato, in which he endeavours to prov^ that 
.the doctrine of Piato is conformable to that of the Scrip- 
tures, and that bis morals were as pure and irreproachable 
as his doctrine. Having thus defended Plato^ he attacks 
.George of Trebisond, proving that he had mistaken the 
sense of a great many passages, and that he had no right 
to give his opinion of a philosopher whose works he did not 
understand. Of this book there have been three editions^ 
all of which are scarce ; the first was printed at Rome in 
1469, and the others at Venice by Aldus, 1503 and 1516, ^ 
BESSEL (Godfrey be), a learned abb6 of the convent 
of Benedictines of Gottwich, in Austria, was born Sept. 
5, 1672, at Buchheim in the electorate of Mentz. Lothairc^ 
Francis, archbishop of Mentz, of the family of the counts 
of Schoenborn, employed him in divers embassies at Rome^ 
Vienna, and Wolfenbuttel, and admitted him of his privy 
council. In 1714 he was chosen abb^ of Gottwich, and in 
1720, the emperor Charles VI. sent him to Kempten to 
accommodate some differences which had arisen there. 
His convent having been destroyed by fire in 1718, he 
succeeded in saving the library, and afterwa^rds having re- 
built the convent with great magnificence, he enriched the 
library with a great many manuscripts and rare books^ 
being an ardent lover of literature and learned men, and 
himself very learned in history and diplomacy. The ^* Chrd- 
liicon Gottwicense, pars prima et secunda,'' Tegerns^e, 

1732, fol. has been often attributed to him, but there is 
reason to thiiik that Francis Joseph de Hahn, afterwards 
bbhop of Bamberg, was the real author. Bessel speaks of 
him in the preface as his coadjutor. It contains a great 
number of diplomas granted by the emperors from Conrad 
I. to Frederick II. whose seals and arms are very accurately 
epgraved, and throws so much light on the public law of* 
Germany, that many writers have not scrupled to equal it 
to father MabiUon's work ^^ De re diplomatica.'^ Besse} 
also published St. Augustine's letters to Optatus, ** De 
poenis parvulorum qui sine baptismate decedunt,'' Vienna, 

1733. He died Jan. 20, 1749.* 

BESTON, or BESODUNUS (John), a learned English 
divine of the fifteenth century, was prior of the monastery 
of Carmelite friars at Lynn in Norfolk, and distinguished, 

^ Biog. UiiiT.-^Moreri.-«*DQpra.— But above all, Hodius dt Orscii Ulttttri* 
^■f ,-^axii OnoniastifiOB. * Biog. Unin 

K 2 

ISO B E s T o n: 

for the works which he published, and the great character 
which he raised by bis merit. It seems probable from 
Leland^s account of him, that he studied first at Cambridge^ 
aud afterwards at Paris, as he had the honour of receinng 
the degree of doctor of divinity in both those uDiversities. 
The same author telis us, that he was extremdly well 
lulled ia natural philosophy, and a considerable divine ; 
and Bal^ adds, that he was a very fluent and elegant 
preacher in hia own language, and an acute disputant ii» 
the schools. Pits lihewise observes, that he had a very 
happy genius, and a solid judgment, and was eminent for 
his piety and knowledge both in divine, and human learn- 
ing ; that he was highly applauded for his subtilty in dis* 
putation, and his eloquence in the pulpit ; and that Alan 
de Lynn aiErmed of him, that he used >n his sermons to 
open and explain the four-fold sense of the Scriptures with 
the utmost perspicuity. Thomas Waldensis, in his Epistles 
quoted by Bale and Pits, telis us, that he was aent iii the 
year 1424 to the council held at Sienna in Itsdy, under 
Pope Martin V. where he distinguished himself to great 
advantage. He died at Lynn in the year 1428 under the 
reign of king Henry VL His works are, 1. ** Compen- 
dium Theologian Moralis.^* 2. '^ Ordinariie Qusntiones.*^ 
3. *' Super Universalibus Holcothi.^' 4. ^^Sermones in Evan- 
gelia.*' 5. ^^ Sennones in Epistolas.'* 6. ^ Lecture sacrae 
Scriptur»\" 7. " Rudimenta Logices/' 8. " De Virtutibo$ 
et Vitiis oppositis.'^ 9. <* Epistolarum ad diversos Libri duo/" 
BETHAM (Edward, B. D.) an English divine, received 
his education at Eton, of which seminary he was a distin- 
guished ornament ; was elected from thence to King's col- 
lege, Cambridge, in 1728, of which he became a fellow 
in 1731; was some time bursar, and by the provost and 
feHows, when senior fellow, was presented to the living of 
Crreenford in Middlesex. He was also one of the Wbite- 
hall preachers. In 1771 the provost and fellows of Etoft 
elected him to a vacant fellowship in that society. So un- 
exceptionable was his life, that he may truly be said to 
have made no enemy in the progress of it. . His fortune 
was not large, yet his liberality kep|; more than equal pace 
with it, and pointed out objects to which it was impoiisibl^ 
for his nature to resist lending his assistance. In his life- 
time he gave 2000/. for the better maintaining the botani- 

^ GtB. Dkt from JLelaiid. Bale and PiU.— Tanner. 

B E T H A M. 181 

cil garden «t Cambridge, thereby . eocouragiog a aludy 
wbich did peculiar honour to his taste, and material^ be« 
nefited mankind. So humane was his disposition, that in 
17S0 be founded and endowed a charity school in his own 
parish ; and this most nobly in his life-time, when ayarice 
might have forbid it, or the fear of want might have ex* 
cepted against it. Having previously built a schooKhouse, 
he gave, by a deed in chancery, the sum of 1600/. bank- 
stod^ of which he appropriated 30/. a-year to a master 
and mistress to instruct thirty boys and girls i thirty shil- 
lings for coals for the school ; and th^ remainder of the in- 
terest, except 10/. to clotlie such aged men and women as 
should frequently attend the sacrament, is appropriated to 
clothe the children, buy books, and keep the school in 
repair. As in his life he indicated the most extensive libe- 
rality, so at his death be exhibited a lasting record of his 
gratitude. Impressed with the highest sense of the muni- 
ficence of the royal founder of Eton, within whose walls 
he had imbibed the first seeds of education, he by his will 
directed a statue of marble, in honour of Henry VI. to be 
erected at the expence of 700£ And, in order infallibly 
to carry bis purpose into execution, he contracted a few 
months before his death with Mr. Bacon. This statue was 
accordingly executed by that 45xcellent artist, and is in 
the chapel, with the inscription *^ Posuit Edvardus Be- 
tham, collegii hujusce socius.'* The founder holds a mo- 
del of Eton college in his hand. Mr. Betham also gave a 
bast of the king to the college library, and placed some • 
ancient painted glass in the chancel windows of his church 
at Greenford. He died in 1783. ^ 


BETTERTON (Thomas), a celebrated English actor, 
was bom in Tothill-street, We^minster, 1635; and, after 
having left school, is said to have been put apprentice to 
a bookseller. The particulars, however, relating to the 
early part of his life, are not ascertained. It is generally 
thought that he made his first appearance on the stage in 
1656, at the opera-bouse in Cbarter-house-yard, under 
the direction of sir William Davenant, and continued to 
perform here till the restoration, when king Charles granted 
patents to two companies, the one called the king^s com- 
pany, and the other the duke^s. The former acted at the 
theatre royal in Drury-lane, and the latter at the theatre 

* Qest. Mag. 17<|d.— tyiQiit't SsviroiiSiF-'Hsnrood'f Mwmd EtoncBfci. 

182 B E T T E R T O N. 

in Lincoln's-Inn-fields. Betterton went over to Paris, at the 
command of king Charles II. to take a view of the French 
scenery, and at bis return made such improvements as 
added greatly to the lustre of the English stage. For several 
years both companies acted with the highest applause, and 
the taste for dramatic entertainments was never stronger 
than whilst these two companies played *, The two com* 
panies were however at length united ; though the time of 
this union is not precisely known, Gildon placing it in 
1682, and Gibber in 1684. But however this may be, it 
was in this united company that Mr. Betterton first shone 
forth with the greatest degree of lustre ; for, having sur- 
vived the famous actors upon whose model he had formed 
himself, be was now at liberty to display his genius in its 
full extent. His merit as an actor cannot now be very ac-» 
curately displayed, and much of the following passage 
from Cibber*s Apology, seems to be mere stage-cant and 
declamation. Cibber says, " Betterton was an actor, 
as Shakspeare was an author, both without competitors,, 
formed for the mutual assistance and illustration of each 
other's genius ! Hjw Shakspeare wrote, all men who 
hav^e a taste for nature may read and know ; but with what 
higher rapture would he still be read, could they conceive 
how Betterton played him ! Then might they know the 
one was born alone to speak what the other only knew to 
write ! Pity it is that the momentary beauties, flowing 
from an harmonious elocution, cannot, lilife those of poe- 
try, be their own record!— ^ that the animated graces of 
the player can live no longer than the instant breath and 
jnotipn that present them, or at best can but faintly glim- 
mer through the memory or imperfect attestation of a few 
surviving spectators! Could how Betterton spoke be as 
easily known as what he spoke, then might you see the 
muse of Sl^akspeare in her triumph, with all her beauties 
in her best array, rising into real life, and charming her 

* Mr. Cibber says, that plays hay- the capital plays therefor^ of Shak« 

ing been so long prohibited, people speare, Fletcher, and Jonson, were di- 

cuoe ^them with greater eagefqess, vided beiwixt them, by the approba* 

like folks after a long fast to a great tionof the court, and^ their own choice; 

feast; and that women being noir so that when Hart was famous for 

brought upon the stage was a great Othello, Betterton had no less a repu- 

advantage; for on all former stages, t^tion for Hamlet. By this ipeans ^he 

female cba|racters were performied by town was supplied with greater variety 

boys, or young men of the most effe< of plays than could possibly have been 

minate aspect He ^ake^ pot ice also ^hewn, had both pompanies been em- 

of a rule which wa^ established, that ployed at the same time upon ihe same 

no play which was acted at one bouse play. Gibber's Apology for b^ life^ 

fboaI4 be attempted at t^t other. All p. j\, '15, ^c. 

B E T T E R T O N. l«S- 

beholders. But alas! since all this is so far out of the* 
reach of description, how shall I shew you Betterton? 
Should I tlierefore tell you that all the Othellos, Hamlets^ 
Hotspurs, Macbeths, and Brutases, you have seen since' 
bis time, have fallen short of bioi, this still would give you 
uo idea of his particular excellence. Let us see then what 
a particular comparison may do, whether that may yet 
draw him nearer to you ? You have seen a Hamlet per- 
haps, who, on the first appearance of his father^s spirit, t 
has thrown himself into all the straining vociferation requi«; 
site to express rs^e and fury ; and the house has thundered^ 
with applause, though the misguided actor was all the 
while (as Shakspeare terms it) tearing a passion into rags* 
I am the more ^bold to offer you this particular instance^^ 
because the late Mr. Addison, while I sat by him to seer 
this scene acted, made the same observation ; asking me,, 
with some surprise, if I thought Hamlet should he in »o^ 
violent a passion with the ghost, which, though it mightf 
have astonished, had not provoked him ? For you may 
observe, that in thi$ beautiful speech, the passion never; 
rises beyond an almost breathless astonishment, or an im« 
patience, limited by a filial reverence, to inquire into the. 
suspected wrongs that may have raised him from his peaceful* 
tomb ; and a desire to know what a spirit so seemingly 
distrest might wish or enjoin a sorrowful son to ekecute 
towards bis future quiet in the grave. This was the hght 
into which Betterton threw this scene ; which he opened with 
a pause of mute aniazement ! Then rising slowly to a 
solemn, trembling voice, he made the ghost equally ter- 
rible to the spectator as to himself. And in the descrip- 
tive part of the natural emotions which the ghastly 
vision gave him, ,the boldness of his expostulation was still 
governed by d/e?ency ; manly, but not braving ; his vpice 
never rising into that seeming outrage, pr wild defiance,^ 
of what he naturally revered. But, :alas ! to preserve this 
medium between mouthing, ^nd meaning too little, to 
keep the attention tnore pleasingly awake by a tempered 
spirit, than by mere, vehemence of voice, is, of all the 
master-strokes of an actor, the moat difficult to reach* Itt 
this none have equalled Betterton. He that feels not him^ 
self the passion he would iraise, will talk to a sleeping auT. 
dience. But this was never the fault of Qetterton. A faiH 
tber excellence iii him was,, that he could vary his spirtt to 
th^ different characters he acted. Those wild iippatienb 

184 . B E T T E R T O N. 

starts, tlntt fierce and flashing fire which be threw into 
Hotspur, never came from the unruffled temper of bis 
Brutus (for. I bave more than once seen a Brutus as warm 
as Hotspur) : when the Betterton Brutus was provoked in 
hb dispute with Cassius, bis spirits flew out of bis eyes ;, his 
Steady looks alone supplied that terror which be disdained 
an intemperance in his voice should rise to. Thus, with a^ 
settled dignity of contempt, like an unheeding rock, he' 
repelled upon himself the foam of Cassius ; not but in some 
part of this scene, where he reproaches Cassius, bis tem- 
per is not under this suppression, but opens into that 
warmth which becomes a man of virtue ; yet this is that 
hasty spai^ of anger, which Brutus himself endeavours to 
excuse* But with whatever strength of nature we see the 
poet shew at once the philosopher and tbe hero, yet the 
image of the actor's excellence will be still imperfect to 
you, unless language could put colours in our words to 
paint the voice with. Tbe most that a Vandyck can ar- 
rive at is, to make his portraits of great persons seem to 
think ; a Shakspeare goes farther yet, and tells yau what 
his pictures thought ; a Betterton steps beyond them both, 
and calls them from the grave to breathe, and be them- 
selves again in feature, speech, and motion, at once united ; 
and gratifies at once your eyei your ear, your understand- 
ing. From these various excellencies, Betterton had so 
full a possession of the esteem and regard of his auditors, 
that, upon his entrance into every scene, he seemed to 
seize upon the eyes and ears of the giddy and inadvertent. 
To have talked or looked another way, would have been 
thought insensibility or ignorance. In ail his soliloquies of 
moment, the strongest intelligence of attitude and aspect 
drew you into such an impatient gaze and ea<:^er e*xpecta« 
tion,*that you almost imbibed the sentiment with your eye, 
before the ear could reach it " 

Endowed with such excellences, it is no wonder that 
Betterton attracted the notice of his sovereign, the pro- 
tection of the nobility, and the general respect of all ranks 
of people. The patentees, however, as there was now only- 
one theatre, began to consider it as an instrument of accu* 
aaulating wealth to themselves by the -labours of others; 
and this had such an influence on their conduct, that the 
actors had many hardships imposed upon them, and were 
oppressed in the most tyrannical manner. Betterton en* 
ieasHmnA to convince the managers of the injustice and 

B E T T E R T O Ni m 

absui^ity of such a bebaTioar; which language not pleas* 
ing them, they began to give away some of his capital 
parts to young actors, supposing this would abate his in- 
fluence. This policy hurt the patentees, and proved of ^ 
service to Betterton ; for die public resented having plays 
ill acted, when they knew they might be acted better.' 
The best players attached themselves wholly to Betterton,' 
urging him. to turn his thoughts on some method of pro- 
curing himself and them justice. Having a general ac**^ 
quaintance with people of fashion, he represented the af^ 
fidr in such a inanner, that at length, by the intercession 
of the earl of Dorset, he procured a patent for building a 
new playhouse in Lincoln's^inn-iields, which he did by 
subscription. The new theatre was opened in 1695. Mr. 
Congreve accepted a share with this company, and the 
first play they acted was his comedy of Love for Love. 
The king honoured it with his presence ; when Betterton 
spoke a prcdogue, and Mrs. Bracegirdie an epilogue on the 
occasion. But notwithstanding all the advantages this 
company enjoyed, and the favourable reception they at 
first met with, they were unable to keep up their run of 
success, above two or three seasons. Vanbrugh and Gib- 
ber, who wrote for the other house, were expeditious in 
their productions ; and the frequency of new pieces gave 
such a turn in their favour, that Bettertbn's company, with 
all their merit, must have been undone, had not the 
" Mouniing Bride" and the " Way of the World" come 
to their relief, and saved them at the last extremity. In 
a few years, however, it appearing that they could not 
mairitaiu their independence without some new support 
from their friends, the patrons of Betterton opened a sub- 
scription for building a theatre in the Haymarket, which 
was finished in 1706. Betterton however being now grown 
old, and his health being much impaired by constant ap- 
plication, declined the management of this house, resign- 
ing it entirely to sir John Vanbrugh and Mr, Congreve ; 
but from the decay of Betterton, many of the old players 
dying, and other accidents, a re-union of the companies 
seemed necessary, and accordingly took place soon aften 

When Betterton had reached seventy, his infirmities 
increased to a great degree* and his fits of the gout were 
extremely severe. His circumstances also grew daily worse 
and worse, yet he kept up a remarkable spirit and serenity 
<tf mind; and acted when his health would permit. The 


public, remembering the pleasure he had giren them, 
would not allow so deserving a man^ after fifty years ser* 
▼ice, to withdraw without some marks of their bounty. In 
the spring of 1709, a benefit, which was then a very un- 
common . favour, was granted to him, and the play of 
** Love for Love" was a<cted for this pnrpose; He himself 
performed Valentine^ Mrs. Bracegirdle and Mrs. Barry, 
though they had quitted the stage, appeared on this occa-- 
sion ; the former in the character of Angelica, and Mrs. 
Barry in that of Frail. After the play was over, these two 
actresses appeared. leading on Betterton ; and Mrs. Barry* 
spoke an epilogue, written by Mr. Rowe. 

Betterton got by this benefit 50<l/. and a promise was' 
given him, that the favour should be annually repeated a« 
long as he lived. Sept. 20, in the succeeding winter, he 
performed the part of Hamlet with great vivacity. This 
activity of his kept off the gout longer Uian usual, but the 
fit returned upon him in the Spring with greater violence, 
and it was the more uiilucky, as this was the time of his 
benefit. The play he fixed upoti was^ the " Maid's Tra- 
gedy," in which he acted the part of Melanthus ;• and no- 
tice was given thereof by his friend sir Richard Steele in 
the Tatler ; but the fit intervening, that he mightntot dis- 
appoint the town, be was obliged to submit to external 
applications, to reduce the swelling of his feet, which' 
enabled him to appear on the stage, though he was obliged 
to use a slipper. ** He was observed that day to have a 
more than an ordinary spirit, and met with suitable ap- 
plause ; but the unhappy consequence of tampering with 
his distemper was, that it flew into his head, and killed 
him." He died April 28, 1710, and was interred in West- 
minster-abbey. Sir Richard Steele attended the cere- 
mony, and two days after published a paper in the Tatler 
to his memory^. Mr. Booth, who knew him only in his 

* " Having received notice," says most charming poets I had ever read, 

the author of this paper, " that the fa- Such an actoi* as Mr. Betterioa uught 

mous Mr. Betterton was to be interred to be recorded with the same respect 

this evening in the cloisters, near West* as Rof^chis amongst the Romans. The 

minster-abbey, I was resolved to walk greatest orator has thought fit to quote 

thither, and see the last office done to his jnOgment, and celebrate bis life. 

a man whom 1 bad always very much Roscius was the example to all that 

admired, and from whose action 1 had would form themselves into a proper 

received more impressions of what is ' and winning behaviour His action 

great and noble in human nature, than was ^o well adapted to the sentiments' 

from the arguments of the most solid he expressed, that the youth of Rome^ 

philosophers, or the dcscriptioot of the thought they wanted oply to l^ Tif n 

B E T T E R T O.N. 1S7 

decline, used to say, that he never saw hitn off or on the 
stage, without learning something from him ; and fre- 
quently observed, that Betterton was no actor, that he put 
on his part with bis clothes, and was the very man he un- 
dertook to be till the play was over, and nothing more. So 
exact was he in following nature, that the look of surprise 
he assumed in the character of Hamlet, astonished Booth 
(when he first personated the ghost) to such a degree, that, 
he was unable to proceed in his part for some moments. 
The following dramatic works were published by Mr. Bet- 
terton, 1. " The Woman made a justice," a comedy. 2, 
" The Unjust judge, or, Appius and Virginia," a tragedy, 
written originally by Mr. John Webster, an old poet, who 
ftourished in the reign of James I. It was only altered by 
Mr. Betterton. 3. •' The Amorous widow, or the wanton 
wife," a play written on the plan of Moliere*s George 
Dandin. * 

BETTI (Zachary), an elegant Italian poet of the last 
century, was born at Verona, July 16, 1733, and began 
bis studies at the Jesuits' college at Brescia, but was ob- 
liged, by bad health, to return home to complete them* 
The work on which his reputation chiefly rests is his poem 
on the silk-worm, " Del baco da seta, canti IV. cop an- 
notaziohi," Verona, 1756, 4to, in which he contrives to 

tuous, to be as graceful in their ap- act it, observes, there could not be a 
pearance as Roscius. I have hardly a word added ; that longer speeches had 
notion, that any performance of anti- been unnaturat, nay impossible, in 
quity could surpass the action of Mr. Othello's circumstances. The charm- 
Betterton, in any of the occasions in ing passage in the same tragedy, where 
which he has appeared on our stage, he tells the manner of winning the 
The wonderful agony which he ap- affection of his mistress, was urged 
peared in, when he examined the cir- with so moving and graceful an ener- 
cumstances of the ' handkerchief in gy, that while I walked in the cloisters^ 
Othello; the mixmre of love that 1 thought of him with the same con- 
iniruded upon his miud upon the in- cern as if I waited for the remains of a 
Bocent answers f)esdemona makes, be- person who had in real life done all 
trayed in hrs gestures such a variety that I had seen him represent. The 
and vicissitgde of passions, as would gloom of the place, land faint lights 
admonish a man to be afraid of his before the ceremony appeared, eon- 
own heart, and perfectly convince tributed to the melancholy disposition 
him, that it is to stab it to admit that I was in ; and I began to be extremely 
worst of daggers, jealousy. Whoever afflieted that Brutus and Cassius had 
reads in his closet this admirable i|ny difference; that Hotspur's gaU 
scetie, will find that he cannot, unless lantry was so ^unfortunate; and that 
he has as w^un an imagination as the mirth and good humour of Falstaff 
Sbafcspeare himself, find any but dry, could not exempt him from tlie grave." 
incoherent, aiui broken sentences ,: Tatler, No. 167. 
b«t a reader that has seen Bettertcm \ 

1 Abndgefl in the last edition of this Dictionary from the Biog. Brit— Biog« 
Prax^atica.— Cibbei^BliTjH.— fLif«ofBefterton« 1710, 8vo. 

188 B E T T I. 

be original on a subject that had been amply treated in 
the sixteenth century, in the ^< La Sereide" of Tesauro. 
He dedicated this poem to the marquis Spolverini, the 
author of a didactic poem on the cultivation of rice, " La 
coltivazione del Riso/' His poetical efforts were all direct-^ 
ed to the object of his more serious labours, agriculture. 
His bust is in the hall of the academy of agriculture at Ve- 
rona, of which he was the founder, and among other aca« 
demies, he was a member of the Georg<>philes of Florence. 
He wrote another poem, ^* he Cascine,'* with notes, but 
it does not appear to have been printed. He died at Ve- 
rona in 1788. > . 

BETTINELLI (Saverio, or Xavier), one of the most 
eminent Italian scholars of the last century, was born at 
Mantua, July 18, 1718. After having studied among the 
Jesuits in his own country and at Bologna, he entered that 
society as a noviciate in 1736. He then commenced a 
new course of studies, including the belles lettres, from 
1739 to 1744, at Brescia, where cardinal Quirini, count 
Mazzuchelli, count Duranti, and other learned men, form- 
ed an illustrious academy, and there he became first no- 
ticed by some poetical compositions for scholastic exer- 
cises. When sent to Bologna to pursue his theological 
course, be continued to court his muse, and wrote for the 
theatre of the college, his tragedy of '* Jonathas.** The 
number of literary characters in this city surpassed that 
which he had found at Brescia. The Institute recently 
founded by count Marsigli, the Clementine academy of 
design, the school of the astronomical poet Manfredi, and 
the growing reputation of his learned and ingenious pupils 
Zanotti, Algarotti, &c. contributed to fix the attention of 
the literary world on Bologna. In this society Bettinelli 
completed his education, and attained the age of thirty. 
In 1748, he went to Venice to teach rhetoric, and was fre- 
quently employed in a similar manner in other places. Hi* 
superiors intended him for a display of his * oratorical 
talents, but the weakness of his lungs obliged him to de- 
cline this. In 1751, he was appointed director of the col- 
lege of nobles at Parma, and remained here superintend- 
ing their poetical and historical studies for eight years, 
occasionally visiting the principal cities of Italy, on busi- 
ness, or for health. In 1755, he travelled through part of 

^ Biof. UniveneHt. 

B E T T I N E L L I. 189 


Germany, to Strasburgh and Nancy, and returned through 
Germany to Italy, bringiDg with him two young princes, 
the sons or nephews of the prince of Hohenlobe^ who had 
intrusted him with their education. The following year 
he took a trip to France with the eldest of these princes, 
and resided at Paris, in the college of Louis-le- Grand. It 
was during this trip that he wrote the celebrated letters of 
Virgil which were printed at Venice with those of Frugoni 
and Algaretti. The opinions, and we may add, the literary 
heresies, very ingeniously urged in these letters against 
the reputation of the two great luminaries of Italian poetry^ 
and especially against Dante, created him many enemies, 
and what gave him most uneasiness, involved him 'with 
Algarotti. {See Algarotti). From Paris he made seve- 
ral excursions into Normandy, Lorraine, &Cr and paid a 
visit to Voltaire. From Geneva he went to Marseilles, &c. 
and arrived at Parma in 1759. The same year he went to 
Verona, where he resided until 1767, and resumed his 
offices of preaching and education. He was afterwards 
for some years at Modena, and when the order of the Jesuits 
was suppressed, he was appointed professor of rhetoric. 
On his return to his own country, he applied to his literary 
pursuits with fresh ardour, and published many works, and 
having regretted that he had published so much without 
writing any thing to please the fair sex, doubtless owing 
to his ecclesiastical character, he afterwards Endeavoured 
to make up for this in some respect by publishing his cor- 
respondence between two ladies, his letters to Lesbia, and 
; lastly, his twenty-four dialogues on love. These be pub-* 

i lished in 1796, when the war raged in all parts of Italy, 

and when the siege of Mantua by the French obliged him 
to leave it. He then removed to Verona, but in 1797^ 
after the surrender of Mantua, he returned again, and 
although now almost in his eightieth year, res\;imed his 
literary labours with his accustomed spirit In 1799, he 
began a new edition of his works, which was completed at 
Venice in 1801, in 24 vols. 12mo. He still preserved his 
usual gaiety and health at the age of ninety, until Sept. 1 3, 
1808, when he died after fifteen days illness, with the 
firmness, says his biographer, of a philosopher and a Chris* 

His principal works, according to his own arrangement 

i in the edition above mentioned are, 1. ^^ Ragionamenti 

filosofici* coQ annotazioni,*' a work both religious, moral, 

190 B E T T I N E L L I. 

and philosophical. 2. '' DelP entusiasmo delle belle arti/* 
the professed design of which was to maintain and revived 
the studies of imagination ; but Bettinelli was not himself 
a decided enthusiast, and instead of the fire of imagina- 
tion, we have here much of the coldness of method. 3« 
Eight " Dialogbi d'amore," in which he expatiates on the 
influences which imagination, vanity, friendship, marriage^ 
honour, ambition, science, &c. produce on that passion. 
In this work is an eloge on Petrarch, one of his most happy 
compositions. 4. ^< Risorgimento negli studi, nelle artt e 
ne' costumi dopo il mille.'* This in Italy is considered as 
a superficial view of the revival of arts and sciences after 
the tenth century, and as interfering with Tiraboschi, who 
was then employed on the same subject, but to those who 
may think Tiraboschi's work, what it certainly is, insuffer- 
ably tedious, this will afford much useful information in a 
shorter compass. The dissertation on Italian poetry is 
particularly valuable. 5. " Delle lettere e delle arti Man-r 
tovane ; lettere ed arti Modenesi," an excellent work as 
far as regards the literary history of Mantua, which was 
now, if we mistake not, written for the first time. 6, " Let- 
tere dieci di Virgilio agli Arcadi." Of these letters we. 
have already spoken, and his attack on Dante and Pe- 
trarch, although not altogether without such a foundation as 
strict and cold criticism may lay, will not soon be forgiven 
in Italy. 7. " Letters on the Fine Arts from a'lady to her 
friend, &c." 8. His " Poetry," containing seven small 
poems, or " poemetti," six epistles in familiar verse, .son- 
nets, &c. In all these he is rather an elegant, easy, and 
ingenious poet, than a great one. Hia ^^ Raccolte^' is a 
spirited satire on the insipid collections of verses so com- 
mon in Italy. 9. " Tragedies," entitled Xerxes, Jonathan, 
Demetrius, Poliorcetes, and Rome saved, with some French 
letters, and an Italian dissertation on Italian tragedy. The 
** Rome saved" is a translation from Voltaire, indifferently 
performed. He also wrote three other tragedies, but in- 
ferior to the former, in which there is an evident attempt 
at the manner of Racine. 10. " Lettere a Lesbia Cidonia 
sopra gli epigrammi," consisting of twenty- five letters, with 
epigrams, madrigals, and other small pieces, some trans- 
lated and some original. 11, An ^^ Essay on Eloquence," 
with other essays, letters, miscellanies," &c. As a poet, 
critic, metaphysician, and historian, Bettinelli's merit is 
esteemed by his countrymen as of the first rate ; and with 

B E T T I N E L L I. 191 



respect to the art of composition, they account him one of 
the purest and most elegant writers of the last century^ 
one of the few who laboured to preserve the genuine ^Ita- 
lian idiom from any foreign mixture. ^ 

BETTINI (Mario), a learned Italian Jesuit, was born 
at Bologna, Feb. 6, 1582. He entered the order in 1595, 
and was afterwards moral, mathematical, aud' philosophical 
professor in the college of Parma. He died at Bologna, 
Nov. 7, 1637. To the study of the more abstruse sciences, 
be united a taste for the belles lettres, and especially La-* 
tin poetry. He has left, 1. *^ Rubenus hilarotragcedia sa« 
tyra pastoralis," Parma, 1614, 4to. This singular com- 
position, we are informed, was often reprinted in Italy^ 
translated into several languages, and illustrated by the 
comments of Denis Ronsfert. 2. *^ Clodoveus, sive Lo- 
dovicus, tragicum silviludium,*' Parma, 1622, 16mo. 3, 
" Lycseum morale, politicum, et poeticum," Venice, 1626^ 
4to, a work divided into two parts, the first of which is in 
prose, and the second in verse, entitled " Urbanitates 
poeticae," a collection of lyric poetry, which was reprinted 
the same year, under the title ** Eutrapeliarum, seu Ur-* 
banitatum Libri IV." Venice, 1626, 4to. It was again re- 
printed with the addition of the above two dramas, with 
the title of ^^ Florilegium variorum poematum et drama- 
tum pastoralium Libri IV." Lyons, 1633, 12mo, the ninth 
edition. There is a copy in the British museum, probably 
of the eighth edition, dated 1632, 8vo. 4. <^ Apiaria uni- 
versae philosophias, mathematieas, &q." Bologna, 1641—^ 
1656, 3 vols. fol. At the end is an explanation of Euclid, 
" Euclides explicatus," which was printed separately; Bo- 
logna, 1642, and 1645, fol. 5. '^ ^rarium philosophiap^ ma« 
thematicsB," ibid. 1648, 8vo. 6. "Hecreationum Matbe- 
maticarum Apiaria XII. novissima," ibid. 1660, folio, which 
is a reprint of the third volume of the ** Apiaria." * 

BETTS (John), an eminent physician in the seventeenth 
century, was son of Mr. Edward Betts by his wife Dorothy, 
daughter of Mr. John Venables, of Rapley in Hampshire. 
He was born at Winchester, educated there in grammar 
learning, afterwards elected a scholar of Corpus Cbristi 
college in Oxford, in February 1642, and took the degree 
of bachelor of arts, February 9, 1646, Being ejected by 

1 Biog. UaiTenelle. — Atheorain« iqU V, p. 330, 
* 3ioff. Uaiverielle. — ^Moreri. 

I9t B E T T S. 

.the visitors appointed by the parliament in 1648, he sp^ 
lied himself to the study of physic, and commenced doc* 
tor in that faculty, April 11, 1654, having accumulated 
the degrees. He practised with great success at London^ 
but chiefly among the Roman catholics, being himself of 
that persuasion. He was afterwards appointed physiciau 
in ordinary to king Charles II. The time of his death is 
not certainly known. Dr. Betts wrote two physical trea- 
tises, the first, *^ De ortu et natura Sanguinis," Lond. 1 669, 
'8vo. Afterwards there was added to it, ^ Medicinse cum 
Philosophia natural! consensus,'V Lond. 1662, Svo. Dr* 
George Thomson, a physician, animadverted upon our 
author's treatise '* De ortu et natura Sanguinis," in his 
** Tru^ way of preserving the Blood in its integrity." Dr. 
Belt's second piece is entitled ^< Anatomia Thorns Parri 
annum centesimum quinquagesimum secundum 6t novem 
menses agentis, cum clarissimi viri Gulielmi Harviei alio* 
rumque adstautium medicorum regiorum observationibus.'* 
This Thomas Parr,' of whose anatomy. Dr. Betts, or rather^ 
according to Anthony Wood, Dr. Harvey drew up an ac- 
count, is well known to have been one of the most remark- 
able instances of longevity which this country has afforded. 
He was the son of John Parr of Winnington, in the parish 
of Alberbury, in Shropshire, and was booi in 1483, in the 
reign of king Edward the Fourth. He seems to have been 
of veiy different stamina from the rest of mankind, and 
Dr. Fuller tells us that he was thus characterised by an eye- 

<' From head to heel> his body had all over, 
Aquick-set> thick-set^ nat*nd hairy cover.*' 

At an hundrjed and twenty (or, more probably, an hundred 
and two), he married Catherine Milton, who had a child 
by him ; and after that sera of his life he was employed in 
threshing, and other husbandry work. When he was above 
an hundred and fifty-two years of age, he was brought up 
to London, by Thomas, earl of Arundel, and carried to 
court. The king said to him, '* You have lived longer 
than other men, what have you done more than otb^ 
men ?" He replied, ^^ I did penance when I was an hun*f 
dred years old." He slept away most of his time while he 
lived in London, which was only two months. He died 
in the Strand, on the 15th of November, 1635, and was 
buried in Westminster-abbey. His death is thought to 
have been accelerated by the change of his place and mode^ 

B E T T S. 195 

ef living, and by the troublesome concourse of visitors and 
spectators. There is said to be a portrait of him in Bel« 
voir castle, and another in Ashmole^s museum. The most 
valuable was in tlie collection of the duchess of Portland. 
The fullest account of him extant, is in his " Life,'* by 
Taylor, in the Harleian Miscellany. * 

BETULEIUS (SiXTUS, or Xystus), whose name in 
German was Birck, is in Latin Betula, and hence Betu* 
leius^ was born at Memmingen, in Suabia, Feb. 2, 1500^ 
and studied at Basil, chiefly philosophy and the belles let- 
tres, both which he afterwards taught with distinguished 
reputation. He was principal of the college of Augsburgh, 
over which he presided for sixteen years, and where he 
died June 19, 1554. His principal works are, 1. " Notes ori 
Lactantius,'' printed with the works of that father, at Basil^ 
156p, foL 2. " Commentary'^ on Cicero de natura Deo- 
rum, ibid. 1550, 8vo, preferable to that of Peter Marso, 
and reprinted in Lescalopier's " Humanitas Theologica/* 
Paris, 1660, fol. 3. Three dramatic pieces, Susannah, 
Judith, and Joseph, which were highly esteemed in that 
age. They are inserted in the ** Dramata sacra," Basil, 
1547, 2 vols. 8vo. 4. ^* Novi Testamenti Concordantia 
GrsBca/* Basil, 1546, noticed by Freytag as a book of 
great rarity. Freytag also informs us that Betuleius's first 
employment, after finishing his studies, was that of a cor-f 
rector of the press to the printers Cratander, . Frobenius, 
and Bebelius. 5. ** Oracula Sybillina Gr. cum castiga^ 
tionibus,'* Basil, 1545, 8vo.* 

BETUSSI (Joseph), an Italian scholar of considerable 
celebrity, was born about the beginning of the sixteenth 
century, at Bassano. In his early years he shewed a taste 
for polite literature, and published some poems that were 
read as very extraordinary productions, but unfortunately 
he took for his guide the famous, or rather infamous, Peter 
Aretin, both in his studies and his morals. Under such 
an instructor, we are not to' wonder that bis irregnlaritiea 
obstructed his advancement in life. For some time he 
earned a subsistence at Venice in the printing-office of 
Giolito, and afterwards wandered over Italy and evea 
France, in quest of better employment, which his miscon- 
duct always prevented. At length he was recommended 

1 Biog. Brit— Ath. Ox. vol. 11.— Dodd's Ch. Hist toI. III. 
-. ^ Biog. Universelle. — Moreri^ in Birck.-^Freyta^ Adpar«tiH Litter^ !• tad 
Ill.-^Saxii Onomasticon. 

Vol. V. O 

194 B E T U S S I. 

as secretary to a person of rank, and is said to hav6 gmi^ 
"to Spain in 1562, in this character, but on bis return to 
Italy, he resumed his irregularities, and lived as usual on 
precarious supplies. The time of bis death is not ascer- 
tained, but according to a letter of Goselini, a contemporary 
writer, he was living in 1565. His works are, 1, "Dia- 
logo amoroso e rime di Giuseppe Betussi e d'altri autori," 
Venice, 1545, 8vo. This dialogue is in prose and verse; 
and the speakers are Pigua, Sansovino, and Baffa, a poetess 
of his time. 2. " II Raverta, dialogo, &c." Venice, 1544, 
1545, &o. 8vo. 3. Italian translations of Boccaccio's 
three Latin works, **De casibus Virorum etFoeminarum iU 
lustrium ;" — ** De claris Mulieribus ;" — and " De Genea- 
logia deorum ;'* the first, Venice, 1545, 8vo; the second, 
with the addition of illustrious ladies from the time of Boc- 
caccio to his own, ibid. 1547, 8vo; and the third, same 
year, 4to, Of this last there have been at least thirteen 
editions, and many of the others. 4. " An Italian trans- 
lation of the ** Seventh book of the Eneid," Venice, 1546, 
8vo, which afterwards made part of an entire translation 
of that poem by different hands. 5. " La Leonora, Ra- 
gionamento sopra la vera bellezza," Lucca, 1557,' 8vo, 
noticed by Mazzuchelli and Fontanini among the rarest 
books. 6. " Ragionamento sopra il Catajo, luogo dfel sig- 
iior Pio Enea Obizzi," Padua, 1573, 4 to, Ferrara, 1669,, 
tvith additions. If this description of a magnificent villa 
was published by Betussi himself, it proves that he was 
alive much later than we have before conjectured. 7. 
^* L'Immagine del tempio di Dorina Giovanna d'Aragona, 
dialogo," Venice, 1557, 8vo. 8. "Letters" and « Poems" 
in various collections.* 

BEVER (Thomas), LL. D. an eminent scholar and civi- 
lian, was born at Mortimer in Berkshire in 1725, and edu- 
cated at All Souls' college, Oxford, where he took the de- 
gree of bachelor of law, July 3, 1753, and that of doctor, 
Aprils, 1758, and was also a fellow of liis college. In 
176^, with the permission of the vice-chancellor, and with 
the approbation of the regius professor of civil law, whose 
ill state of health had at that time deprived the university 
of the fruits of his abilities, he gave a course of lectures 
in the same school where Blackstone had delivered hia 
celebrated commentaries, and sometimes, when the clasg, 
of pupils was small, at his own chambers in Ail Souls' £ol- 

1 Bto(. UiiiTerseU«< 

BEYER. 195 

lege. In 1766, he published '* A discourse on the study 
jof Jurisprudence and tlie Civil Law, being an introduction 
to (the above) course of lectures," 4to, but we presume 
had not sufficient encouragement to publish the whole. 
He was admitted into Doctors' Commons, Nov. 21, 1758^ 
and was afterwards promoted to be judge of the Cinque 
Ports, and chancellor of Lincoln and Bangor. In 17B1, 
he published " The history of the Legal Polity of the 
Roman state ; and of the rise, progress, and extent of the 
Roman Laws," Lond. 4to, a work in which he has made 
deep researches into the constitution of the Roman i^tate, 
and displays an extensive fund of learning, connected with 
the investigation of the civil law. It is much to be lament- 
ed that he did not live to complete hi^ plan : but by his 
will he expressly forbade any part of his MSS. to be print** 
ed, as not being iu a fit state for the public eye. Dr. Coote 
says he connnitt^d the sequel of this work to the flames in 
his last illness. He adds that ^^ he was a better scholar 
than writer, and a better writer than pleader." His pri- 
vate character is represented as truly amiable. ' As a rela- 
tion he was affectionate and attentive ; and as a friend aC'- 
tive and disinterested. His patronage of unprotected ge- 
nius was a constant mark of the benevolence of his heart. 
The late Mr. Hindle, and other adepts in music, of which 
Dr.(Pever was a devoted amateur, attracted his esteem. 
Sherwiii, the celebrated engraver, owed also the greatest 
obligations to him ; his grateful sense of which he testified 
by his valuable present of an unique painting (the only one 
Sherwin ever executed), of Leonidas taking leave of his 
wife and infant son, now or lately in possession of Sam. 
Bever, esq. of Mortimer in Berkshire, the doctor's 
younger brother. Dr. Bever died at his house in Doctors' 
Commons, Nov. 8, 1791, of an asthma, which probably 
would not then have been fatal, if he had suffered himself 
.to be removed from London to a less turbid air, but in 
what concerned his health, he was reluctant to take advice. 
-He was interred in Mortimer church, Berkshire, and a 
mural monument erected, in the chancel, to his memory.* 
BEVERIDGE (William), a learned divine in the se- 
venteenth century, and bishop of St. Asaph, was born at 
'Barrow in Leicestershire (where his grandfather, father^ 
and brother, were vicars) in 1636-7. On the 24th of May^ 

! CooU's Catalogue of Ciyilians.-^eQt. Mag. vol. XXI. aad UYIIL 4ec* 

2 ' 



196 B E V E R I D G E. 

1653, he was admitted of St. John's college, Cambridge 
and took his degrees of bachelor of arts in 1656, mas- 
ter of arts in 1660, and of doctor of divinity in 1679. 
At his coming to the university, he closely applied him- 
self to the study of the learned languages ; and, by 
his great diligence and application, soon became so well 
skilled, particularly in all Oriental learning, that when 
he Xvas not above eighteen years of age, he wrote a 
treatise of the excellency and use of the Oriental tongues, 
especially the Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, Arabic, and 
Samaritan, with a Syriac Grammar, in three bpoks; which 
he published when he was about twenty years of age. 
He also distinguished himself, at the same time, by his 
early piety and seriousness of mind, and by his exem- 
plary sobriety and integrity of life, all which procured 
him great esteem and veneration. January 3, 1660-1, 
he was ordained deacon in the church of St. Botolph, 
Aldersgate, by Robert, bishop of Lincoln ; and priest, in 
^ the same place, the 31st of that month. About this time. 
Dr. Sheldon, bishop of London, collated him to the vicar-^ 
jkge of Ealing in Middlesex. On the 22d of November, 
1672, he was chosen, by the lord-mayor and aldermen of 
London, rector of St. Peter's, Cornhill, London, and then 
he resigned the vicarage of Ealing« He now applied him- 
self, with the utmost labour and zeal, to the discharge of 
his ministry, and so instructive was he in his discourses 
from the pulpit, so warm and affectionate in his private 
exhortations, so regular and uniform in the public wor- 
ship of the church, and in every part of his pastoral func- 
tion, and so remarkably were his labours crowned with 
success, that as he himself was justly styled " the great 
reviver and restorer of primitive piety," so his parish was 
deservedly proposed, as the best model and pattern, for 
the rest of its neighbours to copy after. His singular me- 
rit having recommended him to the favour of his diocesan, 
bishop Henchman, he was collated by him, on the 22d of 
December, 1674, to the prebend of Chiswick, in the ca- 
thedral of St. Paul's, London ; and, by his successor bi- 
shop Compton, he was also, on the 3d of November, 1681, 
collated to the archdeaconry of Colchester. In this dignity 
he behaved, as he had done before in every station of life, 
in a most regular^ watchful, and exemplary manner : and 
not satisfied with the false, or at least imperfect, reports 
yiv^a in by church-wardens at visitations, be visited every 

B £ V E R I D G E, 197 

parish within his archdeaconry in person. November the 
5tb, 1684, he was installed prebendary of Canterbury, and 
became also chaplain to king William and queen Mary. 
In 1691, he was offered, but refused the see of Bath and 
Wells, then vacant by the deprivation of Dr. Thomas Kenn, 
for not taking the oaths to king William and queen Mary. 
But though he refused that see, because, probably, being 
a man of a tender conscience, he would not eat Dr. Kenn's 
bread, according to the language of those times, he after- 
wards accepted of that of 8t. Asaph, vacant by the trans- 
lation of Dr. George Hooper to Bath and Wells, and was 
consecrated July 16, 1704. Being placed in this eminent 
station, bis pare and diligence increased in proportion as 
his power in the church was enlarged ; and now when his 
authority was extended to larger districts, he still pursued 
the same pious and laborious methods of advancing the 
honour and interest of religion, by watching over both 
clergy and laity, and giving them all necessary direction 
and assistance, for the effectual performance of their re^ 
spective duties. Accordingly, he was ho aoQuer advanced 
to the episcopal chair, but in a pathetic-letter to the clergy 
of bis diocese, he recommended to them the " duty of 
catechising and instructing the people committed to their 
charge, in the principles of the Christian religion ; to the 
end they, might know what they were to believe. and do 
in order to salvation :'' and lold them, ^^ he thought it ne-^ 
cessary to begin with that, without whix^h, whatever else 
be or they should do, would turn to little or no account, 
as to the main end of the ministry.^' And to enable them 
to do this the more effectually, he sent them a plain and 
easy *^ Exposition upon the Church Catechism." This 
good ipan did not enjoy his episcopal dignity abave three 
years seven months and twenty days ; for he died fit his 
lodgings in the cloisters in Westminster-abbey, March 
5f 1707-8, in the seventy-first year of his age, and wasi 
buried in St. Paul's cathedral. He left the greatest part o| 
his estate tp the societies for propagating the gospel, and 
promoting Christi?in knowledge. To the curacy of Mountn 
Sorrel in particular, and vicarage of Barrow in the county 
of Leicester, in o* thankful remembrance pf God'g mercies 
Touchsafed to him thereabouts, \\e bequeathed twenty 
pounds a year for ever, on condition that prayers be rea<Jl 
morning and evening every day, according to, the Liturg)9^ 
Qf tbe cUiirc]) of Englaixd^ ip th^ chapel, aiid p?irish churoh 

198 B E V E R I D G E. 

aforesaid ; with the sum of forty shillings yearly, to be di-' 
vided equally upon Christmas-eve, among eight poor house-*' 
keepers of Barrow, as the minister and churchwardens 
should agree, regard being had especially to those who 
had been most constantly at prayers, and at the sacrament 
of the Lord's Supper, the foregoing year. And if it should 
so happen, that the Common-Prayer could not be read in 
the church or chapel aforesaid, his will then was, that what 
should have been given in either place for that, be in each 
place allowed to one chosen by the vicar of Barrow to teach 
school, and instruct the youth in the principles of the 
Christian religion, according to the doctrine of the church 
of England. His works were many, and full of great va- 
riety of learning. Those pubUshed by himself were as- 
fbllows: 1. ^^ De Linguarum Orientalium, prsesertim He- 
braics, Chaldaicse, Syriacae, Arabica^, et Samaritanae, pras- 
RtantiH et usu," &c. mentioned above. Lond. 1658, 8vo. 
2. ^' Institutionum Chronologicarum libri duo, una cum to- 
tidem Arithmetices Chronologicae libellis," Lond. 1669^ 
4to. 3. ^^ XuvoiiMWy sive Pandectae Canonum SS. Aposto- 
lorum, et Conciliorum ab Ecclesi^ Grsec^ receptorum ; 
necnon Canonicarum SS. Patrum Epistolarum ; una cum 
Scholiis antiquorum singulis eorum annexis, et scriptis 
aliis hue spectantibus ; quorum plurima e Bibliothecas JBod- 
leians aliarumque MSS. Codicibus nunc primum edita: 
reliqua cum iisdem MSS. summ^ fide et diligeutisl coUata,** 
Oxonii, 1672, 2 vols. fol. 4. ^^ Codiex Canonum Ecclesiao 
PrimitivsB vindicatus et illustratus," Lond. 1679, 4to. 5^ 
f^ The Church Catechism explained, for the use of the 
diocese of St. Asaph," Lond. J 704, 4to, reprinted several 
times since. Next follow bishop Beveridge's works, pub- 
lished after his decease by his executor Mr. Timothy Gre-». 
gory ; 1. ** Private Thoughts upon Religion, digested into 
twelve articles, with practical resolutions formed there- 
upon.^* Written in his younger years (when he was about 
twenty-three years old), for the settling of his principles 
and conduct of life, Lond. 1709. 2. ** Private Thoughts 
upon a Christian Life ; or, necessary directions for its be- 
ginning and progress upon earth, in order to its final per- 
fection in the Beatific Vision," part ^I. Lond. 1709. 3. 
*' The great necessity and advantage of Public Prayer and 
frequent Communion. Designed to revive primitive piety; 
with meditations, ejaculations, and prayers, before, at^ 
a&d after the sacrament/* Lond« 1710.. These have beeo 

B E V E R I D G E. l»9 

reprinted several times iu 8vo and 12mo. 4. ** One hun* 
dred and fifty Sermons and Discourses on several sub- 
jects," Lond. L708, &c. in 12 vols. 8vo, reprinted at Lon- 
don, 17iy, in 2 vols. fol. 5. "Thesaurus Theologicus ; 
or, a complete system of Divinity, sumtijed up in brief 
notes upon select places of the Old and New Testament; 
wherein the sacred text is reduced under proper heads ; 
explained and illustrated with the opinions and authorities 
of the ancient fathers, councils, &c." Lond. 1711, 4 vols. 
8vo. &. " A defence of the book of Psalms, collected 
into English metre by Thomas Sternhold, John Hopkins, 
and others ; with critical Observations on the New Version, 
compared with the Old," Lond. 1710, Svo. In this book 
he gives the old version the preference to the new. 7. 
« Exposition of the XXXIX Articles," Lond. 1 7 1 0, 1 7 1 6, fol. . 
Bishop Beveridge's character is in general represented 
in a most advantageous light. He was a person of the 
strictest integrity, of true and sincere piety, of exem- 
plary charity, and of great zeal for religion, and so 
highly esteemed, that when he was dying, one of the 
chief of his order deservedly said of him, " There goes 
one of the greatest and of the best men that ever England 
bred." He is also celebrated as a man of extensive and 
almost universal learning; furnished, to a very eminent 
degree, with all useful knowledge; and much to be ad- 
mired for his readiness in the scriptures, which he had 
thoroughly studied, so that he was able to produce suitable 
passages from them on all occasions, and happy in explain-\ 
ing them to others. Mr. Nelson say$, that he cannot for- 
bear acknowledging the favourable dispensation of Provi- 
dence to the present age, in blessing it with so many of 
those pious discourses, which our truly primitive prelate 
delivered from the pulpit; and that he the rather takes 
the liberty to call it a favourable dispensation of Provi- 
dence, because the bishop gave no orders himself that 
they should be printed, but humbly neglected them, as 
not being composed for the press. But that this circum>- 
stance is so far from abating the worth of the sermons, 
or diminishing the character of the author, that it raises 
the excellency of both, because it shews at once the 
true nature of a popular discourse ; which is to improve 
the generality of hearers, and for that purpose to ^peak 
to them in ^a plain ^nd intelligible style, 

400 B E V E R I D G E. 

Dr. Henry Felton says, that our learned and venerable 
bishop delivered himself with those ornaments alone/ 
which his subject suggested to him, and wrote in that 
plainness and solemnity of style, that gravity and sim- 
plicity, which gave authority to the sacred truths he taught, 
and unanswerable evid^ce to the doctrines he defended. 
That there is something so great, primitive, and apostoli- 
cal, in his writings, that it creates an awe and veneration 
in our mind ; that the importance of hi$ subjects is above 
the decoration of words; and what is great and majestic in 
itself looketh most like itself, the less it is adorned. The 
author of one of the Guardians, having made an extract 
6ut of one of the bishop's sermons, tells us, that it may 
for acuteness of judgment, ornament of speech, and true 
sublime, compare with any of the choicest writings of the 
ancients, who lived nearest to the apostles' times. But 
the author of a pamphlet published in 171 1, entitled ** A 
short view of Dr. Beveridge's Writings," passes a very dif- 
ferent judgment upon bishop Beveridge's works, in order 
to stop, as he says, the mischief they are doing, and that 
which the publication of his Articles may do. — With regard 
to the bishop's language, he observes, that he delights in 
jingle and quibbling; affects a tune and rhyme in all he 
says, and rests arguments upon nothing but words and 
sounds, &c. &c. — But perhaps this animadverter will by 
somie be ranked among the persons, of whom Dr. Lupton 
gives the following character : " Those who are censorious 
enough to reflect with severity upon the pious strains^ 
which are to be found in bishop Beveridge, &c. may possibly 
be good judges of an ode or essay, but do not seem to 
criticise justly upon sermons, or express a just value for 
spiritual things.*' After all, whatever faults may be found 
in bishop Beveridge's posthumous works, must be charged 
to the injudiciousness of his executor. He must himself 
have been an extraordinary man who, with all the faults 
pointed out by the author of " The short view," could 
have conciliated the good opinion and favour of men of all 
principles,* and the most eifiinent patrons of the church ; 
and the estimation in 'which his works continue to be held 
to this day, prove how little he was injured by the captious 
quibblings of a writer who was determined to find fsLult 
^itb that, into the spirit of which he could not enter., The 
Ufe of bishop Beveridge^ piiefixed to the folio edition of 

3 E V E R I D G E. 201 

hid works, was written bj' Mr. Kimber, a dissenting mini- 
ster of the Baptist persuasion, in London. * 

BEVERLAND (Adrian), born at Middleburgh in Zea- 
land, in 1653 or 1654, was a man of genius, but prosti- 
tuted his talents by employing them in the composition 
of ioose and impious pieces. iWe took the degree of 
doctor of law, and became an advocate ; but his passion 
for polite literature diverted him from any pursuits in that 
way. He was a passionate admirer of Ovid, Catullus, Pe- 
tronius, and appears to have derived from them that cor- 
ruption of morals which, more or less, appeared in, the 
whole of his life and writings, Mr. Wood tells us, that 
Beverland was at the university of Oxford in 1672. In 
1678, he published his treatise on original sin. It is en- 
titled " Peccatum originate nouT sloxiv, sic nuncupatum 
philologice problematicos elucubratum a Themidis alumno. 
Vera redit facies, dissimulata perit. Eleutheropoli. Extra 
plateam obscuram, privilegio authoris, absque ubi et 
quando." At the end of the book are these words : " In 
horto Hesperidum typis Adami Evae Terrae filii, 167S.'* 
His design in this piece is to shew, that Adam^s Hsin con- 
sisted entirely in the commerce with his wife, and that 
original sin is nothing else but the inclination of the sexes 
to each other. For this he was summoned before the uni- 
versity of Leyden, sent to prison, and his name struck out 
of the list of students ; but he was discharged after he had 
paid a fine, and taken an oath that he would never write 
again upon such subjects. He then removed to Utrecht, 
where he led a most dissolute life, and boasted every 
where of his book, which bad been burnt at Leyden. His 
behaviour at length obliged the magistrates to send him 
notice privately, that they expected he should imme<liately 
leave the city. He wrote a severe satire against th0 ma- 
gistrates and ministers of Leyden, under the title of 
*' Vox clamantis in deserto," which was dispersed in ma- 
nuscript: but finding after this, that it would not be safe 
for him to remain in Holland, he went over to England, 
where Dr. Isaac Vossius procured him a pension. His^in- 
come Was inconsiderable, yet he spent the greatest part of 
it in purchasing scarce books, indecent prints, pictures^ 
medals, and strange shells. He seems afterwards to have 
repented of his irregular life : and as an atonement, he is 

Y Bio^. Brit. — Gen. Diet, in which is a larger account of His wprks — and 
Nichols's Leic. vol. III. where is ao ample accouot of the Qm* Bcveridgiana, 

JW3 B E V E R L A N D. 

said to have published his treatise " De Fornicatione ca^- 
veiida," in 1698. He tells us, in an advertisement pre- 
fixed to this book, that it was the result of his repentance ; 
and s^aks of his loose pieces in the following terms : " I 
condemn tbe warmth of my imprudent youth ; I detest my 
loose style and my libertine sentiments. I thank Gody 
who has removed from my eyes the veil which blinded my 
sight m a miserable manner, and who would not suffer me 
aiiy longer to seek out weak arguments to defend this 
crime. He has likewise inspired me with such a resolu- 
tion, that I have burnt all that I hare written upoti this , 
subject, and sent to tbe rector magnificus of the university 
of Leyden, the books * De Prostibulis Veteirum.' I de- 
sire all persons whe have procured any manuscript of my 
writing either privately, or in any other method, to return 
it to me, that I may burn it myself. And if any person 
should refuse this, I wish him all the misfortunes which 
use to happen to one who violates his trust/' Yet, not- 
withstanding these expressions, his sincerity has been sus- 
pected ; and it has been alleged, that he wrote this last 
piece with no other view than to raise the curiosity of 
mankind, to inquire after the former. After Vossius'a 
death, he, fell into extreme poverty, and incurred univer- 
sal hatred from the many violent satires which he bad Writ-^ 
ten against different persons. Besides this misfortune, his 
reasoQ began to be affected; and in tbe year 1712, he 
wandered from one part of England to another, imagining 
that two hundred men had confederated together to assas- 
sinate him. It is probable that he died soon after ; for we 
bear no more of him from that time. In 1746, twelve 
Latin letters of Beverland were, published, addressed to 
some learned men of his time ; but our authority does not 
state where this publication made its appearance. While 
in England, he must at one time have been in some repu- 
tation, as sir Godfrey Kneller made a fine portrait of him, 
dated 1689, which is now in the picture gallery, Oxford.* 
BEVERLY (John of), in Latin Beverlacius, arch- 
bishop of York in the eighth century, was born of a noble 
family among tbe English Saxons, at Harpham, a small 
town in Northumberlan'd. He was first a monk, and after- 
wards abbot of the monastery of St. Hilda. He yms in- 
structed in the learned languages by Theodore, archbishop 

4 Geo. Diet— Biog. Univ.-— Diet. Hist*— Moreri.— -Saxii Onoinast. — Gran|{ei^« 


of Canterbury, and was justly esteemed one of the best 
scholars of his time. Alfred of Beverly, who wrote his 
hfe, pretends that he studied at Oxford, and took there 
the degree of master of arts ; but bishop Godwin assures 
us this cannot be true, because such distinction of degrees 
was not then known at Oxford, nor any where else. Our 
abbot^s merit recommended him to' the favour of Alfred, 
king of Northumberland, who, in the year 685, advanced 
him to the see of Hagustalci, or Hexham^ and, upon the 
death of archbishop Bosa in 687, translated him to that of 
York. This prelate was tutor to the famous Bede, and 
Uved in the strictest friendship with Acca, and other Anglo- 
Saxon doctors, several of whom he put upon writing com- 
ments on the scriptures. He likewise founded, in 704, a 
college at Beverly for secular priests. After he had go- 
verned the see of York thirty-four years, being tired with 
the tumults, and confusions of the church, he divested him- 
self of the episcopal character, and retired to Beverly; 
and four years after died May 7, 721. The day of his 
death was appointed a festival by a synod held at London 
in 1416. Bede, and other monkish writers, ascribe seve« 
ral miracles to hiity Between three and four hundred years 
after his death, his body was taken up by Alfric, arch- 
bishop of York, and placed in a shrine richly adorned with 
silver, gold, and precious stones. Bromton relates, that 
William, the conqueror, when he ravaged Northumberland 
with a numerous army, spared Beverly Slone, out of a re«r 
ligious veneration for St. John of that place. This prelate 
wrote some pieces, 1. *^ Pro Luca exponendo;" an essay 
towards an exposition of St. Luke, addressed to Bede. 
2. '^ Homiliss in Evangelia." 3. Epistolae ad Hildam Ab- 
batissam." 4. ^^ Epistolae ad Herebaldum, Andenum, et 
Bertin una." r— Pits mentions another John of Beverly, so 
galled from the place of his nativity, who was a Carmelite 
monk in the fourteenth century, and a very learned man, 
and doctor and professor of divinity at Oxford, He flou- 
rished about 1390, in the reign of Richard IL and wrote, 
1. ^^ Questiones in magistrum sententiarum ;'' in four 
books. 2. ^' Disputationes ordinarise ;" in one book. ^ 

BEVERINI (Bartholomew), a learned Italian of the 
seventeenth century, was born at Lucca, May 5, 1629. 
in classical learning he made such progress, that^ when 

I Biog. Brit.— Bale.— Pits.— Tanner. 

S04 B E V E R I N I. 

only fifteen, he wrote notes and comments on the princi-* 
pal poets of the Augustan age, which drew the notice and 
approbation of the learned. In bis sixteenth year, be 
went to Rome and entered the congregation of the regular 
clerks, called the congregation of the " Mother of God.'* 
After completing his theological studies, he taught divinity 
for four years, at the end of which he was invited to Lucca 
to be professor of rhetoric. From the salary of this place 
he was enabled to maintain his aged father and family, and 
lYOuld not afterwards accept of any promotion from his con- 
gregation, that his studies might not be interrupted by 
affairs of business. He corresponded with many illustrious 
personages of his time, and among others with Christina, 
queen of Sweden, who often requested of him copies of 
his sermons and poems. The facility with which he wrote 
appears by his translation of the Eneid, which he says, in 
the preface, he completed in thirteen months. He died 
of a malignant fever, Oct. 24, 1686. He left a great 
many works, of which his biographer, Fabroni, has given a 
minute catalogue. The principal are : 1. ^^ Sa)culum ni« 
veum ; Roma virginea ; et Dies niveus,'* three small 
Latin collections on the same subject, " De nivibus Ex- 
quilinis, sive de sacris nivibus," Rome, 1650, 1651, and 
1652, 4to, each containing two discourses or harangues, 
and a Latin and Italian idyl. 2. ^^Rime,'^ Lucca, 1654, 
12mo, reprinted at Rome 1666, with additions, and de- 
dicated to queen Christina. 3. *^ Discorsi sacri," Lucca, 
165S, 12mo, Venice, 1682. 4. " Carminum Lib.VIL'* 
ibid. 1674, 12mo. 5. " Eneide di Virgilio, trasportata in 
ottavb rima," ibid, 1680, 12mo. This much esteemed 
translation has been often reprinted. The last edition is 
that of Rome, 1700, 4to. 6. " Prediche, discorsi, ele- 
zioni," a posthumous work, Vienna, .1692, 4to. 7. "Syn- 
tagma de ponderibus et mensuris,'^ another posthumous 
work, Lucca, 171], 8vo, a very learned performance, 
often reprinted, and added to all collections on the sub^ 
ject. Among his unpublished works is a historical account 
of Lucca, which it is rather surprizing, should have been 
so long left in that state ; it is entitled ^^ Annalium ab 
origine Lucensis urbis Lib. XV." Fabroni, who highly 
praises these annals, seems at a loss to account for their 
not having been published, but informs us that Beverini 
had his enemies as well as his admirers. ^ 

^ Bio|f. UQiverseUe.-f-Fabroni Vit» ItaloraaHj Tol. XIX.— l^uzuc)iellv 

6 E Y E R W I C K, ^(ja 

B EVER WICK (John de), in Latin Beverovicius, was 
Iborn at Dort, Sept. 17, 1594, of a noble family. He 
was brought up from bis infancy under the eyes of Gerard 
John Vossius, and visited several universities for acquiring 
knowledge in the art of medicine, and took his doctor's 
degree at Padua. He practised in the place of his na« 
tivity, where he likewise filled several civic posts with dis* 
tinction. He died Jan. 19, 1647, aged 51 ; and though 
his course was not remarkably long, yet Daniel Heinsius^ 
in the epitaph he made on him, calls him ^* Vitae artifex,. 
mortis fugator." His principal works are: 1. " De ter- 
mino vitae, fatali an mobili ?" Rotterdam, 1644, 8vo; and 
Leyden, 1651, 4to. This book made some noise at the 
time, and professes to discuss the question. Whether the 
term of life of every individual be fixed and immutable ; 
or, whether it may be changed. 2. " De excellentia 
sexds Fceminei," Dordrecht, 1639, 8vo. S. " Decalculo,** 
Leyden, 1638 — 41, 8vo. 4. " Introductio ad Medicinant 
indigenam," Lej^den, 1663, 12mo. This book, says Vig- 
neul Marville, is a very small volume, but extremely well 
filled. Beverovicius proves in it, to every man's satisfac* 
tion, that, without having recourse to remedies from fo- 
reign countries, Holland should be contented wirfi her own 
in the practice of medicine. His entire works were printed 
in Flemish, at Amsterdam, 1656, 4to.^ 

BEVIN (EtWAY), a musician eminently skilled in the 
knowledge of practical composition, flourished towards the 
end of queen Elizabeth's reign. He was of Welch extrac- 
tion, and had been educated under Tallis, upon whose 
recommendation it was that in 1589 he was sworn in gen- 
tleman extraordinary of the chapel ; from whence he was 
expelled in 1637, it being discovered that he adhered to 
the Romish communion. He was also organist of Bristol 
cathedral, but forfeited that employment at the same time 
with his place in the chapel. Child, afterwards doctor, 
was his scholar. He has composed sundry services, and 
a .few anthems. Before Bevin's time the precepts for the 
composition of canons was known to few. Tallis, Bird, 
Waterhouse, and Farmer, were eminently skilled in thia 
most abstruse part of musical practice* Every canon^ as 
given to the public, was a kind of enigma. Compositiona 

« Biog. Unir.— Haller BiM. Med.^Maog«t Bibl, Script. Med.— Mvreri.-^ 
Foppea BibL Belg. — Saxii Onomast, 

*06 B E V I N. 

t)f this kind were sometimes exhibited in the form of a 
cross^ sometimes in that of a circle ; there is now extant 
one resembling a horizontal sun-dial, and the resolution, 
{as it was called) of a canon, which was the resolving it 
into its elements, and reducing it into scorfe, was deemed 
a work of almost as great difficulty as the original compo- 
sition. But Bevin, with a view to Ae improvement of 
students, generously communicated the result of many 
years study and experience in a treatise which is highly 
commended by all who have taken occasion to speak of it. 
This book was published in 1631, 4to, and dedicated to 
Goodman bishop of Gloucester, with the following title t 
** A briefe and short instruction of the Art of Musicke, to 
teach how to make discant of all proportions that are in 
use ; very necessary for all such as are desirous to attain 
to knowledge in the art ; and may, by practice, if they 
sing, soone be able to compose three, four, and five parts, 
and also to compose all sorts of canons that are usual], by 
these directions of two or three parts in one upon the plain 
song." The rules contained in this book for composition 
in general are very brief ;^ but for the composition of ca- 
nons there are in it a great variety of examples of almost 
all the possible forms in which it is capable of being con- 
$(tructed, even to the extent of sixty parts. * 


BEUGHEM (Cornelius de), whose name often occurs 
)n works of Bibliography, but who has not laid bibliogra- 
phers under many obligations, was a bookseller at Em- 
merich, about the end of the seventeenth century. Hin 
design in his compilations was evidently to serve the cause 
of literature, but although 'Sill his plans weregood, they were 
imperfectly executed, and have proved perplexing and 
useless. His principal publications in this department 
were: 1. " Bibliographiajuridicaetpolitica,'* Amsterdam, 
1680, 12mo. 2. " Bibliothecamedica etphysica," 1691, 
12mo, enlarged in 1696. 3. " Gallia critica et experi- 
mentalis ab anno 1665 usque ad 1681,*' Amst. 1683, 12mo. 
This is a useful index to the articles in the ** Journal des 
.Savans." 4. " Bibliographia mathematica et artificio'fei," 
1685, improved and enlarged, 1688, 12mo. 5. "Bibliogra- 
phia historica, chronologica, et geographica,'* 1685, 12nio, 
and continued in four parts until 1710. 6. " Bibliographia 

\ 1 Hawkins's Higt of Music. 

B £ U G H E M. iot 

erodltoirum critico-curiosay seu apparatus ad historiam 
literariam," Amst 1689 — 1701, 5 vols. 12mo, a sort of 
general index to all the literary journals, but containing 
too many alphabets to be easily consulted. It extends 
from 1665 to 170Q. 7. " Incunabula typographiae, sive 
Catalogus librorum proximis ab inventione typographise 
annis ad annum 1500, editorum," Amst. 1688, 12mo» 
jejune, says our English bibliographer, and erroneous. In- 
deed each of these undertakings, to be completely useful^ 
would have required more years than Beughem bestowed 
upon the whole. * 

BEULANIUS, a divine and historian in the seventh 
century; was a Briton by birth, who taught the celebrated 
Nennius, afterwards abbot of the monastery of Bangor ; 
and applied himself from his earliest youth to th^ study 
of learning, which he joined to the greatest purity of 
morals. Bale tells us, that he was master of a very exten- 
sive knowledge of things, and a great fluency of style, 
and was actuated by a warm zeal for the propagation of 
truth. He had a son, the subject of the following article ; 
which is a proof, as the historian above-mentioned ob- 
serves, that the priests in Britain were not at that time 
prohibited to marry ; though Pits is of opinion that our 
author was not ordained when his son was born. He was 
extremely industrious in examining into the antiquities of 
nations, and tracing out the families of the English Saxons 
after they had entered Britain ; and from these collections 
he is said to have written a work *' De Genealogiis Gen- 
tium." He flourished in the year 600. Bishop Nicolson 
in his " English Historical Library'* calls him Beulani^s, 
and confounds him with his son. * 

BEULANIUS (Samuel), a learned divine and historian 
of the seventh century, was son of the preceding, and 
born in Northumberland, but educated almost from his 
infancy in the isle of Wight. He was a man of a very hu- 
mane and mild disposition, a good historian, and well 
skilled in geometry. He gave an acqurate description of 
the isle of Wight from his own observations, as well as 
from the accounts of Ptolemy and Pliny. Upon his return 
to his awu country he studied under Elbode, a bishop 
eminent for his uncommon sanctity and learning, by whose 

* Biog. Univ. — Moreri. — Baillet Jugemens de Sayans.— Saxii Ononvi8t.— • 
Bibdin's Biblromania. 

« Tanoer.— L(eland.^Bale.-«>PiU.— Gen. Diet 

aO« B E U L A N I US. 

instructions he made great progress both in pro&ne ami 
sacred literature. At last he applied himself to the study 
of the history of his nation, which he examined with the 
iitmost accuracy, and wrote in Latin " Annotations upon 
Nennius," an *' History of the actions of king Arthur in 
Scotland," and an " Historical Itinerary." L^land is of 
opinion that he was a monk, sjnce all the learning which 
was then extant, was among those of that profession. He 
flourished in the year 640, according to Bale ; or 656^ ac- 
cording to Pits. He had a very intimate friendship with 
the famous Nennius, abbot of Bangor. ^ 

BEUMLER (Mark), a learned minister of the reformed 
church, was born in 1555, at Volketswyl, a. village in the 
canton of Zurich, and died of the plague at Zurich, in 
1611. He studied at Geneva and Heidelberg, and after 
having exercised the ministerial functions in Germany for 
some years, returned to Zurich in 1594, where he was ap- 

{)ointed professor of theology. He published many theo- 
ogical, philological, and philosophical works, which are 
now forgot, but some of them were highly esteemed in his 
vday, particularly his " Grammar," Zurich, 1593, and his 
•* Khetoric," ibid. 1629, which were often reprinted. He 
also translated and wrote notes on some of Cicero's, De- 
mosthenes, and Plutarch's works, and was the author of 
a " Catechism" which was long the only one used at Zu- 
rich. He was accounted one of the ablest defenders of 
Zuinglius and Calvin. The style of his polemical works 
partook of that quaintness which prevailed in controversial 
writing for more than a century after his time. The title 
of one of his pamphlets will exemplify this, and amuse our 
Latin readers : " Falco emissus ad capiendum, depluman- 
dum et dilacerandum audaciorem ilium cuculum ubiquita- 
rium, qui nuper ex Jac. Andreae, mali corvi, malo ovo, 
ab Holderp simplicissima curruca exclusus, et a demoniaco 
Bavio Fescenio varii coloris plumis instructus, impetum in 
philomelas innocentes facere ceperat," Neustadt, 15S5, 
4to. * 

BEUTHER (Michael), a learned German writer, was 
born at Carlostadt, Oct. IS, 1522, and studied at Marpurg, 
and afterwards at Wittemberg, where, being introduced 
by Melancthon, to Luther, the latter received him into his 
house, and both superintended his studies. In 1542, wheu 

\ Tanner.— Leland, — ^Dale.— Pits.— <ilen. Pict. * Bio^. Unirenelle* 

B E U T H E R. i69 

the contest took place between John Frederic^ the elee« 
tor, and prince Maurice, be served under the former, but 
the war being orer, he returned to Wittemberg. In 1546 
he was appointed professor of history, poetry, and mathe,*^ 
Biatics at Grieswald; and in 1549 he visited Paris, aiid 
some other celebrated academies, studied civil law, and 
published his ^< Ephemeris Historica,^^ Paris, 1550. Iii 
1552 he had a considerable hand in the treaty of P^ssaw^ 
by which the exercise of the Protestant religion throitgh«^ 
out Germany was secured. In 1553 we find him at Padua^* 
where, by Melanctbon's advice, he studied tnedicine, and 
became acquainted with the celebrated Fallopius ; he' neict 
visited Rome, and some of the Italian schools, and at 
Ferrara w4bUB created LL.D. About the year 1555 he ap« 
pears to have excited some enemies, on accotint of bis re-* 
ligiou$ principles; but in 1559, the elector Palatine, Otto 
Henry, appointed him his ecclesiastical counsellor and 
Ubrartan. On the death, however, of this patron, he re- 
moved to Oppenheim, and took his final leave oi publid 
affairs. In 1563 he visited the principal cities and acade« 
mies of Saxony, for the purpose of itiquiting into their 
origin, history, and antiquities, ancl two years after was 
appointed historical professor at Strasburgh. He died of 
a decline^ Oct. 27, 1587. He was accounted a man of 
great learning in divinity, law, and physic, and eminently 
skilled in Hebrew^ Greek, Latin, French, Italian, iSpanish| 
and English. He published several works, among which 
are: 1. ^^ Animadversiones bistoricse et chronographicae.'^ 
2. <^ Opus fastorum antiqaitatis Roman^,^* Spire, 1600^ 
4to. 3.^ '' fasti Hebrs^rum, Atheniensium, et Romano- 
rum." * 4. " Animadversiohes in Taicili Germaniam.^* 
5. << Commentarii in Livium, Sallustiuniy Velleium Pater- 
culum, &c."* 

BEXON (Gabriel-Leopoli>-Charl£&-Am£'}, a French 
miscellaneous - writer, was bom at Remiremont, in the 
month of March 1 7^(8, and died at Paris, Feb. 15, 1784« 
He was firat canon, and afteri^atds gtatid-ibhanteir of St. 
Chapelle, at Paris. From his infancy he bad a 'turn for 
the stildy of natural history, and assisted Buflbh in 'the 
latter Volumes of his great work on that subject. -He pub- 
lished: 1. <^ Systeme de la I'ermeBtatian,'" 1778, 8vo. 


> Freheri TheatruiD.«---Bi«s. Univ.-^Moreri.'^Melchior^Adam iaVitii fU* 

»10 BEX ON. 

Z. ^' Catechisme d' Agriculture, ou fiibliotheque des gen^ 
de la campi^oe/' 1773, 12010.. 3. 'S Oraison funebre 
d^Anne Charlotte de Lorraine, abbesse de Reiniremont,'' 
1773, 4to. 4. ^^ Histoire de Lorraine,^^ 1777, 8 vo, a work 
to which he is said to have been indebted for bis eeclesias* 
tical promotions. One yolume only appeared, giving an 
|ix;count of the earliest state of Lorraine, its antiquities^ 
&c. with its literary history, and the lives of the eminent 
men that add a lustre to its annals. He wrote also, ^^ Ob* 
•ervation particuliere sur le Myriade,'' and *^ Materiaux 
pour rhistoire naturelle des Salines de Lorraine," both, 
wbigh were printed in Neufchateau's ^* Conservateur,'* 
▼ol. U. In the same collection, are twenty *five letters 
from Buffbn to the abb6 Bexon. . It remains to be noticed, 
that as he called hin^self in his first publioatioa Scipia 
Bexon, by way of concealment, some biographers have 
supposed that to be his real name. * . 

. BEYER, or BEIER (Augustus), a German Protestant 
minister, was bom May 21, 1707, and died in 1741. He 
is principally, known by the following bibliographical pub- 
lications : 1. ^^ Epistola de Bibliothecis Dresdensibus, tunoi 
pablicis turn, privatis,'^ Dresden, 1731, 4to. 2. ^\ Ber- 
nardi Monetae (La Monnoye) epistola hactenqs ineditse ad 
Michaelem Maittarium,^^ Dresden and Leipsic, 1732,^ 8vo» 
This he discovered in the Schoemberg museum. . 3. ^^ Me* 
inori» historico-criticsB librorum rariorum.," ibid. 1734, 8vo. 
4. *' Arcaaa sacra bibliothecarum Dresdensium^^' Dresden^ 
1738, 8vo, to which he published two appendices in 173S 
and 1740, 8vo. * 

. BEYER (GEoaGE), another bibliographer, alid a law 
yer, was born at Leipsic in 166^, and died in 17 14. He 
was the first, accprding to Camus, who gave a course of 
lectures on legal bibliography, at Wittemberg, in 1693. 
This produced, 1. ^^ IS otitis auotorum jundicorum et juris 
arti inservientium, tria specimina,^' Leipsic, .1.698t— 1 705^ 
i8vo. Of this a new and enlarged edition wai^. published in 
1726, 8vo,. and Jeaichen added a continuation in 1738« 
Four other improved editioni^, one by HommeU^s, in 1749, 
4wp in )7jfQ, and a fourth by Frank, in 1758,, aU m 8¥o^ 
shew;the yahie in. which, this work was held. .2. f' De- 
elinatio juris divipi natural^ et pqsitiyi universalis,^: Wit* 
temberg, 1712, 4to; Leipsic, 1716, 1726, 4to.* 

» Biog. Universelle. — Biog. Diet.-— "Month. Rev. Yol. LVI. 
s Biog. UmveneUe. — Saxii OnouiMticoB* * 


BEYERtlNCK. 2tl 

' BEYERLINCK (LAiiREif oe), a voluminous author^ was 
born April 1576^ at Antwerp, of a family originally ef^ 
B6rgen*op^Zooin, and bad his education > among the Je- 
suits; He went afterwards to study philosophy at Lottvain^ 
and bad scarcely assumed the ecclesiastic dress in order to 
pursue^ his divinity course in that university, when he was: 
appointed professor of poetry and rhetoric in the .college 
of Vaulx^ He had, some time after^ a liviiiig near Lou-- 
vain, and taught philosophy in a house of regular canons* 
in the same neighbourhood. In 1605 be was called to 
Antwerp, where he had the charge of the school, and. some, 
promotion in the churchi He died there June?, 1627* 
Foppen has given a long list of his works, the principal oti 
wluch seem to be : 1« ^^ Apophthegnxata Christianorum,'* 
Antwerp, 1608^ 8vo. 2. ^^ Biblia sacra variarum trans-* 
lationum," Antwetp^ 1616, 3 vols. fol. 3. ^' Promptua- 
arium morale super evaogelia communia, et particularia 
quasdam festorum totius anni,^- 1613, 8vo, and often re- 
printed. 4. •^ Magnum Theatrum vit» humanse." Be-, 
ferring our rellders to Freytag for a more minute account 
of this vast compilation, it may be suIEcient to add, that 
Conrad Lycosthenes left the materials for it, and Theodore 
Swinger or Zwinger having put them in order with some 
additions with which bis course of ifeading had furnished 
him, published three editions of them ; the first in 1 voL 
fol. 1565, the second in 3 vols. fol. 1571^ and .the third ia 
4 vols. fol. all at Basil, 1586. James Swinger went on 
improving and adding to this work, which was at^ast takenr 
lip by Beyerlinck, whose edition appeared after hts deaths 
Cologne, 163 1, enlarged to 8 vols, fj^lio; and it was re- 
printed in the same form at Lyons, 1678, and at Venice, 
1707. It is a mass, of theology, history, politics, phUo-» 
sophy, &c. in alphabetical order, containing all the know- 
ledge of the times upon the various, subjects, and we may 
add, all the ignorance and superstitions. V 

BEYMA (Juuus), an eminent lawyer. Was born at 
Dockum in Holland, in .1546, or according to Foppen, 
in 1539. . After having studied law, and taken a licentiate's 
degree at Orleans, be practised at Leuwarden, in Fr^es- 
land, until^ being suspected of Lutberanism, he Was ^bilged 
to retire into Germany, where he taught law at Wittem- 
berg, for ten years. The times becoming more £AVour-« 

. ^ Biog, taiv.-*Fappen BM. Belff^^Fraytat Adpai»tu» JUtkr.— 14oitri ia 
BeierliBck.. .> v 

P 2 

tit BEY MA. 

able, he returned, to his own country, jAqd obtained ibe 
law chair in the university of Leyden. After having' 
taught here with great success for fifteen years^ he was^ 
in 1596, invited to Franeker, in the same office, but after 
a year, he quitted the business of public instruction, beings 
appointed a counsellor at the court of Friesland. He died 
in 1598, leaving a daughter, and two sons, who were both 
educated in their father's profession. He wrote several 
dissertations on subjects of law, which were published in 
i vol. 4to, at Louvain, 1645. In 1598, the year of his death, 
a collection of theses maintained by Beyma and his friend 
Schotanus, appeared under the title ^^Disputationes juridical, 
ttociata cum coUega H. Schotano opera, editae,'' Franeker. ' 

BEYS (Charles), a French poet, was born at Paris in 
1610, and at the age of fourteen had written a number of 
poetical pieces, both in French and LAtin, which were 
extravagantly praised by Scarron and CoUetet, but are 
BOW in request only by the collectors - of curiosities. He 
applied himself very litde to study, passing {the principal 
part of his time in the pleasures of convivial society, which^ 
however, did not hinder him from meddling with publio 
affairs, for which he was thrown into the Bastille, as the 
author of the ^^ Mitiade,'* a satire against cardinal Riche« 
lieu. Having proved his- innocence, he was set at liberty, 
and resumed his loose life, which impaired his health, and 
deprived him of sight, in which condition he died. Sept. 26, 
1659. He wrote some dramas, and his poetical works 
were printed at Paris, 1631, 8vo.' 

BEYS (GiL£S), a celebrated printer of the sixteenth 
century, who was the first after those who printed the 
works of Ramus, that made a distinction in his printing 
between the consonants j and v, and the vowels i and u. 
Ramus was the inventor of this distipction, and employed 
it in his Latin grammar of 1557, but we do not find it 
in any of his works printed after that time. Beys adopted 
it first in Claude Mignaut^s Latin commentary on Horace. 
He died at Paris April 19, 1593. He married a daughter 
of the celebrated Plantin of Antwerp, by whom he had a 
•on, who was probably the poet above-mentioned, as the 
following burlesque epitaph was written on him : 

'* G git Beyi, qui savoit ^ merveille 
Faire des ver|« et yuider la bouteiUe.*'* 

t Bi«f« Uaiv«iseU«.--*FKli«riTlMfttnnL--»Aliiia <t lUuikiw And. Leitei^^ 
p. S7« s MorBri«<*Bios* Uairenelle. * Ibid. 

B E Z A. Hi 


BEZA (Theodore), one of the chief promoters of ili# 
Reformation, was born at Vezelai, a small town of Niver* 
Dais, in France, . June £4^ 1519. His father was Peter 
Beza, or de Beze, bailiff of the town, and bis mother 
Mary de Bourdelot. He passed his first years at Paris, 
with his uncle Nicholas, a counsellor of parliament, who 
sent him to Orleans, / at the age of six, for education. 
His master, Melchior Wolmar, a man of greater learning, 
and particularly eminent as a Greek scholar, and one of 
the first who introduced the principles of the reformation 
into France, having an invitation to become professor at 
Bourges, Beza accompanied him, and remained with him 
until 153i», Although at this period only sixteen, he had 
made very uncommon progress in learning and in the an-* 
cient languages, and having returned to Orleans to study 
law, he took his licentiate's degree in 1539. These four 
last years, however, he applied less to serious studies than 
to polite literature, and especially Latin poetry ; and it 
was in this interval that he wrote those pieces which were 
Afterwards published under the title of ^^ Poemata Juve- 
nilia," and afforded the enemies of the reformation a bet* 
ter handle than could have been wished to reproach hia 
early morals. 

On. his return to Paris he was presented to the priory of 
Longjumeau, and another benefice; and one of his uncles^ 
who possessed a rich abbey, had an intention to resign in 
his favour. Beza thus enjoying an ample revenue, with 
the prospect of an easy increase, joined too freely in the 
amusements and dissipations of youth, notwithstanding 
the remonstrances of his parents and friends : and although 
in the actual possession of benefices, had not yet taken 
orders, nor for some years did he associate with persons 
of the reformed religion, although he could hot forget the 
progress that it had made in his mind when under the 
tuition of Wolmar. Here he contracted an attachment to 
a young woman, who, some say, ^as of a noble family^ 
others, of inferior birth, to whom he secretly promised 
marriage, but was prevented from accomplishing this, 
through fear of losing his promotions. At length, how- 
ever, in 1548, when recovering from a severe illness, he 
resigned his priory, and went to Geneva, and married fhe 
lady to whom he bad now been engaged about four years* 
At the same time he abjured popery^ and after a ibort stay 

S14 B E Z A. 

at Geneva, -went to TabicigeD, to his old master^ Wolmafj^ 
for whom he always had the sincerest esteem. , 

The following year he was appointed Greek professor at 
Lausanne, where he remained for ten years, and published 
several works which extended his reputation. His Fi-ench 
tragedy of *^ Abraham's SacriEce,'' was translated into 
Latin, and Uiecame very popular. In 1556, he published 
}iis translation of the New Testament, of which a number 
of editions afterwards appeared, with alterations and cor- 
rections ; . but, of all his works, while he was at Lausanne^ 
that which was accounted the most remarkable, was his 
apology for, or defence of the burning of Servetus for he* 
resy, in answer to a work apparently on the other side of 
the question by Sebastiait Castalio, who took the liberty to 
doubt whether it was just or useful to put heretics to death/ 
Be:;a's answer was entitled S^ De hssretici^ a civili magts- 
tratu puniendis,'' and as at that time th^principles of the 
reformation were legal heresies, we cannot be surprised 
that the enemies of the reformation should wish to turn 
Beza's arguments against him. 

In 1558, Beza endeavoured to induce some of the Ger*' 
man princes to intercede with the king. of France for to* 
leration of the Protestants, who were then very cruelly* 
perseciited in th^t kingdom. Next year he left Lausanne 
to settle at Geneva, where he was admitted a citizen, at 
the request of Calvin. In Geneva dX this time, much 
pains were taken to promote learning, and diffuse a taste 
for the sciences, and an academy being about to be formed, 
Calvin refused the title of . rector, offei:ed to himself, and 
recommended it to be given . to Beza, who was also to 
teach divinity. About Hie sam^ time, the persons of rank 
in Fi:ance who had embraced the reformed religion, per- 
ceiving that they would need > the support of a crowned 
head, cast their eyes on Beza, as the proper person to con- 
vert the king of Navarre, and confer with him on other 
matters of consequence respecting the reformation. In 
this Beza had complete success,, and the reformed religion 
Vjras publicly preached at Nerac, the residence of the 
king and queen of Navarre. A church wa^s built, and in the 
course of the following year, 1560, such was the zeal of 
t:he queen of Navarre, that she ordered all the cbur^hes^ 
f^nd monasteries of Nerac to be destroyed- 

B E Z A. «l5 

Beza remained at Nerac until the beginning of 1561, 
when the king signified bis pleasure that be should attend 
at the conference of Poissi, to which the senate readily 
consented. At this conference, appointed for reconciling 
the disputes between the Popish and Protestant divines, 
the princes, cardinals, and many of the nobility attended, 
and the king presided. It was opened Sept. 9, 156 J, by 
the ct^ncellor DeP Hospital, who declared tlllit the king's 
intention in assembling them was to discover, from their 
sentiments, a remedy for the disorders which religious dis* 
putes had occasioned in his kingdom; that they should 
therefore endeavour to correct such things as required itj 
and not separate until they had put an end to all differ* 
ences by a sincere reconciliation. In his speech he also 
honoured this conference with the name of the National 
Council, and compared it to the provincial synods of Or- 
leans, Aries, and Aix, which the emperor Charlemagne 
had caused to bejield. The conference lasted two nionths, 
and many points were eagerly . debated. The Protestai>t 
clergy, and particularly Beza, spoke with great freedom. 
Beza, to much learning, added a^Mulity of expression which 
gave him much advantage; he had abo from his earliest 
years a ready wit, which in those years he had employed 
on subjects perhaps not unsuitable to4t, and could ndt 
afterwards restrain in controversy on more serious points, 
nor could he repress the zeal and fervour of his mind when 
he bad to contend for the reformed religion. In this 
conference some strong expressions he used respecting' 
the eucharist, and against transubstantiation, occasioned 
an unusual clamour, and a cry of blasphemy ! from the 
adherents to that opinion. It is, perhaps, unnecessary to 
add, that the purposes of all these debates were not ac« 

Beza did not return to Geneva when the conference 
ended*: being a Frenchman^ queen Catherine de^Medicis 
would have him stay in his own country, .where he preached 
frequently before the king of Navarre, and the prince of 
Conde, in Paris. The king of Navarre, though of the re- 
ligion of the Protestants, declared himself against them, 
in iorder to preserve the title of viceroy ; but the prince of 
Ccuide^ the illustrious family of Coligny, and others^ more 
zes^ous for the reformation, began to excite the Pro- 
testants . to arm in their defence. Opposed to this party^' 
was a league formed by the pope, the emperor, the kiug^ 

416 H E Z A. 

of Spain, and th^ catholic Swiss cantons. This s09h 
li>rought on the civil war, in the course of which Beza at^ 
tended the prince of Conde, apd was at the battle of Dreux^^ 
in 1562, in which the generals of both armies were taken 
prisoners ; and during the imprisonment of the prince of 
Conde, Beza remained with admiral Coligny, and did not 
return to Geneva, until after the peace of 1563, when he 
resun^ed his place in the academy or college which Calvin 
had founded. That celebrated reformer died in the follow* 
ing year, and Beza succeeded him in all bis offices, and 
was now considered as the ostensible head and main sup-- 
port of the reformed party both in France and G^eneva. In 
1570 he returned again to France to be present at the synod 
of Rocbelle'l The queen of Navarre and the admiral 
Coligny had requested the council of Geneva to permit 
bim to take this journey, and when he arrived at Rochelle 
be was unanimously chosen president of the synod, which 
V^s a kind of general assembly of deputies from all the re- 
formed churches in France. He was afterwards frequently 
interrupted in his academical business at Geneva, particu-^ 
larly in 1574, when sent on ail important negociation ta 
Germany^ and he frequently assisted at conferences on re* 
ligious points both in Germany and Swisserland. 

In 1583 bis wife died, and although now seventy years 
old, he married, a few months after, a young woman whom 
be called his Sbunamite. His health and spirits were won** 
derfuUy preserved for many years after this, nor did he 
discontinue his lectures until 1600. He lived five years 
after this, considerably weakened, by age and infirmities^ 
retaining the memory of things long pas^ but almost totally 
deprived of that faculty in continuing a conversation. At 
intervals, however, he evinced his steady adherence to the 
religion to which he said he had been early called, lamented 
the years he had passed in folly and dissipation, and gave 
many suitable and affecting exhortations to his friends^ 
He died Oct. 13, 1605, in the eighty-seventh year of his 

Theodore Beza*s character has been variously -repre^ 
tented, as might be expected from the age in which he 
lived, and the conduct which he pursued. His talents, his 
eminence, his important services in the cause of the re- 
formation, must make his memory as dear to Protestants, as 
it was obnoxious to their enemies. In what follows, how^ 
m^er, of hb^ chafact^, v^e ^all chiefly follow an audiority 

•B E Z A. tlT 

that wkU not be fiospected of religious partiality at least 
Beza*s reputation has been often attacked, and it is scarcely 
possible that it could have been otherwise. He had but 
just embraced the reformed religion, when he took a part 
in every dispute and every controversy. He wrote inces- 
santly against the Roman catholics, against the Lutherans, 
and against all who were unfriendly to the character or 
opinions of his friend Calvin, and although such a disputant 
would be in any age exposed to frequent attacks, in his 
time religious controversies were carried on with peculiar 
harshness and strong resentments. Beza's first writings, 
his poems, gave occasion for just reproach, and although he 
had long repented, and confessed his error in this respect, 
bis enemies took the most effectual method to harass his 
mind, and injure his character, by frequently reprinting 
these poems. This measure, however, so unfair, and dis- 
creditable to bis opponents, might have lost its effect, if 
he jiad not in some of his controversial pieces, employed 
his wit with too much freedom and extravagance. We 
cannot wonder, therefore, that such raillery should produce 
a corresponding sense of irritation in those who hated his 
principles, and felt the weight of his talents. It would be 
unnecessary to repeat all the calumnies, some of the most 
gross kind, which have been gravely advanced against him, 
because they now seem to be given up by the general con- 
sent of all modern writers ; but we may advert to one accu- 
sation still maintained by men of considerable note. Pol- 
trot, who assassinated. the duke of Guise, that merciless 
persecutor of the proteftantis, declared in his first examina- 
tion that he was set on by Beza, and although this appeared 
at the time wholly groundless, and Poltrot retracted what 
he had said, and persisted to his last moments, to excul- 
pate our reformer, yet Bossuet, while he does not accuse 
Beza of having directly encouraged the assassin, still en<* 
deavours to impute his crime to Beza's preaching, and de-« 
4uce8 Beza's amsentj from the joy he and his party ex- 
pressed on hearing of the death of their iknplacable enemy, 
a consequence which it is surely unfair to draw from such 
premises. He has also been accused of having, on many 
occasions, excited the French protestants to take lip arms, 
and to have thus had a considerable hand in the civil wars 
of France. But, although the oppressions suffered by the 
French protestants, then a very numerous body, had un- 
qnestionably excited his zeal in promoting resistance, the 

«1* B E Z A. 

history of the times shew that these civil wars were not oc-^ 
casioned by this course only, far less by any desire 0ie 
reformed bad to propagate their principles by force. The 
ablest writers are agreed that in those days there was more 
of discontent than protestantism in the case; ** plus de mal- 
contentement que de Huguenoterie.'* It wocrld be unjust; 
therefore, to consider Beza, and the other preachers of the 
reformation, as the sole cause of these commotiotYs. It is 
much more probable that they were occasioned in a great 
measure by the rival contests of the Guises and the priitces 
of the Mood. Without^ therefore, exculpating Beza from 
itaving that share in the civil wars which did not very well 
become a preacher of the gospel of peace, it may be safely 
Affirmed that be was not one of the chief causes. The 
some assassin Poltrot, who accused Beza, accused also the 
admiral Coligny, whose character never was stained with a 
blemish, unless in the bigoted mind of Bossuet, who yet 
cannot bring a single circumstance in proof; and as far as 
regards Beza, we may add that the accusation never ob- 
tained any belief among his contemporaries. 

Beaa^s zeal was much tempered in his latter days ; and 
when, during an in^terview with Henry IV. in 1599, in a 
village of Savoy near Geneva, that prince asked him what 
be could do for him, Beza expressed no wish but to see 
peace restored in France. His last will bears tbe same 
sentiments, with much expression of regret for his early 
errors. — Beza was an elegant writer, and a man of great 
learning. His* long life, and the enthusiasm with which he 
inspired his followers, made him Be called the Phenix of 
bis age. As a divine, controversialist, and on many occa- 
aions, as a negociator, he displayed great abilities, and a 
faithful adherence to his principles. His numerous writ- 
ings are now perhaps but little consulted, and bis transla- 
tion of the Psalms into French verse, which was begun by 
Marot, are no longer in use in the reformed churches ; but 
as a promoter of literature, he still deserves high praise, 
on account of the great diligence and success with which 
be superintended tbe college of Geneva for forty years of 
bis life. When on one occasion the misfortunes of tbe 
times rendered it necessary to dismiss two of the professors^- 
for whose maintenance there were no longer any fundsy 
Beza, * then at the age of seventy, supplied both their 
places, and gave le(;tures for more than two years. He was 
in fact the founder of that college which for the last two» 

B E Z A. 2\^ 

centuries has produced so many eminent men ; he pre- 
scribed its statutes, and left his successors an example which 
may bcssaid to have de^scended to our own times* Bayle^s 
account of Beza, in his usual rambling style, is principally 
taken from the Latin life published in 1606 by Antonius 
Fayus, or La Faye. Noel Taillepied, Bolsec, and a doc- 
tor of the Sorbonne, named Laing6, or Laingeus, have 
also written lives of this reformer. Other authorities will 
be subjoined in the note. 

Some notice yet remains to be taken of Beza^s principal 
works, and their different editions : 1. *^Poemata juvenilia,** 
Paris, by Conrad Badius, 1548, 8vo, but we question whe- 
ther this was the first edition. It is thought that a 12mo 
edition, without a date, '^ Ad insigne capitis mortui,'* was 
long prior to this, and we suspect the only edition which' 
Beza printed. Those of 1569, 1576, and 1594, the two 
former in 8vo, and the latter in 4to, contain only a part of 
these poems, the offensive ones being omitted. In 1599, 
an edition was printed at Geneva, 16 mo, with his trans- 
lation of the Song of Solomon, They were also reprinted 
with the poems of Muret and Jean Second, Paris, by Bar- 
.bou, 1757, 12mo, and under the title of ^^ Amcenitatefs 
Poeticae/' &c. 1779, 12mo. 2. " Tragedie Frangaise da 
Sacrifice d' Abraham,*' Lausanne, 1550, 8vo, Paris, 1553, 
and Middleburgh, 1701, 8vo, and often since; yet it gives 
ho very favourable ides^of Beza^s talent for French poetry. 
3. <^ Confessio Christianas (idei, cum Papisticis haeresi- 
bus, ex' typ. r. Bonae $dei,'* 1560, 8vo. 4. "Dehaereti- 
cis a civiii magistratu puniendis ; sub Oliva Rob. Stephani,*' 
1554. This is the original edition, but Colladon*s French 
translation; Geneva, 1560, 8vo, is, for whatever reason, in 
more request. 5. *^ Comedie du Pape malade, par Thrasibule 
Phenice," Geneva, 1561, 8yo, 1584, 16mo, 6. "Traduc- 
tion en vers Fran^ais des Pseaumes omi^ par Marot,** 
Lyons, 1563, 4t6, often reprinted with those of Marot, for 
the US0 pf the Protestant churches. .7. ^' Histoire de la 
Mappemonde papistique, par Fragidelphe Escorche- 
Messes,*' Luce-N'ouvelle (Geneva), 1567, 4to. 8. " Le 
Reveilmatin des Francois et de leurs voisin, par Eusebe 
Philadelphe,*' Edinburgh, 1574, 8vo. 9. <* De Jjeste 
qui^stiones duaB explicataB ; una, sitne contagiosa? altera, 
an- et quatenus sit , Christian is per secessionem vitanda?'*^ 
Geneva, 1570, 8vo; Leyden, 1636, 12mo. This is one 
of the scarcest of Beza^s works. 10. " Histoire ecclesias* 

«o B E Z Ai. 

tique des Eglises reform^es an royaume de France, deptii^ 
Tan 1521 jusqu'eiK 1563," Antwerp (Geneva), 1580, S vols. 
5vo. 11." Icones Virolrum lUustrium," 1580, 4to, trans* 
lafted into French, by Simon Goulet, under the title of 
** Vrais Pourtraits, &c." Geneva, 1581, 4to. 12. "Trac- 
tatio de llepudiis et Divortiis ; accedit trdctatm de Poly- 
gamia,'' Geneva, 1590, 8vo. 13. '^ Epistola magistri Pas* 
savantii ad Petrum Lysetuxn,^' a satire on the latter. 14. 
His translation of the New Testament, with the original 
texts and notes, often reprinted. The best edition is that 
of Cambridge, 1642, fol. a work still in much estimation. 
He had also a share in the Geneva translation of the Bible, 
1588, fol. Several of his controversial and practical tractii 
were translated into English, and printed here in the time 
of queen Elizabeth, of which the titles may be found in 
Ames. Among the Greek MSS» of the university of Cam* 
bridge, is one of the Four Gospels and Acts of the Apostles, 
presented by Beza, whi«h is ^supposed to be of the third or 
fourthcenturyatleast, if not more ancient. In 17 87, the uni- 
versity appointed the rev. Dr. Kipling, deptfiy regius pro- 
fessor of divinity, to superintend the publication of a fac 
$imile of this valuable manuscript, which accordingly, ap- 
peared in 1793, 2 vols. foL a splendid and accurate work. 
The Latin epistle which Beza sent with this manuscript, 
and which is prefixed to it in his own hand-writing, may 
be seen in the note *. ^ 

* " Indytae modisque omnibus ce- toto nulll ineliiif» quam tds ipei> qnij^ 

lebratissimae ^cademiae Cantabrigiensi sit huic exemplar! fides faabenda, fesu« 

Oratiam et Pacem a Deo Patre ae inarent, hac de re tamen ▼os admo^ 

Domino nostro Jesu Cbrifcto. nendos duxi, taiktam a me in Lucat 

" Quatuor Evan^eliorurnet Actorum praesertim Eyangelio repertara esse 

ilpostolicorum Graeco-Latinum exenk- inter hunc codicem'et csBteros qnan* 

plar ex S. Irenai coenobio Lugdiinensi tunsTis discrepanttam» nt ritaiidsB quo* 

ante aliquot annos nactus,^ mutilum rundam offensioni asseiVandum potiu* 

qnidem iltad, et neque satis emendate quam publicandum existimem. In bao 

ab initio ubiqne descriptum, neque ita tamen non sententiarukn sed TOCttm 

ut oportuit habitum, sicut ex pa^nis diversitate nihil profecto eomperi nnde 

quibusdam diverso charactere insertis, sbspicari potuerim, a reteribus illis 

et indocti cujuspiam Gr»ci Calogeri haeretieis fuisse depravatum. tmo 

barbaris adscriptis alicubi notis appa- muitamihiTideordeprehendissemapi% 

ret, Testrae potissimum Academie, ut obsenratione digna. Qnaodam etiam 

inter vere Christianas vetustissimB, sie a recepta Scriptara' discrepantia» 

plvrimisque hominibus celeberrimae, ut tamen cum veterum qnorundam et 

dicandum existimavi, reverendi Domini Graecorum et Latinornm Patrum Scrip* 

et Patres, in ci^us sacrario tantum tis consent! ant; non pauca denique« 

hoc Teneranda»» nisi forte fallor, vetus- quibns vetusta Latfna editio oorrobo- 

tatis mooimentom collooetur. Etsi ratur : quae omnia pro ingenii mei 

1 Lives mentioned in the text — Biog. UniyerseQe, an. article of great candont 
and accuracy. — Gen. Dicu-^Morerl— Two letters on his poeiiii» Gent Maf» * 
▼ol. LXVII.-— Saxii Ongmatticon, 

B E Z O U T. 


BEZOUT -(Stephen), a celebrated French mathema^ 
tician, member of the academies of sciences and the ma-^ 
rine, and examiner of the gnards of the marine and of tha 
scholars of artillery, was born at Nemours the 3 1st of March 
1730, In the course of his studies he met with some books 
of geometry, which gave him a taste for that science ; and 
the Eloges of Fontenelle, which shewed him the honours 
attendant on talents and the love of the sciences. His 
&ther in vain opposed the strong attachment of young Be^ 
zout to the mathematical sciences. April 8, 1758, he wa# 
named adjoint-mechanician in the French academy of sci« 
ences, having before that sent them two ingenious me* 
moirs on the integral calculus, and given other proofs of 
his proficiency in the sciences. In 1763, he was named 
to the new ofBce of examiner to the marine, and appointed 
to compose a course of mathematics for their use ; and in 
1768, on the death of M. Camus, he succeeded as exa* 
miner of the artillery scholars. 

Bezout fixed his attention more particularly to the reso* 
lotion of algebraic equations; and he first found out the 
solution of a particular class of equations of all degrees. 
This method, different from all former ones, was general 
for the cubic and biquadratic equations, and just became 
particular only at those of the iith degree. Upon this work 
of finding the roots of equations, our author laboured from 
1762 tiU 1779, when he published it. He composed two 
courses of mathematics ; the one for the marine, the other 
for the artillery. The foundation of these tw0 works was 
the same ; the applications only being different, according 
to the two different objects: these courses have every 
where been held in great estimation. In his office of ex^ 
aminer be discharged the duties with great attention, tare, 
and tenderness; a trait of his justice and zeal is remarkable 
in the following instance : During an examination which 
be held at Toulon, he was told that two of the pupils could 

modulo inter se comparata, et cam 
8yra et Arabica editione collata, in 
majores meas aotiotationes a me nu- 
per emendatasy et brevi, Deo fayente, 
prodituras congessi. Sed a{^e, res bsc 
tota TeStri, fltcuti par est, judicli esto. 
Taatom a Tobis peto, reverend! Ik>- 
mini et Patref» ut hoc qualecunque 
•ttmDUB in vestram amplitudinem ob- 
•ervantifle mea veluti monimentum, 
ab bpttine Teslri ftudlotissimo profsc- 

tum, sequi bonique consulatts. D* 
Jesus Servator noster, et universe 
vobia omniboB, et privatim singulisy 
totique adeo Chrittianissimn Anglo- 
rum genti, mag is ac magis pro boni- 
tate singula sua benedicat. 

<* Oeneva viii. Idus Dec'ris anna 
Domini cio,i3yLXxxi. 

** Vestre totius inclytae Academic 
dignitati addictissimus 

•« Theodorvs iSgZA.'' 

«M B E Z O U T. 

not be present^ being confined by the small-pox : he hhn* 
self had never had that disease^ and he was greatly afraid 
of it ; but as he knew that if he did not see these two yoong- 
meny it would much impede their improvement, he ven- 
tured therefore to their bed-sides, to examine them^ and 
was happy to find them so deserving of the bayard he put 
hioi^lf into for their benefit. 

Mr. Bezout lived thus several years beloved of bis family 
and friends, and respected by aU> enjoying the fruits and 
the credit of his labours. . But the trouble and fatigues of 
his offices, with some personal chagrins, had reduced hi» 
strength and constitution ; he was attacked by a malignant 
fever, of which he died Sept. 27, 1783, in the 54th year 
of his age, regretted by his family, his friends, the young 
students, and by all bis acquaintance in general. The 
books published by him were, 1. '^ Course of Mathematics 
for the use of the Marine, with a treatise on Navigation," 
Paris, 1764, 6 vols. 8vo, repauted 1781 — 2. 2. " Courise 
of Mathematics for the Corps of Artillery," 1770 — 1772, 
4 vols. 8vo. 3. " General Theory of Algebraic Equations," 
1779, 4to. His papers the volumes of the Me- 
moirs of the academy of sciences are, 1. On Curves whose 
rectification depends on a given quantity, in the voL for 
1758. 2, On several classes of Equations that admit 
of an algebraic solution, 1 762. 3. First vol. of a coune of 
Mathematics, 1764. 4. On certain Equations, &c. 1764. 
$. General resolution of all Equations, 1765. 6.. Second 
Tol. of a course of Mathematics, 176S. 7. Thfrd voL of 
the same, 1766. 8. Fourth vol. of the same, 1767. 9^ 
Integration of Differentials, &c, vol. 3, Sav. Etr. 10. Ex-* 
periments on Cold, 1777. * 

BIACCA (Francis Maria), an Italian scholar of the last 
century, was born at Parma, March 12, 1673. Aftevtak* 
ing ecclesiastical orders, he was engaged in 1702 by the 
illustrious house of Sanvitali, botli as domestic chaplain 
and tutor to the two young sons of that family, and at his 
leisure hours cultivated the study of history, chronology^ 
and antiquities. One of his .works was jvritten while in 
this family, a very elaborate treatise, *' Trattinemento 
Istorico e Chronologico,^* &c. Naples, 2 vols. 4to, in which 
he endeavours to prove that Josephus*s history is neither 
false nor contrary to scripture, positions which had been 

1 Hatton*8 M«tb. Diet.— Eloge by Condorcet— Biog. UnirenelTv 

B I AC C A. S2S 

denied in a treatise written on the subject by father Csesar 
Calino, a Jesuit When he had compieted this i^ork, the 
elder of his pupils, who by the death of his father had suc- 
ceeded to the estate, and was very much attached to the 
Jesuits, informed Biacca that the publication of it would 
not be agreeable to him. On diis Biacca entrusted his 
manuscript to the celebrated Argelati, at Milan, and either 
with, or without his consent, it was printed at Naples in 
1728^ This provoked Sanvitali U) forget his own and hi$ 
father's attachment to Biacca, who had resided twenty-siK 
years in the family, and he ordered him to leave. his house* 
Biacca, however, was received with respect into manyotho: 
families, who each pressed him to take up Us abode with 
them. After having lived at Milan for some years, he 
died ait Parma, i^ept. 15, 1735. Being a member of the 
Arcadians, he, according to their custonr, assumed the 
' name of Parmindo Ibicfaense, which we find > prefixed to 
several of his works* Besides his defence of Josepbns, he 
wrote^ 1.^ Ortographia Maniiale, o sia arte facile di cor* 
rettamento Serivere e Parlare,^' Parma, 1714, 12mo«- 2« 
^' Notizie storiche di Rinuccio cardinal PalU^ricino, di Pom* 
peo Saeco Parmigiano, di Coraelio Magni^ e del cbnte 
NkooloCicognari Parmigiano,^' printed in vols. L andlL of 
the ^^ Notizie istoriche d^li Accadi morti,'? Rome, 1720^ 
^^vo.; 3. ^^ jLe Selve de ^tazio, tradotte in. verso, sciolto.^* 
fie translated also CJatullos, and bodh ndake part of the cot« 
lection of Italian translations of theancient Latin authors, 
printed at Milan. .In the poetical collections^ there aure 
many small pieces by .Biaeca. ' 

BIANCHI.(Anthon¥), a native of Venice, deserves 
some notice in .a work of this description, on account of 
his poems, /which nvece the production of nature, without 
any aid from instructidn> or cultivation. He lived about 
the middle oi the last century, and was a gondolier or 
waterman's boy -when-he wrote, 1. <^ II Davide, re d'Israele, 
poema-eroico-^sagro, di Antonio Bianchi, .servitor di gondola 
Veneziano, canto XII."' Venice, 1751, fol. and reprinted 
the same .year with. an oratorio entitled ^^ Elia sur Car«- 
melo," ibid. dvo« ' In this, althougli we do not find a strict 
attention to the laws of the epic, nor the most perfect 
purity of language) yet there are ^many truly poetical^ 

1 Biog. Univ.«-*Dict Hist.«-Saxii Onomast, wbtre fome 9thcn of hit works 
flnmcBtioDC^ . ^ 

f 24- B 1 A N C H I. 

nervous^ and hi^ly animated passages. The same may 
be said of his, 2. ^< II Tempio ovvero il Salomone, canti 
X.'' Venice, 1753, 4to, with historical and theoiogical 
notes, which are believed to be from the same pen^ In 
his first poem^ he promised two others, one a heroi^co- 
mic, under the title of <^ Cuccagna distrutta,^' the oth^ 
*VLa Fbrmica contro il I^eane,^' but it does not appear 
that either was published. He gave, hcnrever, a specie 
men of his critical talents, in a volume ^ititled '^ Osservav 
sioni contro-critiche di Antonio Bianchi, sopra un trattato 
della commedia Italiaua, &c. Venice, 1752, 8to. Joseph 
Antony Costantini, the author of this treatise on ItaUan 
comedy, wrote an answer, and asserted that the ** Obser* 
vations^' were not written by Bianchi, and that the poem of 
David was not his^ Bianchi, however, in « the preface to 
his second poem, ^' The Temple of Sdbmon,*' offered 
every kind of proof that he was die author of both. ' We 
have no farther account of this extraordiuary young man^ 
althoagh it is probable from the merit and cbaiacter of his 
poems, that he found patrons who procured him leisure 
and competence. ^ 

IBIANCHI (Francis Ferkari), called IlFrari, a painter 
and sculptor of Modena, has the reputation of having been 
the master of Corregio, but never arrived at the ^me of 
bi^ pupil. There is one of his pictures in tlie church of ^ 
St Francis in Modena, by which it appears that be pos- 
sessed a certain degree of mellowness, though his line is 
too dry, and the eyes of his figures want the roundness of 
nature, like those of Cimabue. He died in 1510, two yean 
before the merit of Corregio began to be acknowledged* * 

BIANCHI (John), an Italian naturalist, more gc^nerally 
known by tbe name of Janus Plamcus, under . which he 
published several works, was born Jan. 3, 1699, at Riniini^ 
where he died Dec. S, 1775. In 1717 be went to Bologna^ 
and studied botany, natural history, matiiemadcs, and 
natural philosophy. Having taken the degree of doctor in 
medicine in 1719, he returned to bis countiy, but after- 
wards resided for some time at Bologna and Padua before 
he settled and began practice at Rimini. Here aUo he 
improved his acquaintance with botany, and in his different 
tours accumulated a very fine collection of. specimens of 
natural history. In 1741, he was appointed professor of 

1 Bioy. UniveneU«t • IbkJ.-^PiUdngtottj 

B I A N C B I. »21f 


uatofny in the university of Sienna, but bis attachment tgf 
his favourite studies induced hiai to return to Rimini, whero 
be end'eavpured to revive the academy of the Lincei, the 
members of which assembled at his house. He had focr 
merly, when only twenty-two years of age, acted as their 
secretary, and gave a history of them in his edition of the 
Phytobasanos. In honour of his merits and services, the 
society caused a medal to be struck, with his portrait on 
one side, and on the other a lynx, with the words ^^ Lyn^ 
ceis restitutis/' Bianchi was frequently involved in contro* 
versies respecting both himself and bis works, the prin^^* 
cipal of which* are, 1. ^^ Lettere intorno alia cataratta,'* 
Rimini, 1720, 4to. 2. ^^ Epistola anatomica adJosephum 
Puteum Bononiensem,'' Bologna, 1726, 4to. 3. ^^ Osser*^ 
vazioni intorno una sezioue anatomica,** Rimini, 1731, 4t6« 
4. ^^ Storia della vita di Catterina Vizjzani, troyata pusceila 
nella sezione del suo cadavero," Venice^ 1744, 8 vo, trans- 
lated into English, London, 1751, 8vo. 5. *^ Dissertazione 
de* vesicatori," Venice, 1746, 8vo, in which he blames 
the use of blisters. 6. *^ De monstris et rebus monstrosis," 
ibid. 1749, 4to. 7. ^^ Storia medica d*un apostema nel loba 
destro del cerebello, &c." Rimini, 1751, 8vo, a very sin- 
gular case, with the appearance on dissection, and a plate* 

8. " Discorso soprail vitto Fitagorico," Venice, 1752, 8vo. 

9. " Trattato de' bagni de Piza, &c." Flcnence, 1757, 8vo. 

10. " Lettere sopra una gigaute," Rimini, 1757, 8vo. II. 
^^ Fabii Columnar Phytobasanos, accedit vita Fabii et Lyn« 
ceorum notitia, ciim annbtationibus,*' Florence, 1744, 4to, 
with plates, notes, and additions. 12. ^^ De conchis minus 
notis liber," Venice, 1739, 4to. with five plates, which 
were increased to nineteen in a subse(|uent edition, finely 
eugraved. Besides these he wrote several essays in the 
Acts of the Academy of Sienna, the Memoirs of the Insti- 
tute of Bologna, and the Florence Literary Journal, andl 
left sev^rikl works In manuscript^ 

BIANCHI (John Antony), called by Fabropi Blan- 
CHIUS, a religious of the order of the Minorites, was born 
Oct. 2, 1686. For some years he taught philosophy and 
theology, and was afterwards provincial of his order in the 
Roman province, visitor of that of Bologna, one of the 
counsellors of the inquisition at Rome, and an examiner of 
the Roman clergy. He died Jan. 18, 1758. Amidst a.U 

1 Bios. Uohr.8r0ell«.i^M«s<ttcheHi.— Sasi: Onomsst m BlsncQS. 

Voi^V. Q 

226 B I A N C H L 


these graver employments, he found leisure to indulge his 
taste for the belles lettres, and especially dramatic poetry, 
trhich procured him admission into the academy of the 
Arcadians. His works were published under his assumed 
name of Farnabio Gioachino-Annutini, a childish anagram 
of Fra Giovanni Antonio Bianchi. They are, principally, 
1. ** Tragedie sacre e morali," four in number, one upoit 
the history of sir Thomas More, and all in prose, Bologna^ 
1725, 8vo. 2. Other tragedies ; "LaDina," "II Deme- 
trio,*' &c. published separately from 1734 to 1738. 3* 
« De' vizj e dei diffeti del moderno teatro, e del modo di 
corregerli e d'emendarli, ragionamenti vr," Rome, 175 3. 
In this, which he published uitder his academic name, Lau- 
riso Tragiense, he defends the opinion of MaiFei against 
that of Concina, who had published a dissertation ** De 
ipectaculis theatralibus,^' in which he maintained that dra- 
matic exhibitions were unfriendly te religion and morals^ 
an opinion which has not been confined, as usually said, 
to the puritans or methodists of England. 4. '* Delia po^^ 
teste e polizia della Chiesa, trattati due contro le nuove 
dpinioni di Pietro Giannone," Rome, 1745 — 1751, '5 vols. 
4to, a voluminous work in vindication of the temporal 
power of the pope, which had been attacked by Giannone 
in his History of Naples, and by Bossuet, whose principles 
Giannone adopted. He wrote some tragedies and come* 
dies, which do not appear to have been printed, and left 
many other works in manuscript, which Fabroni has enu- 
merated. ^ 

BIANCHI (John Baptist) a celebrated Italian ana«* 
tomist, was born at Turin, Sept 12, 1681, and at the age 
of seventeen was honoured with a doctor^s degree. He 
was a long time professor of anatomy at I'u'rin, where the 
Ung of Sardinia, in 1715, caused a very commodious am- 
phitheatre to be built for his lectures. In 1718 he also 
taught pharmacy, chemistry, and the practice of physic. 
He was offered a professor^s chair in the university of Bo* 
logna, but refused it from an attachment to his native 
place, Turin. He died much esteemed, Jan. 2#, 1761. 
He wrote a great many works; among which were, 1. 
'*' Ductus lacry mails, &c. anatome,*' Turin, 171^, 4to, 
Leyden, 1723. 2. ** De lacteorum vasorum positionibus 
€t fabricSy" Turin, 1743, 4to. 3. <^ Storia del mostro di 

. 1 Fkbroni YHtm Italorum, yoU XL— Biog. Uatvendle, 


n I A.N c ft n MT 

du^ corpV* Turin, 1740, 8vo^ 4. " Leitefa aulP inseasi^* 
bilita,*' Turin, 1755^ 8vo, in which he attacks Hall«r^t 
iiotions on sensibility. But Biauchi's most celebrated 
works are, 5. His *^ Historia hepatica, seu de Hepatin 
structura, usibus et morbis," Turin, 1710, 4to. 1716| and 
again at Geneva, 1725^ 2 vols. 4to. with plates, and six 
anatomical essays. 6. ^' De naturali in humano corpore^ 
vitiosa, morbosaque generatipne historia,** ibid. 1761, 8vo; 
Manget lias some dissertations by Biancbi in his Theatruni 
'Anatomicum, and the collection of fifty-^four plates, con*** 
taining two hundred and seventy anatomical subjects, pub-* 
lished at Turin* in 1757, was the work of Bianchi. He 
was unquestionably a man of learning and skill in his pro« 
fession ; but Morgagni, in his Adversaria, has pointed out 
many of his mistakes, and those which occur in bis hisfeonff 
of the liver, have been severely animadverted on by that 
able anatomist in his '^ Epistolse Anatomicse duee,** printed 
in 1727^. but without his consent, by4he friend to whom 
they were written. In this work Bianchi is charged with 
bad Latin, want'of judgment, care, memory, and l^oaoun 
These charges, however severe as they seem, were not 
thought to affect the general merit of Kanchi's great 
work. * 

BIANCHI (MarJc Ai^thony), an Italian lawyer, wa$ 
born at Padtia in 1498, and while eminent at the bar, and 
in consultation, was not less distinguished for learning 
and probity. In 1^25 he was appointed, for the third time, 
professor of imperial law in the university of Padua ; in 
1^32, a second time, professor of the decretals ; and leyitly 
io 1544 chief professor of criminal law, a situiaition which 
he retained until his death, Oct. 8, 1548. Among his 
works, which are all on professional subjects^ atid written 
i& Latin, are his^ 1. ^' Tractatus de indiciis hbmicidii ex 
proposito commissi, &c." Venice, 1545, fol. 1549, 8vo; 
2^ *^ Practica criminalis aurea,'' with ^' Cautelse singulares 
ad reorum defensam," ibid. 1547, 8vo. 3« >' Tractatus d« 
compromissis faciendis inter conjunctos, et de ea;ceptioni'* 
bos impedientibus litis ingressum," Venice, 1547^ ^vo. * 

BIANCHI (V£NDRAMiNO), a nobleman of Padua, was 
secretary of the senate of Venice at the commencement of 
the last century. After having been appointed resident from 
hb republic at Milan, on the death of Charles IL king of 

»  • • 

1 Manget Bibl. Me<],-- Bioj^. yntT.— Memoirs of Literature^ vol. X.«-Repiib4 
lie of Lettcn^ toI. L ' Biog< UniTerselie. 


3S8 B I A N C H L 

Spain, he waft sent into Swisserland in 1705, to treat of an 
alliance between the cantons of Zurich and Berne, which 
was accomplished by his means Jan. 12, 1706. Next 
month he went into the Grisons, and there concluded a 
treaty, of alliance Dec. 1 7. On his return to Venice, the 
senate sent him as ambassador to England, where he re-^ 
sided about twenty months, to the satisfaction of both na« 
tions. After that he accompanied the procurator Carlo 
Rusini, as secretary, at the congress for concluding the 
treaty of Passarowitz. This and his negociation in Swisser- 
land produced, I. ^' Relazione del paese de' Svisseri e loro 
alleati, d'Arminio Dannebuchi (the anagfam of Vendra* 
mino Bianchi), Venice, 1708, 8vo. This was translated 
into French and English, and often reprinted. 2. " Isto- 
rica relazione delta pace di Passarowitz,*' Padua, 17 IS 
and 1719, 4to,* 

BIANCHINI (Bartholomew), an Italian author of the 
end of the fifteenth century, was a native of Bologna, 
where he was much esteemed for his learning and moral 
character. His master Philip Beroaldo, in his commen- 
taiy on Apuleius, speaks highly of him as a young man of 
many accomplishments, and distinguished for his taste in 
painting, and the knoy^rledge of ancient medals. The time 
of bis death is uot known, but is supposed to have taken 
place before li523. He published a life of Urceus Codrus, 
prefixed to that author's works in various editions, and 
among others that of Basil, 1540, 4to; and a life of Philip 
Beruaido, printed with his commentary on Suetonius, Ve- 
nice, 1510, fol. and in other editions of the same.* 

BIANCHINI (FftANCisj, a very learned Italian astrono- 
mer and philosopher, was born at Verona, Dec. 13, 1662. 
After being instructed in the elements of education in his 
own country, he removed to Bologiia, where he went 
through a course of rhetoric and three years of philosophy^ 
in the Jesuits* college. He afterwards studied mathematics 
and design, and made a great progress in both. In 16&0 
he removed to Padua, where he studied divinity, and was 
admitted to the degree of doctor. His master in mathe- 
matics and natural philosophy was the learned Moutanari, 
who became much attached to him, and bequeathed to 
him his collection of fnathematical instruments. At Padua 
Bianchini learned also anatomy^ and, with rather more plea^ 
-sure, botany* His inclination being for the church, he 


went next to Home, where he was kindly received by car- 
dinal Peter Ottoboni, who knew his family, and appointed 
him his librarian. Here^ as was usual for persons with his 
views, he went through a course of law, but without losing 
sight of his favourite studies, experimental philosophy^ 
mathematics, and astronomy. He was admitted a member 
of the physico*mathematical academy, established by 
Ciampini, and read many learned papers at their sittings. 

In 1686 he returned to his own country, and was very 
active in re- founding the academy of the Aletophili, or lovers 
of truth, recommending to them more attention to mathe- 
matical studies, and to assist them, he presented the society 
with the instruments which Montanari had bequeathed to 
him ; but this academy entirely depended on his presence^ 
and on his return to Rome two years after, gradually dis- 
solved. Settled after this at Rome, he became connected with 
the most eminent men of his time, and enriched his stores of 
knowledge, by an acquaintance with Greek, Hebrew, and 
French. Antiquities likewise became one of hiii favourite 
pursuits. He often passed whole days among the splendid 
ruins of Rome, assisted at every research, and digging 
among them, visited all the museums, and made elegant 
and correct drawings of all the monuments of antiquity. 
On the death of Innocent XI. cardinal Ottoboni, his pro- 
tector, being chosen pope by the name of Alexander VIIL 
continued to interest himself in the fortune of Bianchini, 
gave him a canonry in the church of St Mary Rotunda, 
appointed him guardian and librarian to cardinal Peter 
Ottoboni his nephew, gave hiin two pensions, and would 
have promoted him yet farther, if he had lived, and if 
Bianchini would have taken orders ; but he had not made 
up his mind to take deacon^s orders until 1699, and never 
would proceed farther. On the death of Alexander VIII^ 
in 1691, .the cardinal, bis nephew, continued his kindness^ 
' and besides bestowing a canonry on him in the chgrch of 
St. Lawrence in Damaso, invited him to reside in his pa- 
lace. Clement XI- who was elected pope in 1700, be- 
stowed on him, the year following, the title of chamber- 
lain of honour, authorized him to wear that dress of a pre- 
late called the mantelloney and assigned him apartments in 
the palace of Monte-Cavallo. 

In 1702, the pope appointed him, with the title of his- 
toriographer, to accompany cardinal Sarberini the legate 
.d latcrfi to Naples, when the king of Spain, Philip V. 
came to take possession of that kingdom. Bianchini pro- 

<23p JP I 4 N C H J N I. 

fited by thi? opportunity to visit mount Yesovius, and 
ascended to th.e sutnmit of the crater. On his return to 
:Ilome, in 1703, the senate of Kou^e conferred upon him^ 
his family, and descendants, the rank of the Roman nobi« 
Jity and the patrician order. At the same time the pope 
^hose him secretary of the committee for the reformation 
«f the calendar. la order to regulate with precision the 
course of the year, it was necessary to establish and fix 
with the greatest accuracy the equinoxial points. Bian- 
chini being employed to trace a meridian line, and to con*- 
struct a gnomon on one of the churches, performed this 
with great success, with the assistance of the learned Phi- 
Jip Maraldi. The pope commemorated the construction of 
.the gnomon by a medal, and Bianchini wrote a treatise on 
both, ** De Numijiis et Gnomone Clementino." 

HfLving^ in 17P3, been appointed president of antiqui* 
ties, he exhibited :to the pope^ a plan for forming a eoU 
l/^ction of ^4cr^d antiques, or aii ecclesiastical museum, 
JLQtended to ffj^ni^h. materials for lecclesiastieal. history; but 
f^ this would have been attended with yery great expence^ 
and the papad: treasury was at this time very low^ the 
scheme wa$ abandoned. The: pope, however, to console 
jBianchini, who had it very much at he0tt, gave him a 
canonry in the church of St. Mary Maggiore, and, in 1712, 
'sent him to Paris with a cardinaPs hat for Armand de 
Bohan-Soubise, who was promoted to that dignity. The 
pbject was trifling, but the journey was important, as 
serving to introduce Bianchini to the literati of France, 
who received him ^yith the utmost respect At Paris he 
was constant in his attendance at the sittings of the acade* 
my of sciences, whd h^d many years before elected bim 
an honorary member, apd he presented tbem with a very 
ingenious improvement in the construction of the larger 
telescopes, to prevent those of uncommon length from 
bending in the middle, an inconvenience which had been 
thought without remedy. Reaumur wrote a description of 
this, which is inserted in the memoirs of the academy for 
1713. Before returning to Rome, Biianchini took a trip tQ 
Lorraine, Holland, and Flanders, and theace into Engl^nd^ 
visiting and examining every museum und place where ob« 
jects of curiosity were to be seen, and was every where 
received with the respect due to his talents. During his 
residence at Oxford, it is said that the university defra3re4 
|:iie e^pences of his lodging ; snob is bis biographetr^a ac* 

B I A N C H I N L 231 


county by which is probably meant that he was invited to 
lodge in one of the colleges. 

On his return to Rome in the month of June, 17 13^ he 
resumed his astronomical and antiquarian pursuits. VV hen 
in France be conceived the idea of tracing a meridian line 
through Italy, from sea to sea, in imitation of that of Casr 
aini through the middle of France. He accordingly began, 
his operations, and pursued the object at his own expence, 
for eight years, but other plans and employments occur- 
ring, he never completed the design. The papal favours, 
however, wer^ still conferred on him, purely as a man o£ 
science. Innocent XIII. the successor of Clement XI. ap- 
pointed him referendary of the pontifical signatures, and 
doniestic prelate, and in the council held at Rome in 1725^ 
he filled the office of first historiographer. Next year, his. 
love for antiquities was highly gratified, although at the 
«ame time checked by an accident which had serious con- 
sequences. There was discovered near Rome on the Ap- 
pian way, a magnificent marble subterraneous building of 
three large h^Us, whose walls consisted of a gceai number 
of little cells like those of our modern pidgeon-houses* 
Most of these cells contained, each, four cinerary urns, 
acconipanied with inscriptions of the name and office of the 
person whose ashes they contained, who were all slaves or 
freed-men a^od women of the household of Augustus, espe- 
cially that of Livia. There were also in this plaee some 
exquisite specimens of mosaic ornaments. Bianchini^s joy 
on this discovery may be easily appreciated by genuine 
antiquaries ; hut one unfortunate day, while he was exa- 
mining one of the chambers or halls, and preparing to 
make a drawing, the ground on which be stood gave way^ 
and although his fall was broken by some earth which bad 
been dug, one of bis thighs received such a serious injury^ 
that he was lame for the remainder of bis life ; and aU 
though he found some relief at the baths of Viguona near^ 
Sienna, where he went the foUo'wing year, his health was 
never completely re-established. 

This accidfent, however, did not interrupt his literary 
pursuits. He travelled to Florence, to Paruia, and to Co- 
lorno, where, in the ducal palace, he traced a nieridiauj 
^ich does not now exist; and on his return to Rome re- 
4ume4 his astronomical labours, particularly his observa- 
tions pn i^he planet Venus, whom he had been studying 
fc[r a gjreat many years. H€ set out by e&deavouripg to 

232 B I A rJ C H I N I. 

ascertain her parallax by the ingenious method invented 
by.Cassini for the parallax of Mars. This method consists 
in comparing the motion of the planet, whose parallax is 
wanted, with some fixed stars very n^ar it, and that for 
some considerable space of time, but a fair opportunity of 
doing it seldom happens. It was, however, signor Bian- 
<;hini's good fortune to meet with one in the beginning ot 
July, 1716, when Venus and Regulus came to the meri- 
dian so nearly together^ that he could discover them both 
in the same neld of his refracting telescope. In observing 
the spots of Venus, he employed the instrument before 
mentioned, which he presented to the academy of Paris. 
His observations, however, on this planet, although very 
interesting to the astronomers of his age, have not been 
confirmed by the more recent observations of Herschel 
and others, with instruments ofmuch greater power than he 
possessed. What: be published on this subjet% in 1728, 
leas among the last of his efforts for the promotion of 
science, as he now contracted a dropsical complaint of 
which he died March 2, 1729, He left his property t6 
his nephew Joseph Bianchihi, the subject of our next ar*- 
ticle, and the greater part of his books and ecclesiastical 
anticjuities to the library of the chapter of Verona. Great 
honours were paid to his memory by a monument in, the 
cathedral of Verona, voted by the city, and other public- 
marks of esteem. He was a man of extensive knowledge, 
particularly in natural philosophy, mathematicS| botany, 
agriculture, history, and antiquities. He. also cultivated 
polite literature, oratory, and poetry. His manners, easy, 
elegant, and accommodating, were rather those of the 
world than of the schools, and he appears to have been 
beloved, or respected, wherever he went. 

His works w:ere nunierous: the following list of the 
principal is arranged, rather according to the connexion 
of the subjects, than the chronological order, which in 
general it is convenient to preserve. 1. Three memoirs 
ia the ^* Acta eriiditorum,*' of Leipsic, for 1685 and 1686,^ 
on a comet observed at Home in 1684; on Cassini*s me* 
thod of observing the parallaxes and distances of the 
planets, and on atotal eclipse of the moon at Rome, Dec. 
10, 1685. 2. A memoir on the comet seen at Rome iit 
April 1702, with other astronomical observations inserted 
in the " Memoirs of the academy of Paris,'* 17QS, 17#6^ 
>nd 1708. All the preceding, if we mistake not^ are in 

B I A N C M I N L flSS 

VsAiin. 3. ^^ Relazione delta tinea meridiana oriz2onUle e 
della ellissi polarefabbricata in Roma TaniiQ 1702," without 
his name in the Joarnal << de' Letterati d'ltalia," vol IV. 
4. << Epistola de ecHpsi solis die Maii, 1724," Rome^ 
1724. 5. << Hesperi et Phosphori nova phenomena, sive 
observationes circa planetam Veneris," Rome, 1728, fok 
6. <^ Fr. Biancbini astronomicae et geographies observa« 
tiones selectee ex ejus autograpbis^ &c. cara et studio Eu* 
stachii Manfredi," Verona, 1737, fol. 7. " De emble* 
mate, nomine atque instituto Alethopbilorum, dissertatio 
publice habita in eorundem acadetnia," Verona, 1687. 
8. '* Istoria universale provata con ndonumenti e tigurata 
^on simboli degli antichi," Rome, 1697, 4to. This curi- 
ous volume, the plates of which were engraven by himself, 
and from his own designs, was to have been followed by 
several others, completing the series of ancient history, but 
this proceeds no farther than the ruin of the Assyrian em- 
pire. He will perhaps be thought to deal in paradox, tit 
asserting here that the Iliad is no more than a real history 
under the form of an allegory, each of Homer's heroes ot; 
deities being a country or a king. 9. ^' De Kaleiidario et 
Cyclo Caesaris ac de Paschaii canone S. Hippolyti martyris^ 
dissertationes duaE^," Rome, 1703, 1704, toL This also 
contains an account of the gnomon he constructed, and 
the pope^s medal struck on that occasion. 10. Two papers 
explanatory of ancient sculptures, inserted in the f^ Me" 
morie concernenti la citta d^Urbtno," Rome, 1724, foL 
11. *^ Camera et iscri2doni sepolcrali, &c:'' the history of 
the discoveries he made in the sepulchral building before 
meiitioned, Rome, 1727, fol. 12. '^ Del paiazzo de' Ce* 
«ari, opera postuma," Verona, 17 S8, published by hit 
nephew who had accompanied it with a Latin translation* 
13. ^^ Dissertatio posthiima de tribus generibus instru- 
mentorum musicss veterum organicas,*' R(»me, 1742, 
4to. 14. An edition of Anastasius BibUothecarius* history 
of the PopfS, Rome, 1718^ 1723, and 1728, 3 vols. foL 
The fourth was added by his nephew. 1 5. ^^ Opuscula 
taria," Rome, i754, 2 vols. 4to. To these may be added 
his Italian poems in the collection of those of the '* Aca- 
demic! concordi^" of Ravenna, published at Bologna, 1687, 
l2mo. and many scientific letters, dLsenations, if,o. in the 
Paris *^ History of the Academy of the Sciences," for thift 
years 1704, 1706 — 8, 17U, and 1718.* 

1 Biog. UniTftivelle.-^Eloge by Pontenelle.— ChAufepie.-*FalMroiu Vita Ita« 
Ittum, foL YL— Saail OnoiDastioim. 

a34 B I A N C H I N r. 

BIANCHINI (JosEf^H), nepbew of the precediog, priest 
of the oratory of St. PhUip de Neri^ was also a learned 
antiquary. He was born at Verona Sept. 9, 1704, the 
son of John Baptist, brother to Francis Biancbini^ and was 
educated under ^e eye of his uncle in the college of Mon-* 
tefiascoiie. Before 1725, he was promoted to a catiooiy 
in the cathedral, and a prebendal stall in St. Luke, and 
was soon after appointed librarian to the chapter : but iu 
1732 he resigned that and his benefices, and entered into 
the congregation of the oratory at Rome, where he di» 
vided his time between the pious duties of that order, and 
bis literary researches, particularly in what related to his- 
tory and ecclesiastical antiquities. His first publicatioa 
was, 1. The fourth and concluding yolume of, his uncle's 
edition of Anastasius Bibliothecarius, Rome, 1735, foi. 
2. ** VindicisB canonicarum Scripturarum vulgatsD Latins 
editionis,'' Rome, 1740, fol. This volume, the only one 
published, was to have been followed by six others, the 
plan of which is sketched in the preface, which, with the 
preliminary dissertations, contains the history of all the 
different books of the bible, the manuscript copies in vari<- 
Qos libraries, tb^ translations, &c. 3. *^ Evangeliarum 
quadruples Latinse versionis antiquaB, sen veteris Italicse, 
nunc primnm in lucem editum ex codd. MSS. aureis, ar« 
genteis, &c. aliisque plusquam millenarise antiquitatis,*' 
• Rome,' 1749, foi. This may be considered as a part of 
the preceding. 4. ^< Demonstratio historic ecclesiastics^^ 
quadripartitsB monumentis ad fidera temporum et gesto- 
rum,'* ibid, 1752, fol. A second volume was afterwards 
published of this elegant collection of fragments of anti- 
quity, inscriptions, medals, vases, &c. found in the dif- 
ferent churches, cemeteries, and museums of Rome, or 
ebewhere, beautifully engraven, and accompanied with ex<» 
planations and chronological tables. It extends, however^ 
iK> ferther than the first two centuries of the Christian uerar 
/5. *^ Delle porte e mura di Roma, con illustrazioni," ibid. 
1747, 4to. 6. *^ Parere sopra la cagione della morte della 
sig. contessa Oomelia Zangari, esposto in una lettera," 
Verona, 1731, and an improved edition, Rome, 1743, 8vo^ 
This curious dissertation relates to a lady of rank who was 
found in her room reduced to ashes, except her head, legs; 
and one of her fingersi^ As this could not be ascribed to 
external fire, the room being no wise damaged, it .excited 
much ^ittention, and gave rise to a variety of opinions. 

B I A N C H I N I. . 2SS 

Biancbini mMntains in this tract, that it was-tbeeffecMf 
an internal and spontaneous fire occasioned by the excesr 
sive use of camphorated brandy, to which the lady bad 
been oauch addicted. The J^me of Bianqhini's death is not 
mentioned. * . ; • . 

BIANCHINI (John FoRTUNATUS), an Italian ^philoso^ 
pher and physician of considerable repu^ition in the last 
century, was born, in 1720, at Chi^ti in the kingdom of 
Naples, where he studi^, took his degrees, and for some 
years practised physic. He then went to Venice^ but.hi^ 
growing reputation procured him the place of first physi- 
cian at Udina, where he resided from 1759 to.l777, and 
was then appointed first professor of the practice of physitp 
in the university of Padua, and was admitted a member ,of 
the academy, a& he had been of that of Udina. H'ewas 
likewise one of the pensionaries of the academy of Padua^ 
but did not .enjoy these situations long, dying Sept. 2^ 
1779. He wrote many treatises on professional subject^ 
electricity, the force of imagination in pregnant wonjien, 
putrid fevers, worms, &c. a list of which may be seen in 
our authority. * 

BIANCHINI (Joseph Maria), an Italian scholar of the 
last century, was born at Prato in Tuscany, Nov. Id, 1685« 
He had but just finished his education at Florence, when 
he was admitted a member of the academy of the Apatisti^ 
and two years after, of that of Florence, nor was he more 
than twenty when he became known to and associated with 
the principal literati of that city. He went afterwards to 
Pisa, and studied philosophy and mathematics under Alex<- 
ander Marchetti, the translator of Lucretius, and ther^; be 
received the degree of doctor of laws, and the. order of 
priesthood. There ialso the bishop of Prato appointed 
him to give public lectures on the works of t^e, fathers, in 
the course of which he became particularly attached ta 
those of St. Bernard; and the bishop of Pistoia gavje hint 
the living of St. Peter .at Ajolo, where he made himself 
very popular. Such also was bis literary fame, that besides 
the acadeinies we have mentioned, be was admitted a 
member, of the Infecundi of Prato, the Innominati pf Bri^ 
in Piedmont, of the Rinvigoriti of Jfobgno, the:Arcadi^pg 
of Rome, the Columbarian society, and the della Crusca^ 
His life was exemplary, his character loyal ai^d iugeouous^ 

^ BiQg. Unirerfelle.««»Saxhl8 uiBkachiaiif.' * Biog. Uni^enelle. 


although somewhat reserved. He loved retirement, yet 
>vas of a placid humour, and enjoyed effusions of wit ; but 
in his latter years he fell into a state of melancholy, ag« 
gravated by bodily disorder, which terminated in his death 
Feb. 17, 1749. His two most considerable works, were, 
1. <' De* gran duchi di Toscana della real casa de^ Medici," 
Venice, 1741, fol. an account of the ancient sovereigns 
of Florence, as patrons of literature and the arts, but con- 
taining little new matter. 2. '^ Delia satira Italiana, trat- 
tato,^ V Massa, 1714, 4to. Florence, 1729, 4to; a critical 
work highly esteemed in Italy. To the second edition the 
author has annexed an Italian dissertation, on the hypo- 
crisy of men of letters, in which be exposes what would be 
called in this country the arts of puffing, which his bio^ 
grapher remarks, have made very great progress since his 
time. 3. *^ La Cantica de Cantici di Salomone tradotta 
in versi Toscani con annotazioni," Venice, 1735. Various 
other small pieces of criticism, bibliography, &c. from his 
pen are inserted in the academical collections, parti- 
cularly " Prose Fioren tine,*' Venice, 1754, 4to. * 

BIANCOLINI (John Baptist Joseph), was born at 
Verona, March 10, 1697, of an eminent tiiercantile family, 
and as after completing his education he shewed no incli<« 
nation for the church, his father brought him up to trade, 
which he carried on during the whole of his long life. In 
his youth be was particularly attached to music, played 
on several instruments, and even attempted composition, 
but neither this taste, nor his mercantile pursuits, inter- 
tupted his fondness for the study of the history and anti- 
quities of his own country, which in the course of a. few 
yHrs beheld one of its merchants placed in the rank of men 
of letters and historians. His works entirely relate to the 
history of Verona, and although he appears rather as editor 
than author, yet bis countrymen felt no small obli^tion to 
him for the care, and expense which he bestowed in im« 
proving their ancient annalists. His first labour was a new 
edition and supplement, in 2 vols. 4to, 1745 and 1747, of 
Zagata's ** Chronicle of the City of Verona,'* enriched with 
additions of great interest by Biancolini, particularly a plan 
of the ancient theatre of Verona, which the learned MafFei 
had thought it impossible to trace. 2. " Notizie storiche 
dellecbi^ di Verona/' four books, 1749— 1752, 4to, af« 

IBiog. yaireneUc 

B I A N C O L I N I. JW7 


terwards reprinted and enlarged to 6 vols. 4to. 3. " Dei 
vescovi e gOTcrnatori di Verona dissertaziuni due,*' Ve- 
rona, 1757, 4to. He also contributed to the Italiaa trans* 
lation of tde Greek historians, '^ Collaiia degli storici 
Greci/' (begun in 1733 atVerona by the bookseller Ra- 
manzini) not only by literary, but pecuniary .assistance of 
the most liberal kind. He died upwards of eighty*twQ 
years old, in 1780.* 

BIANCONI (John Lewis), a celebrated Italian phild* 
sopher and physician, was born atBplogna, Sept. 30, 17 17. 
After having studied physic with great diligence and suc- 
cess, he was in his nineteenth yeatr appointed medical as^ 
sistant in one of the hospitals, and after tour years, was* 
in 1742, admitted to the degree of doctor. In 1743 and 
1744 he published a valuable translation into Italian of 
Winslow's Anatomy, 6 vols. dvo. In the last mentioned 
year, his reputation induced the landgrave of Hesse-Darm- . 
stadt, prince and bishop of Augsburgh, to give him an in- 
vitation to reside with him, which Bianconi accepted, and 
remained there for six years. During this time he pub- 
lished "Duelettere di Fisica," &c. Venice, 1746, 4to, 
addressed to the celebrated marquis Maffei, and wrote ia 
French an ** Essay on Electricity,** addressed to another 
learned friend, count Algarotti. He also began, 4n Frencby 
^* Journal des nouveaut^s litteraires d'ltalie,'* printed 
at Leipsic, but with Amsterdam on the title, 1748, 1749^ 
8vo, which he continued to the end of a third volume* 
In 1750, he went to the couirt of Dresden, with a strong 
recommendation from pope Benedict XIV. to Augustus 
III. king of Poland, who received him .into his confi- 
dence, and appointed him his aulic counsellor, and in 
1760 sent him to France on a political affair of cqnsl* 
derable delicacy, which be transacted with skill and satis- 
factiQn to his employer. In 1764, his majesty appointed 
him his resident minister at the court of Rome, where he 
felt his literary taste revive with its usual keenness, and 
was a contributor to various literary Journals. That of the 
** Effemeridi letterarie di Roma" owed its rise principally 
to him, and for some time, its fame to his contributions. It 
was in this he wrote his eloges on Lupacchinj,. Piranesi,^ 
and Mengs, which last was published separately, with ad*. 
ditions, in 1780. In his twelve Italian letters on the his- 
tory of Cornelius Celsus, printed at Rome in 1779, h^ 

} Bio^. Universdle* 

238 » I A N C ONI. 

restores' that celebrated physician to the age of Augusta^/ 
eontrary to the'coniinon opinion, ati'd to that of Tirasboscbif 
(tcr whom thcfy 'were addressed), who places him in what is^ 
called the silver age. He <vas projecting a magnificent 
editidn of Celsus, a life of Petrarch, and some other lite- 
rary undertakings, when he died sudderily at Perugia, Jan. 
I, 1781, universally regretted. He left ready for the 
press, a work in Italian and French, on the circus of Cara- 
ealla, which was magnificently printed at Rome in 1790^ 
with nineteen beautiful, engravings. * 

BIAS, called one of^Sie wise men of Greece, was born 
at Priene, a small town of Caria, about 570 B. C. Hc 
was in great repute in Greece, under the reigns of Ha-» 
lyattes and Crcesus, kings of Lydia. Though bom to great 
riches, be lived without splendour, expending his fortune 
in relieving the needy, and although esteemed the most 
eloquent orator of his time, he desired to reap no other 
advantage from this talent, than that of glory to his coun- 
try. In his pleadings he shewed such discrimination, as 
never to undertake Any cause which he did not think just. 
It was usual to say of a good cause that it was one which Bias 
would have undertaken, yet we are not told by what means 
he knew that a cause was good before it was tried. On 
one occasion, certain pirates^ brought several young women 
to sell as slaves at Prien^. Bias purchased them, and 
maintained them, until he had an opportunity to return 
them to their friends. This generous action could not fail 
to increase his popularity, and made him be styled ** the 
prince of the wise men." 

When Halyattes laid siege to PrienSj Bias, who wa* 
then chief magistrate, made a vigorous resistance for a long: 
time, and when, owing to a scarcity of provisions, the city 
was in danger of being surrendered, Bia^ caused two beau* 
tiful mules to be fattened, and to be driven towards the 
enemy's camp, as if they had escaped from the inhabitants 
of Prien^. Halyattes, seeing these animals in so good 
plight, was afraid the town was in no danger of starving^ 
but, in order to be certain, contrived to send a spy into the 
city. Bias, suspecting his design, caused great heaps of 
sand to be covered with wheat, and the messenger having 
reported this abundance, Halyattes made an alliance with 
the inhabitants of Priene, and left them in peace. 

Bias is said to have composed above two thousand verses^' > 

1 Biog. Universelle. — Saxii Onomast. 

BIAS. 259 

cpQtsimng pradential maxinis, many of which may be focind 
hi Stiinleyy and other writers on the lives of the philosophers. 
The iToUowing have been selected by Brucker : ^Mt is a 
proof of a weak and disordered mind to desire impossi- 
bilities. The greatest infelicity is, not to be able to endure 
misfortunes patiently. Great minds alone can support a 
sudden reverse of fortune. The most pleasant state is, to 
be always gaining. Be not unmindful of the miseries of 
others. If you are handsome, do handsome things ; ifde* 
formed, supply the defects of nature by your virtues. Be 
slow in undertaking, but resolute in executing. Praise 
not a worthless man for the sake of his wealth. Whatever 
good you do, ascribe it to the gods, j^ay in wisdom as the 
store for your journey from youth to old age, for it is the 
most certain possession. . Many men are dishonest ; there- 
fore love your friend with caution, for he may hereafter 
become your enemy.'* This last, however, would have 
better become a Rochefoucault, or a Chesterfield. Bias 
happened to be at Priene, when it was taken and sacked, 
and when asked, why he did not, like the rest, think of 
saving something, answered, " So I do, for I carry my all 
with me." The action by which his days were terminated 
was no less illustrious than those of his former life. He 
caused himself to be carried into the senate, where he zea- 
lously defended the interest of one of his friends, but being 
now very old, it fatigued him much. He leaned his head 
on the breast of one of his daughter's sons, who had ac- 
companied him. When the orator, who pleaded for his 
opponent, had finished his discourse, the judges pro- 
nounced in favour of Bias, who immediately expired in the 
arms of his grandson. ^ 

BIBBIENA, Cardinal. See DOVIZI. 

BIBBIENA (Ferdinand Galli), painter and architect, 
was born at Boulogne in 1657. He studied the elements 
of his art under Cignani, a distinguished artist, and 
when this master produced his disciple to the world, hisr 
talents for architecture, for theatrical decorations, and for 
perspective, obtained him a good reception. The duke of 
Parma and the emperor gave him the title of their first 
painter, and loaded hitn with favours. Several magnificent 
edifices were raised after his plans. His pieces of perspec- 

1 SUnley's Hiitory of Philoiophjr.— Bruoker.— Fendoa, translated ky Cor- 

240 B I B B I £ N A. 

tive ate full of taste, but there have not been wanting soma^ 
critics who have censured him for having a pencil more 
fontastic than natural and just. He died blind io 1743, 
leaving two books of architecture ; and sons worthy of their 
father. It is probable that to one of them (J. Galli Bib* 
biena) the public is indebted for the ^^ History of the 
amours of Valeria and the noble Venetian Barbarigo/* 
translated into French, Lausanne and Geneva, 1751. He 
had also a brother, an architectural painter of considerable 

BIBLIANDER (Theodore), an eminent Protestani 
divine, whose real fiame was Buchman, which he changed 
into Bibliander,: according to a custom very prevalent in 
his time, was born in 1500, or rather 1504, according to 
D. Clement and Saxius, at Bischoffzel near St Gall, and 
in 1532, succeeded Zwinglius in the divinity-chair at 
Zurick. This he filled a considerable. time, until having 
adopted some opinions on the subject of predestination, 
which were hostile to those generally received in the re« 
formed church, he was gently dismissed, by being declared 
emeritus, and his place supplied by Peter Martyr. He 
died qf the plague at Zurich in 1564. He was a man of 
great reputation for learning, especially in the oriental 
languages. He wrote, 1. *^ Apologia pro edit. Alcorani^ 
edita a J. Fabricio, cum testamento. Moh^medis,'' Rostock, 
1638, 4to. 2. ^^ Machumetis Saracenorum principis, ejus- 
que successorum vitae, doctrina, ac ipse Alcoran," &c. 
Basil, 1 543, fol. This work is divided "into three parts ; 
the first contains a Latin translation of the Alcoran ; the 
seconds many pieces in refutation of the doctrines and er- 
rors of the Alcoran ; and the third, some parts of the works 
of Paul Jovius, and others, on the history and manners of 
the Turks. The whole was reprinted at Basil in 1550, but 
with considerable alterations in the second part, and the 
addition of some articles to the third. 3. ** Q[uoinodo opor* 
teat legere sacras scripturas, praescriptiones Apostolorum^ 
Prophetarum, &c.^' ibid. 1550, 8vo. 4. ^^ Amplior coh« 
•ideratio decreti synodalis Trident de authent. doct. eccL 
Dei, &c.*' 1551, 8vo. 5. '* Sermo divin. majest, voce 
pronunciatus, sen Comment, in Decalog. et Sermon. Dom. 
in monte Sinai,'' Basil, 1552, fol. 6. *' Concilium sacra- 
sanctum eccL cathol. in quo demonstratur quomodo possit 

1 Bio|f. UniTereelU, 

B I B L I A N D E R. 241 

^ereuDti popnlo Christiano succorri,'* 1552^ 8vo. 7. *^ Vi- 
ta B. Marci evangeiistaB>*' Bale, i5S2^ 8, ^M!)e ratione 
temp.. Christ &c. liber/' ibid. I55ly 8vo. 9. " Temporuia 
a condito mundo usque ad ultim. ipsius setat. supputatio,^' 
ibid* 15589 fol. 10. ^* Evangeiica bistoria/' ibid. 1551* 

11. <^ De fatis 'monarchiae Rotnanae, somniuoiy Taticinium 
Esdrae/' &g. ibid. 1553, 4to, a coUectioa of remarks on 
prophecies applicable to the apostacy of the Romish church* 

12. " De summa Trinitate et fide catholicai &c.-'' ibid* 
1^55, 4to. 13. ** De Mysteriis' salutiferas passionis et 
mortis Jesu Messis^ libri tres/' ibid. 1555. 14. '' De 
ratione communi omnium iinguarum et litterarum commen- 
tarius/' Zurich, 1548, 4to, a curious work, in which he en- 
deavours to prove an analogy between all languages, and 
all the letters of those languages. These last five works 
are extremely rare. Bibliander also, assisted by Conrad 
Pelican and Cholin, completed and superintended the edi- 
tion of the Bible by Leo de Juda, and translated a consi- 
derable part of it. Many of his manuscripts are preserved 
in the library of Zurich, and a full account of them has 
been given by Teissier in his additions to Thuanus's account 
of eminent men, vol, II. ^ 

BICHAT (Maria-Francis-Xavier), a very celebrated 
'French physician, and whose labours have greatly promoted 
the study of physiology, was born Nov. 11, 177 J, at Thoi- 
rette. His father was, also a physician, an|. had pro- 
bably initiated him in medical knowledge, which he studied 
at Lyons, where Petit, then surgeon of the Hotel-Dieu in 
that city, under whom he was taught anatomy and surgery, 
bad such ah opinion of his talents, that he made him his 
assistant, although then only in his twentieth y^ar. When 
Lyons was besieged in 1793, he made his escape, and ar- 
rived at Paris about the end of that yean There, without 
any recommendations from friends, he resumed his studies 
and became one of the pupils of the celebrated Dussault, 
who discovering his uncommon talents, invited him to his 
house, treated him as his son, and found in him a most 
able assistant Of this generous protector, however, he 
was deprived by death in 1795, and became in his turn the 
support of Dussault's widow and children. He first com- 
pleted the fourth volume of Dussault's ^^ Journal de Chi- 

1 Bjof . UBir.-^en. Diet,«>Moreri.~Melchior Adam in vitis Theologwriun. 
i OnomafticOB* 

Vol. V. R 

Hi Bit HA T. 

rurgie.'* In 1797 be published bis ** CEuvres chirurgicales/? 
2 vols. 8vo. In the same year he began to give lecturds 
on anatomy and operative surgery, to which, in 1798, he 
added a course of physiology, which produced his "Trait6 
des Membranes," 1800, 8vo, and " Becherches pbysiolo- 
giques sur la vie et sur la mort," 1800, 8vo, in both which 
be advances some of those original opinions which attracted 
the attention of the faculty both at home and abroad, and 
paved the way for the higher fame he acquired by his 
♦* Anatomic generale appliqu6e a la physiologic et a Id. 
medicine," Paris, 1801, 4 vols. 8vo, one 6f the ablest works 
on the subject which France has produced. The year pre* 
ceding, although only twenty-eight years old, he was ap- 
pointed physician to the Hotel Dieu, and had begun a new 
treatise on descriptive anatomy, when the world was de- 
prived of his. labours, by a premature death, the conse- 
quence of a putrid fever, July 22, 1802. He was deeply 
regretted for his talents and virtues. ^ 

BIDDLE (John), a noted Socinian writer, was bom in 
1615, at Wotton-under-Edge, in Gloucestershire. He was 
educated at the free-school in that town ; and, being a pro- 
mising youth, was noticed by George lord Berkeley, who 
made him an allowance of 10/. a year. While at this 
school, he translated Virgil's eclogues, and the two first 
satires of Juvenal, into English verse, both which were 
printed at London in 1634, in 8vo. In 1634 he was sent 
to Oxford, and entered at Magdalen-hall. June 23, 1683, 
he took the degree of bachelor of arts, and soon after was 
invited to be master of the school of his. native place, but 
declined it. May 20, 1691, he took his degree of master 
jof arts ; and the magistrates of Gloucester having chosen 
him master of the free-school of St. Mary de Crypt in that 
city, be went and settled there, and was much esteemed for 
his diligence. Falling, however, into some opinions con- 
ceniing the Trinity, different from those commonly re- 
ceived, and having expressed his thoughts with too much 
freedom, he was accused of heresy : and being summoned 
before the magistrates, he exhibited in writing a confes- 
sion, which not being thought satisfactory, he was obliged 
to make another more explicit than the former. When he 
had fully considered this doctrine, he comprised it in twelve 
arguxxients drawn, as he pretended, from the Scripture ; 

1 Biof . VnirerseUe.-»>X)ict. Hist, 

B I D D L E. 5243 

wherein the commonly'-received opinion, touching the deity 
of the Holy Spirit, is attempted to be refuted *. An ac- 
quaintance who had a copy of theoi, having shewed them 
to the magistrates of Gloucester, and to the parliament 
committee then residing there, he was committed, Dec. 2, 
1645, to the common gaol, till the parliament should tak43 
cognizance of the matter. However, an eminent person 
in Gloucester procured his enlargement, by giving security 
for his appearance when the parliament should send for 
him. June 1646,' archbishop Usher, passing through 
Gloucester in his way to London, had a conference with 
our author, and endeavoured, but in vain, to convince him 
of his errors. . Six months after he had been set at liberty 
he was summoned to appear at Westminster, and the par- 
liament appointed a committee to examine him ; before 
whom he freely confessed, that he did not acknowledge the 
commonly-received notion of the divinity of the Holy 
Ghost, but, however, was ready to hear what could be 
opposed to him, and, if he could not make out his opinioti 
to be true, honestly to own his error. But being wearied 
with tedious and expensive delays, he wrote a letter to sit 
Henr}' Vane, a member of the committee, requesting him 
either to procure his discharge, or to make a report of his 
case to the house of commons. • The result of this was, biis 
being committed to the custody of one of their officers^ 
which restraint continued the five years following. He 
was at length referred to the assembly of divines thea 
sitting at Westminster, before whom he often appeared, 
and gave them in writing his twelve arguments, which 
were published the same year. Upon their publication, he 
was summoned to appeat* at the bar of the house of com- 
mons ; where being asked, " Whether he owned this trea- 
tise, and the opinions therein ?'Vhe answered in the affirma- 
tive. Upon which he was^^mitted to prison, and the 
house ordered, Sept. 6, 11^7, that the book should be 
called in and burnt by the hangman, and the author be 
examined by the committee of plundered ministers. But 
Mr. Biddle drew a greater storm upon himself by two tracts 
he published in 1648, ^^ A confession of faith touching the 

* These twelve arguments, &c. were were answered by Matthew Poole^ 

first published in 1647, and reprinted M. A. the learned editor of Synopsis 

IB 1653, and lastly in 1691, 4to, iu a Criticorum, in his Plea for the God- 

coUection of Socinian tracts, entitled head of the Holy Ghost, &c. aud by 

.** The faith of one God, &c.'' They others at home and abroad. 

R 2 

244 B I B D L E. 

Holy Trinity according to the Scripture ;" and " The tes- 
timonies of Irensusi Justin Martyr, TertuUian^ Novatianus, 
Theopbilus^ Origen, also of Arnobius, Lactantius, Euse- 
bius, Hilary, and Brightmani concerning that one God, 
and the persons of the Holy Trinity, together with obser- 
vations on the same/' As soon as they were published^ 
the assembly of divines solicited the parliament, and pro- 
cured an ordinance, inflicting death upon those that held 
opinions contrary to the received doctrine about the Tri- 
nity, and severe penalties upon those who differed in lesser 
matters. Biddle, however, escaped by a dissension in the 
parliament, part of which was joined by the army; many 
of whom, both oflSicers and soldiers, being liable to the 
severities of the ordinance above-mentioned, it therefore 
from that time lay unregarded for several years. Biddle 
had now more liberty allowed him by his keepers ; who 
suffered him, upon security given, to go into Staffordshire^ 
where he lived some time with a justice of peace, who en- 
tertained him with great hospitality, and at his death left 
him a legacy. Seijeant John Bradshaw, president of the 
council of state, having got intelligence of this indulgence 
granted him, caused him to be recalled, and more strictly 
confined. In this confinement he spent his whole sub«- 
stance, and was reduced to great indigence, till he was 
employed by Rc^er Daniel of London, to correct an im- 
pression of the . Septuagint Bible, which jthat printer was 
about to publish : and this gained him for some time, a 
pomfortable subsistence. 

In 1654 the parliament published a general act of ob- 
livion, when Biddle was restored to his liberty. This he 
improved among those friends he had gained in London^ 
in meeting together every Sunday for expounding the 
Scripture, and discoursing thereupon ; by which means 
his opinions concerning the unity of God, Christ his only 
son, and his holy, spirit, were so propagated, that the 
presbyterian ministers became highly offended. The same 
year he published his ** Twofold scripture catechism,'* 
which was ably answered by Dr. Owen in bis *^ Vindicias 
Evangelical,'' Oxford, 1655; but a copy coming into the 
bands of some of the members of Cromwell's parliament, 
meeting Sept. 3, 1654, a complaint was made* against it 
in the house of commons. Upon this, the author being 
brought to the bar, and asked ^^ Whether he wrote that 
book?" answered by asking, ^^ Whether it seemed reason- 

B I B D L £. **S 

ftble, that one brought before a judgment seat as a crimi* 
nal, should accuse himself?*' After some debates and 
resolutions, be was, Dec. 13, committed close prisoner 
to the Gatehouse. A bill likewise was ordered to bo 
brought in for punishing him ; but, after about six montltt 
imprisonment, he obtained his liberty at the court of king's 
bench, by due course of law. . About a year after, another 
no less formidable danger overtook him, by his engaging 
in a dispute with one Griffin, an anabaptist teacher. Many 
of Griffin's congregation having embraced Biddle's opinions 
concerning the Trinity, he thought the best way to stop 
the spreading of such errors would be openly to confute 
his tenets. For this purpose he challenges Biddle to a 
public disputation at his meeting in the Stone chapel in ^ 
St. Paul's cathedral, on this question, " Whether Jesus 
Christ be the most high, or almighty God ?'' Biddle 
would have declined the dispute, but was obliged to ac- 
cept of it ; and the two antagonists having met amidst a 
numerous audience. Griffin repeats the question, asking 
^^ if any man « there did deny that Christ was God most 
high ?" to which Biddle resolutely answered^ ^^ I do deny 
it:" and by this open profession gave his adversaries 'the 
opportunity of a positive and clear accusation, which they 
soon laid hold of. But Griffin being baffled, the dispu* 
tation was deferred till another day, when Biddle was to 
take his turn of proving the negative of the question^ 
Meanwhile, Griffin and his party, not thinking themselves 
a match for our author, accused him of fresh blasphemies^ 
and procured an order from the protector to apprehend 
him, July the 3d (being the day before the intended -se* 
cond disputation), and to commit. him to the Compter. 
He was afterwards sent to Newgate, and ordered to be 
tried for his life the next sessions, on the ordinance against 
blasphemy. However, the protector not chusing to have 
him either condemned or absolved, took him out of the 
hands of the law, and detained him in prison; till at length, 
being wearied with receiving petitions for and against him, 
he banished him to St. Mary's castle, in the isle of Scilly, 
where he was sent Oct, 1 655. During this exile, he employed 
himself in studying several intricate matters, partioularlyi 
the Revelation of St. John, and after bis return to Lon« 
don, published an essay towards explaining it. In 1658, 
the protector, through the intercession of many friends, 
suffered a writ of habeas corpus to be granted out of th« 

24fi B I.D D L E. 

king's benob, wherry the prisoner was brought back^ and^ 
nothing being laid to his charge, was set at liberty. Upon 
his return to London, he became pastor of an independent 
meeting; but did not continue long in town ; for, Crom« 
well dying Sept* 3, 1658, his son Ricliard called a par- 
liament, consisting chiefly of presbyterians, whoni, of all 
men, Biddle most dreaded : he therefore retired privately 
into the country. This parliament being soon dissolved;^ 
he returned to his former employment till the restoration 
of king Charles the Second, when the liberty of dissenters 
was taken awayy and their meetings punished as seditious. 
Biddle then restrained himself from public to more private 
assemblies^: but> Jiine 1, 1662, he was seized in his 
^ lodging, where he and some few of his friends had met for 
divine worship^ and was, with them, carried before a jus- 
tice of peace, who committed them all to prison, where they 
lay till the recorder took security for their answering to the 
charge brought against them at the next session. But the 
^urt not being then able to find a statute whereon to form 
aay^criminal. indictment, they were referred to the session 
folkiwing^ and proceeded against at common law; each 
of the hearers was fined 20/. ; Biddle, 100/., and to lie in 
prison till paid. By his confinement, hovv^ever, he con- 
tracted a disease which put an end to his life. Sept* 22^ 
1662, in the 47th year of his age. He was buried in the 
cemetery near Old Bethlem, in Moorfields ; and a monu— 
meiit was erected ' over his grave, with an inscription. 
Bis life was published in Latin at London, 1682, by Mr. 
E^rrington; of the Inner Teknpie,- who gives him & high 
cfaamcter for ^iety and morals, and by the Rev." Joshua 
Tou|min,* in 1769,'8vo, who styks him the Father of the 
Eriglish Unitarians J ^ 

V BIDERMANN ^{JoHN Theophilxjs, or Gottueb), a 
iscry learned and voluminous Gefrman writer, was born 
at Naumberg, April ;5, 170$, and studied at Wittemberg, 
where he was admitted to his master's degree in 1717, and 
Qoon after made librarian to the city. In 1 732 he returned 
to Naamberg, and was appointed co-rector of the pubHc 
school^ in which office he continued for nine years, and 
ill 1741, on 4he death of John George Scutz, was pro-* 
moted to be rector. In 1747, the place of rector of the 
Ctfhool of Ffiedburg becoming vacant, he was invited to 

1 Bioff. Srit and lives above-mentioned.— rAth, Ox. yoL 11. 

B I D E E M A N N. »4T 


fill it, and accordingly, with the conseixt of bis patrons at 
Naumberg, he removed thither, and added greatly to the 
reputation of the schools He died there in 1772, leaving 
a vast number of works in Latin and German, published 
during his literary career, some of which involved him in 
controversies with his contemporaries, carried on in the 
German journals with a considerable degree of animosity. 
Harles enumerates above an hundred and fifty articles of 
bis publication, separately, or in the literary journals, on 
subjects of sacred criticism, philology, the arts, poetical 
criticism, and some works of whim and imagination ; the 
following selection will probably afford a sufficient speci- 
men : 1 . ^^ De. insolentia titulorum librariorum,?' Naumberg, 
1743. 2. " De religione eruditorum," ibid. 1744. 3. " Me- 
telemata philologica," ibid. .1746, with a continuation, 
1 748 — 50. 4, *^ Cur homines montani male audiant ?." ibid. 

1748. 5. ^^ De Latinitate maccaronica,'' ibid. 6. ^^Delsop-* 
sephis,'' ibid. 7. ^* Fabulosa de septem dormientibus histo- 
ria," ibid. 1752. 8,"DearteObliviscendi,"ibid.l752. 9.<<De 
primis rei metalUcfB inventpribus,'' ibid. 1763. 10. *^ Db 
antiquitate sodinarum metallicarum,'' ibid. 1764. 11. <^ Acta 
scholastica," 1741, &c. 8 vols, a collection of programmaii 
and academtical dissertatiotis, continued afterwards under 
the title of ^^ Nova acta schoUstica.'* 12. *^ Sel^ta scbow 
lastica,'* 1744 — 46, 2 vols. 13. " Otia litteraria," Frei- 
burgfay 1751. In a dissertation which he published in 

1749, ^^ De vita inusica adPlautiMostellarium," act III. 
60. 2. V. 40, he has collected all that the ancients and 
raodetfis have advanced against music and musicians ; but, 
aa this was founded on mistaking the sense of Plautus, it 
ocsasioned a long literary contest, in which Bidermann 
did not appear to the best advantage. Harles, indeed, aU 
lows that yJhis. judgment did not always keep pace with his^ 

BIDLOQ (Godfrey), a famous anatomical writer,* was 
born at Amsterdam March 12, 1649. After he had passed 
through his academical studies, be applied himself to 
physic and anatomy, and took his degree of M. D. He 
soon acquired considerable practice; in 1688 was made 
professor of, anatomy at the Hague, which he quitted in 
1694 for the professorship of anatomy and chirargery at 
Leyden ; and afterwards William III. of England appointed 

I. Bio;. Univt^-Harles 4« Vitii Pbl^ologorunii vol. II«— »Savii PtOQiasUccnw; ; 

,t4S B I D L O O. 

him his physician, which he accepted on condition of 
holding bis professorship. The king died in 1702; and 
Bidloo returned to his former employments, in which he 
had been interrupted by his constant attendance upon that 
prince. He died at Leyden, April 1713, being 64 years 
ef age. His chief work was his " Anatomia humani cor«- 
poris,*^ in 105 plates drawn by Lairesse, Amst. 1685, fol. 
very ^ beautiful, but not entirely correct, a circumstance 
which being pointed out by the celebrated Ruyscb, drew 
from Bidloo a reply not very temperate, entitled " Vinw 
dicise quorundam Delineationum Anatomicarum contra inep- 
tasAnimadversiones F. Ruyschii, &c.^' 1 697, 4to. Bidloo also 
published : 1. '^ A letter to Anthony Leeuwenhoek concern- 
ing the animals which are sometimes found in the liver of 
sheep or some other animals/' This was published in Low 
Dutch, Delft, 1698, 4to. 2; ^' Gulielmus Cowper criminis 
Xiterarii citatus coram tribunali nobiliss. ampliss. Societatis 
Britanno-RegiaB," Leyden, 1700, 4to, pagg^ ^4. This piece 
contains a very severe accusation against Mr. Cowper, a 
surgeon of London, and fellow of the royal society. Dr* 
Bidloo being informed that Mr. Cowper was engaged in 
translating his anatomy into English, had a conversation 
with him while he was at London, and offered him that in 
case he had such ^ design, he would communicate several 
additions and renuu*ks, which he had made since the pub- 
lication of that work. Mr. Cowper asitoed him, that h<^ 
had no intention of that kiiid, as he did not understand 
Latin sufficientlv to execute such a task. In the meim 
while he procured three hundred copies of the cuts of 
Dr.^ Bidloo's book to be bought for him in Holland, upon 
which he caused the references to be written verv artfully, 
in order to change, and add to, and frequently to spoil 
the*doctor's explication of the cuts. He had, likewise^ 
an English title-page pasted upon the Latin one, in whicb^ 
instead of the real author's name his own was inserted, 
and he placed his own picture in the room of Dr. Bid- 
loo's. And although be occasionally mentioned our 
author in the preface, and added a few cuts at the end, 
^Bidloo affirms, that the preface was inserted afterwards, 
when Mr. Cowper found that this piece of plagiarism 
would be resented. He observes, also, that the figures 
in the appendix were not drawn from the life, since 
there was no proportion observed in them, as is evident to 
those who uttderstand the first principles of anatomy. Mn 

B r.D 1 o o. «« 

Cowper wrote an answer to this piece^.wbereip. he charged 
Dr* Bidloo likewise lyith plagiarism, aad several mistakea^ 
•which he had oooimitjbed ; and this affair gave occasiou to 
bis publishing afterwards his great work upon the muscled 
3. *^ Exercitatioaum Anatomico-Chirurgicarum Decades 
duse^'^ Leydeoj 1708, 4to. 4. He published likewise asniaU 
piece upon the disease. of which king William IIL of Eng- 
land died« 5. ** Letters^ of the Apostles who were oiar- 
tyred/' Amsterdam, 1698, 4to, in Low Dutch verse, of 
which, as well as of Latin, he was very fond, and was 
thought to have succeeded* He supposes in this book, 
that the apostles wrote these letters before they suffered 
martyrdom, and addressed them to their disciples, in order 
to inform them of their last desires, and to instruct them in 
what manner they ought to act after themselves were re- 
moved from this world. There was published at Leyden, 
1719, a miscellaneous collection of our autbor*s poems iu 
Low Dutch. His brother, Lambert Bidloo, an apotheoary 
at Amsterdam, was the author of some Dutch poetry, and 
of a work ^' De re herbaria," printed at the end of the 
*^ Catalogue of the Garden of Amsterdam," by Commelin» ^ 
Ley den, 1709, 12mo. Lambert's sou, Nicholas, became 
first pt\ysician to the Czar Peter I., and inspector of the 
hospital of St. Petersburgh. ' 

BIE (Adrian de), aa ingenious artist, was bom at 
Liere, in Brabant, in 1594, and at first learned the rur 
diments of the art from Wouter Abts, afterwards became 
the disciple of Rodolph Schoof, a painter of considerable 
reputation at that Ume at Paris, and when he had prac- 
tised under that master for a sufficient time to form his 
hand, he sought to- obtain still greater improvement > by 
travelling to Rome ; and there he spent six years in study-r 
ing the works of the best masters, devoting his whol^ tim^ 
to his profession. His industry was then rewarded with 
proportionable .success; for he fou&d encouragement 
among the most honourable persons at Rome, and in every 
part of Italy. His penciling was so exceedingly neat, and 
Lis touch and colouring so very delicate, that he was fre- 
4}ueDtly employed to paint on jasper, agate, porphyry^ 
and other precious materials. His master«piece is St. Eloi^ 
in the principal church at Liere. The time of his death is 
not known ; his son, Cornelius de Bie, wrote the lives of 

A Gen. Dict«-«Moreru-oHall^rx Bibl. AnatoBi.«*Bios. Vniverselle. 

550 B 1 E. 

the paintersy &c, under the title ** Guide Cabinet, &,c.^ 
in Flemish verse, with their portraits. 

Another D£ BIE (Jacob or James), who was bom at 

Antwerp, in 1581, was an eminent en graver of an tiquities^ 
* coins, &o. and published, 1. " Itoperatorum Roman. Nu- 
mismata," from Julius Caesar to Heraclius, Ant. 1615, 
4to» 2. " Numismata Grseciae," ibid, fol. 3. " La France 
Metallique, &c." Paris, 1636 j also the portraits for Me- 
^eeray's history, and other works of a similar kind. His 
style resembles that of the CoUaerts, and he drew cor« 
rectly, and executed his plates entirely with the graver, 
in a neat clWr determined manner,, and upon the whole, 
his • prints may rank witV those of the best early Flemish 
masters. ' 

- BIEL (Gabriel), one of the ablest scholastic divines of 
his time, was bom at Spire, and preached with great re- 
putation at Mentz, until Eberharaj duke of Wittemberg, 
having founded the university of Tubingen, invited him thi- 
ther in 1477, to BIl the theological chair. Towards the end 
of his days he retired to a convent of regular canons, where 
, hedifed very old. In 1495. His principal writings were*: 
1.-.^* CoUeotorium super libros sent^ntiarum G. Occami/* 
Tubingen j 1,501, fol. 2. ** Lectura super canonem 
Missae,'* Rutlingen, 1488, fol.; and S. " Sacri canonis 
Misste, &c. expositio," Tubingen, .14^9, fol., and thrice 
reprinted. Be is- also said to have Written **De moneta- 
fatn potestate simul et utilitate," Nuremberg^ 1542, Co- 
logn, 1574, a:nd Lydns, 1605.* 

BIEL (John Christian), a Lutheran divine of the last 
(century, was born at Brunswick, in 1687, and died in 
11^45. He was the author of a great many theological dis- 
sertations inserted in Ugoiin's ** Thesaiir. ahtiquitat. sacr." 
and of a valuable work published after his death by E. H. 
Mut2?enbecher, under the title of ^* Novus The^urus Phi- 
lologicus, sive* Lexicon in LXX. et alios interpretes et 
scriptoresapocryphosVeteris Testament!," Hague, 1779 — 
80, 3 vols. 8vo, to which Schleussrier added the suppletnents.* 
BIELFELD (James Frederick Baron de), was born 
et Hamburgh March 31, 1717. In a journey which be 
made to Brunswick, he became acquainted with Frede- 

'; X Dcsobamps. — Pilkingtop. •— Strutt — Biojg. Unir,— rFoppen, ^b^ Belg, -^se 
SavU bnomasticon in Biaeus. 

« Dupin.— rMoreri.— ^Freheri Theatrum. — Saxii Onomast. 

I Biog. Uuiyerielle.— Sazii OnomaaticoB. 

B I E L F E L D. \ 251 

rick II. then prince royal, who, on coming to the throne, 
took him into his service, and sent him, as secretary of 
legation, with count de Truchses, Prussian ambassador to 
the court of St James's, but discovering that the baron^s 
talents were not calculated for diplomatic affairs, he,, in 
1745, appointed him preceptor to prince Augustus Fer- 
dinand his brother; after that, in 1747, curator of the 
universities, and in 1748 he created him a baron, with 
the rank of privy-counsellor. The last years of his life he 
spent in study and retirement at Treban, in the country 
of Altenburgh, where he died April 5, 1770. He wrote. 

1. " Institutions politiques," 1759 — 60, 3 vols. 4to ; 1762^ 
4 vols. 12mo, the only work from bis pen that retained its 
reputation on the continent. Even the empress Cathe- 
rine 11, of Russia, condescended to write notes on it 

2. " Progres des Allemands dans les belles-lettres," 1752 
and 1768, 8vo. 3. ^^Amusemens dramatiques," Leyden^^ 
1768, 2 vols. 12mo, of no great merit 4. " Lettres fa-? 
milieres," 1763, and " Erudition universelle," 1768, 4 vols, 
both translated into English by Dr. Hooper. The baron 
also conducted for about three years a periodical publica- 
tion called " The Hermit," and is by some the reputed 
author of the '^ Memoirs of the duchess of Hanover, spouse 
to (Jeorge I." which is more generally attributed to baron 
Polnitz. * 

BIENNE (John), in Latin Benenatus, was a book- 
seller and printer at Paris, in the sixteenth century, and 
celebrated for the beauty and correctness of his editions. 
He became a printer in 1566, and m^arried in that year the 
widow of Morel, likewise a Greek and Latin printer, of 
distinguished reputation. Bienne by this alliance be* 
<:oming possessed of Morel's printing-house, completed 
the works which his predecessor had begun, particularly 
the Greek Demosthenes of 1570, fcl. ; and published also 
various very excellent editions, particularly " Lucretius,'* 
by Lambin, 1570, 4to ; " Synesii Hymni," 1570, 8vo ; 
and "Theodoretus de providentia," Gr. and Lat. 1569, 
8vo» He died Feb. 15, 1 588. It is said he left a daughter 
so accomplished in Greek and Hebrevc, as to be able to 
conduct the printing of works in these languages.' 

I Bk»g. Universelle.^-Saxii Onomastk^n. 

^ JilQreri.—Maittaire AnnaU— -Biog. Upiverselle. 


BIERKANDER (Claude), an able naturalist, and a 
clergyman at Gresbach in Westgothland, was born in 17 SB^ 
and died in 1795. He published in the Memoirs of the 
Academy of Stockholm, of which be was a member, a 
great number of papers on insects, which he had made hisi 
particular study, and on the transpiration of plants, the 
burning of vegetables, the effect of cold on vegetables,^ 
&C. all in the Swedish language. ' 


BIGLAND (Ralph), garter principal king at arms, waa 
born in 1711, the son of Richard Bigland, of Kendal^ in 
Westmoreland, the descendant of a family originally 
* seated at Bigland, Lancashire. The subject of this, brief 
notice, after going through all the offices in the College of 
Arms, and executing also the office of registrar, to which 
he was appointed in 1763, became the head of it in 1780y 
but enjoyed his elevation a very short time, dying in 
James-street, Bedford -row, March 27, 17^4. He was 
buried with his parents at Stepney. He was deservedly 
esteemed and regretted, as a man of much skill in heraldry 
and other branches of antiquities. The great collections 
he had made for a history of Gloucestershire were intended 
to have been arranged and given by him to the public^ 
and have since been partly published by his son Richard 
Bigland, of Frocester, esq. under the title of ^^ Historical, 
monumental, and genealogical collections, relative to the 
county of Gloucester," &c. fol. 1792, to which a second 
volume will probably be added by Mr. Nichols. * 

BIGNE (Gace i>e la), and not de la Vigne, as be is 
generally called by writers who have occasion to name him 
[for it is thus he gives his own name in his '^ Roman des 
Oiseaux^'], was born of a noble family of the diocese of 
Bayeux, about 1428. He was chaplain to king John, and 
followed that prince into England after the battle of Poic-» 
tiers. Being at Rocbefort in 1459, he began a poem on 
the chace, entitled ^^ Le Roman des Oiseaux,,^^ which he 
finished on his return to France. This he did at the com* 
mand of the king for the instruction of his son Philip duke 
of Burgundy. The abb£ Goujet attributes this poem to 
Gaston de Foix, from its being printed at the end of the 
" Miroir de la Chasse" by that prince, but greatly dif^ 
ferent; from the manuscripts. Gaston's work printed by 

* Biog. UniVerMlle. « l^oble^f Coll. of Anns, 

EIGNE. 251 

Trepperel at Paris, fol. without a date, and again in 1520, 
consists of two parts, the first Gaston^s, and the second 
by Bigne. Bigne is supposed, from some passages in his 
work, to have been alive in 1475. The personages in this 
poem, or romance, are allegorical, and dispute which 
species of the chace has the pre-eminence, appealing to 
the king, who, after having advised with bis counsellors, 
wisdom, reason, and truth, (not very usually called in) 
sends away the disputants perfectly satisfied. The style is 
easy, and the author's quaintness will beagreeable to the 
lovers of early poetry. * 

BIGNE (Marguerin de la), a priest, of the same « 
family with the preceding, doctor of the Sorbonne, and 
dean of the church of Mans, was born in 1 546 at Berniefes- 
le-»Patry, and studied at the college of Caen. He pub- 
lished in 1575 a '^ 3ibliotheca patrum,'' 8 voU. folio, which 
he re-published in 1589, 9 vols, being the first that under^ 
took a work of that kind. I'he most copious edition we have 
of it is in 27 vols, folio, Lyons, 1677. There is also one in 
16 vols, folio, of 1644, which is much esteemed, as con* 
taining the lesser Greek fathers. Another was published 
at Cologne in 1694, and Fere Philip de St. Jacques 
gave an abridgment of it in 1719, 2 vols. fol. To the 
Biblioth. pp. are generally added, '< Index locorum scrip* 
turs saorae,'' Genoa, 1707, fol., and the ^' Apparatus of 
Nourri,'* Paris, 1703, and 1715, 2 vols. fol. Such is the 
completest edition. La Bigne distinguished himself also 
by his harangues and his sermons. He gave a collection 
of synodal statutes in 1578, 8vo. and an edition of Isidore 
of Seville, in 1580, fol. He was a very studious man; 
and, having ^ot into some disputes that were referred to 
the magistrates of Bayeux, he rather chose to give up his 
benefices than his literary pursuits. He retired to Paris, 
where it is supposed be died, about 1590. * 

BIGNICOURT (Simon de), a counsellor of the pre- 
sidial of Rheims, was born there in 1709, and died at 
Paris in 1775. He was well versed in ancient and modern 
literature. We have by him, 1. " A collection of Latin 
and French poems,*' 1767, 12|mo; which are short, and 
in an easy and natural style. His epigrams are very much 
in the manner of the chevalier de Cailli ; and he has ont 

^ Biog. UDirerselle. 

^ Diet, Hiit.->JBiof . Vai?.«i*Cbtttfcpie.— 5azii Onomait 

2S4 B I G N I C O U R T. 

singulalrity in all his poetical productions^ that he has not 
one piece, either in Latin or French, that exceeds twenty- 
lines. Some of bis countrymen have compared them to 
those of Catullus, and several writers in the journals have 
extolled them as productions of extraordinary merit. But 
M. Bignicourt is heist known for his 3. " Pens^es et reflec- 
tions philosophiques," 1755, 12mo. This work, which 
was afterwards published under rfie title of " L'homme du 
Monde & L'homme de Lettres,'* has, however, its admirers 
and its censurers, with respect to the method of writing set 
phrases, and giving them as thoughts and maxims. ^ 

BIGNON (Jerome), a French writer, was born at Paris 
Aug. 24,. 1589. His father took the care of his education 
upon himself, and taught him the languages, philosophy, 
mathematics, civil law, and divinity. Jerome acquired so 
much knowledge in a very short time, that at ten years 
of age he published his description of the Holy Land, 
entitled " Chorographie, ou Description de la Terre- 
Sainte," Paris, 1600, 12mo; and. three years after, two 
other works, which gained him great reputation in France. 
The first was, " Discours de la ville de Rome, principales 
antiquitez & singularitez d'icelle," IGOl, 8vo; the other 
work is "Traits sommaire de Pelection des papes," 1605, 
8vo, in which piece he gives an account of the different 
manner of electing the popes formerly. Henry IV. appointed 
him page of honour to the dauphin, afterwards Lewis XI IL 
He wrote also a treatise on the precedency of the kings of 
France, entitled " De Texcellence des rois & du royaume 
de France, traitant de lapreseance&des prerogatives des rois 
des France par dessus tous les autres, & de causes d'icelles." 
This book was written in order to confute what Diego 
Valdes, counsellor of the royal chamber of Granada, had 
published in favour of the precedency of the kings of Spain, 
under the title of " De dignitate reguiA Hispaniae," Gra- 
nada, 16*02, fol. This he dedicated to the king, who or** 
dered him to continue his researches upon the subject; 
but the death of this prince interrupted his design, and 
made him leave the court ; whither he was soon recalled 
at the solicitation of Mr. le Fevre, preceptor to Lewis 
XIIL and continued there till the death of bis friend. la 
1613 he published an edition of the Formulae of MarcuU 
phus ; and the year following took a journey to Italy, 
where Jie received many marks of esteem from Paul V. 

1 Diet. Hist.— Biog. UniTerselle. 


B I G N O N. iSi 

Father Paul likewise being pleased with his conversation^ 
detained him some time at.Vepice. 

Upon his return from his travels, he applied himself to 
the practice of the bar with great success. His father pro- 
cured for him the post of advocate .general in the grand 
council ; which office he discharged with sucb reputation, 
that the king nominated him some time after counsellor of 
state, and at last advocate general in the parliament. Iti 
1641 he resolved to confine himself entirely to his business 
in the council of state, and therefore resigned his place of 
advocate-general to Mr. Briquet his son-in-law. The year 
following he was appointed the king's librarian. His son^ 
in-law dying jn 1645, he was obliged to resume his post 
of advocate- general, in order to preserve it for his son* 
He had also a considerable share in the ordinance of the 
year 1639; and he discharged with great integrity va- 
rious commissions with which he was intrusted at different 
times. Queen Anne of Austria, during her regency, sent 
for him to council upon the most important occasions. Ho 
adjusted the differences between Mr. d'Avaux and Mr. 
Servien, plenipotentiaries at Munster; and he had a share,^ 
with M. de Brienue and d'Emery, in making the treaty of 
alliance with the states of Holland in 1649. He was ap^ 
pointed, in 1651, to regulate the great affair of the suc- 
cession of Mantua; and in 1654, to conclude the treaty 
with the Hans Towns. Mr. Bignon died, aged 66y on the 
7th of April, 1656, of an asthma, with which he was 
seized the autumn before. In 1757, the abb6 Perau pub-» 
lished Bignon's life, two parts, 12mo. — His grandson, 
John Paul Bignon, was librarian to the king, a man of great 
erudition, and a writer of great powers of invention, if he 
could compose, as we are told he did, four panegyrics on 
St Louis, all different, two of which were pronounced the 
same day, one at the French academy, and the other at 
the academy of inscriptions^ He wrote also " Vie de 
Francois Levesque,'' 1684, 12mo; and *' Les Aventures 
d'Abdalla, fils d'Hanif.'* 1713, 2 vols. 12mo. often re- 
printed. He bad also a hand in the medallic history of the 
reign of Louis XIV. and the Journal des Savans. He 
warmly patronized Tournefort, who named a plant after 
hin;i Bignonia. He died May 14, 1743. ^ 

^ Gen. Diet.— Moreri.— Dup'm.— PerrauU's Tltfmnnes Illustres. — B»rliet Ja(c- 
toeni, & Les £afan» Celebres.— Saxil Osomast . — iik>^. U#iv. 

25« BIGOT;: 

. BIGOT (Emeric, or Emery), an eminent patron of li- 
terature, was born at Rouen Jn 1626, of an ailcient family, 
and having no inclination to rise in the offices of magis- 
tracy, as many of bis ancestors had done, nor to enter 
into the church, be determined to devote his time and 
fortune to the study and advancement of polite literature. 
His father, dean of the court of aids in Normandy, left 
him a library of six thousand volumes, including upwards 
of five hundred manuscripts, to which he made so many- 
additions, that at his death it was valued at forty thousand 
franks; and that it might not be scattered, he entailed it 
on his family, with handsome funds for the support and 
enlargement of it. It was, however, sold in July 1706^ 
anid the Catalogue, which was printed, is in considerable 
request among bibliographers. During his life-time this 
library was the resort of a number of men of letters, wha 
held frequent meetings here, in which Bigot presided* 
His travels in Holland, England, Germany, and Italy, pro- 
cured him the acquaintance and correspondence of most of 
the literati of Europe, who frequently consulted him, and 
paid great regard to his opinions. His sole passion was to 
contribute by bis wealth atid studies to the perfection and 
illustration of the best Greek and Latin authors, and he 
employed these advantages with the utmost libendity and 
modesty. Having discovered in the library at Florence, 
the Greek text of the ^^ Life of St. Chrysostom by Palla* 
dius, he published it at Paris in 1680^ 4to, with some 
other ancient Greek remains, hitherto in manuscript, the 
whole accompanied with a Latin translation by Ambrose of 
Camaldoli. To this he added St. Cbryso^tom^s epistle to 
Cesarius, but it being discovered that this was an attack 
on the doctrine of transubstantiation, the licensers refused 
its being published, and caused the leaves on which it was 
printed to be cut out. A copy of these leaves, however^ 
having fallen into the hands of Mr. (afterwards archbishop) 
Wake, was published by him in his ^< Defence of the Ex* 
position of the Doctrine of the Church of England against 
the exceptions of M. de Meaux, &c.'' Lond. 1686, 4to. 
In this Wake has given a curioys account not only of the 
suppression of this letter, but of the controversy to which 
it gave rise in archbishop Cranmer^s time. Du Pin says^ 
that after Iiigot^s death, some of his literary correspondence 
wfts published ; but this appears a mistake, if we except a 
letter of his written^ in 1672, to the bishop of Trulie 

B I G^O T. 2S1 

against the abbe de St Cyran's book *' Le Cas Royal/' and 

printed at Basil in 1690. Menage arid Heinsius were 
among his most intimate friends, and such was bis general 
knowledge and communicative disposition, that he was 
consulted by every one fond of literary history and anec- 
dote. He died Oct. 18, 1689.* 

BILFINGER (George Bernard), an eminent German 
philosopher and statesman, was born at Camstadt in Wir- 
temberg, Jan. 23, 1693 ; his father was a Lutheran mini- 
ster. By a singular hereditary constitution in this family, 
Bilfinger was born with twelve fingers and eleven toes, 
which, in his case, is said to have been remedied by ana- 
putation when he was an infant. From his earliest years, 
he showed an uncommon capacity for study, joined to a 
retired and thinking turn of mind. Happening, when 
studying at Tubingen, to learn mathematics in the works 
of Wolf, he imbibed likewise a taste for tjie sceptical phi- 
losophy of that writer, and for the system of Leibnitz, 
which for a time took off his attention from his other stu- 
dies. When entered on his theological course, he found 
himself disposed to connect it with his new ideas on philo- 
sophy, and with that view wrote a treatise, " De Deo, 
anima, et mundo,'* which procured him considerable fame^ 
and was the cause of his being chosen preacher at the 
castle of Tubingen, and repeater in the school of divinity. 
But fancying Tubingen a theatre too contracted, he ob- 
tained of one of his friends a supply of money, in 1719, 
which enabled him to go to Halle to study more particu- 
larly under Wolf himself. This, however, did not pro- 
duce all the good consequences expected. When after 
two years he returned to Tubingen, the Wolfian philoso- 
phy was no longer in favour, his patrons were cold, his 
lessons deserted, himself unable to propagate his new doc- 
trines, and his promotion in the church was likely to suffer. 
In this unpleasant state he remained about four years, 
when, by Wolf's recommendation, he received an invita- 
tion from Peter L to accept the professorship of logic and 
metaphysics in the new academy at St. Petersburgh. Thi- 
ther accordingly he went in 1725, and was received with 
great respect, and the academical memoirs which he had 
occasion to publish increased his reputation in no small 
degree. The academy of sciences of Paris having about, 

A Gen. Diet— M«reri.-- BAiltot Jogemeiis des Savras,^— Bio;. tUairanetk,— • 
. SmjM OnoiUastiQOn. 

Vol. V. S 


"- . ' . 

5 • . '  

that time proposed for solution the famous problem, on 
the cause of gravity, Bilfinger carried off the prize, which 
, was one thousand crowns. This made his name be known 
in every part of Europe, and the duke Charles of Wirtem- 
berg having been reminded that he was one of his subjects, 
immediately recalled him home. The court of Russia, 
after in vain endeavouring to retain him, granted him a 
pension of four hundred florins, and two thousand as the 
reward of a discovery be had made in the art of fortifica- 
tion. He quitted Petersburgh accordingly in 1731, and 
'being re-established at Tubingen, revived the reputation •* 
of that school not only by his lectures, but by many salu- 
tary changes introduced in the theological class, which he 
effected without introducing any new opinions. His 
greatest reputation, however, rests on his improvements 
in natural philosophy and mathematics, and his talents 
as an engineer seem to have recommended- him to the 
promotion which the duke Clxarles Alexander conferred 
upon him. He had held many conversations with Bilfinger 
on the subject of fortifications, and wished to attach him 
to government by appointing him a privy-councillor in 
1735, with unlimited credit For some time be refused a 
'situation which he thought himself not qualified to fill, but 
when he accepted it, his first care was to acquire the know- 
ledge necessary for a member of administration, endea« 
trouring to procure the most correct information respecting 
the political relations, constitution, and true interests of 
the country. By these means, he was enabled very es- 
sentially to promote the commerce and agriculture of his 
country, and in other respects to improve her natural re- 
sources, as well as her political connections, and he i$» 
^till remembered as one of the ablest statesmen of Ger^ 
many. The system of fortification which he invented i& 
yet known by his name, and is now the chief means of 
' preserving it, as he died unmarried, at Stuttgard, Feb. 1 8, 
1750. He is said to have been warm in his friendships, 
but somewhat irascible ; his whole time during his latter 
years was occupied in his official engagements, except an 
hour in the evening, when he received visits, and his only 
enjoyment, when he could find leisure, was in the cultiva- 
tion of his garden. To his parents he was particularly af- 
fectionate, and gratefully rewarded all those who bad 
^ assisted him in his dependent state. His principal works 
are : 1. ^^ Disputatio de barmoma praestabilita,^^ Tubili^* 

B I L F I N G E ». 25^ 

giit&n> 1721; 4to. 2. <^ De harmonia animi et corporis' 
humaoi maximd prsestabiiita commentatio b}rpothetica,'* 
Francfort) 1723, 8vo. This was inserted among the pro«^ 
hibited books by the court of Rome in 1734. 3. f* De 
origine et permissione Mali, &c/' ibid. 1724, 8vo. 4. '* Spe^ 
ciinen doctrins veterum Sinarum moralis et poiiticse/* 
ibid. 1724, 8vo. 5. ^^ Dtssertatio historico-catoptrica d^ 
speculo Archimedis," Tubingen, 1725, 4to. 6. ** Pilu^ 
cidationes philosophical de Deo, anima, &c." before 
mentioned, ibid. 1725, 4to. 7. '^ Bilfingeri et Holmamvi 
epistolsB de harmonia praestabilita," 1728, 4to. g. " Dis- 
putatio de natura et legibus studii in theologica Thetici,** 
ibid. 1731, 4to. 9. " Disputatio de cultu JDei rationali,'* 
ibid. 1731. 10. *< Notse breves in Spinosae methodum 
explicandi scriptural,** ibid. 1732, 4to. 11. " De myste* 
riis Christians fidei generatim spectatis sermo,*- ibid. 1732, 
4to. 12. "La Citadelle coup6e,*V Leipsic, 1756, 4to. 
13. ^^ Elementa physices," Leipsic, 1742, 8to; besides 
many papers in the memoirs of the Petersburgh academy, 
of which, as well as of that of Berlin, he was a member. ^ 

BILGUER (John Ulric de), a surgeon, born at Coire 
in Swisserland, in 1720, studied at Strasburgh and Paris, 
and afterwards served in the Prussian army, and became 
surgeon -general. He received a doctor's degree at Halle 
ih 1761, and was admitted a member of various learned 
societies ; and to these honours the emperor of Germany 
added titles of nobility, of which, however, Bilguer Aever 
made any use. His fame abroad, as well as in this coun* 
try, principally rests on his famous inaugural thesis, en- 
titled, ** Dissertatio inauguralis medicorchirurgica de mem^ 
)>rorum Amputatione rarissime administrandaaut quasi.abro* 
ganda,*' Berlin, 1761,4to. This Tissot translated into French^ 
and enriched it with notes, under the title ** Dissertation sur 
rinutiUt6 de P Amputation,'* Paris, 176.4, 12mo; from the 
Latin itwas translated into English, 1761. The author's ob- 
ject is to prove Jiow very seldom amputation can be necessary, 
particularly in the case of gun-shot wounds received in battle. 
^he first able answer to this mistaken effort of humuanity was 
by M.Martiniere, principal surgeon to the, French king; our 
eminent surgeon Pott has likewise shewn its danger; but 
in 1780 Bilguer's doctrine found a supporter in Dr. Kirk- 
bad of Ediphurgb, in his ^^ Thoughts oq Amputation.*' 

S 2 

ieo B I L G tJ E R. 

Bilgtfer published also, in German, " Instructions for the 
practice of Surgery in army-hospitals,*' Leipsic, 1763; 
•' Advice to Hypochondriacs," '&c. He died in 1796.' 

BILLAUT (Adam), known under the nameof Maitrb 
Adam, a joiner at Nevers, about the close of the reign of 
Louis XIII. and ^the beginning of that of Louis XIV. was 
called by the poets of his time Le Virgile au rabot He 
made verses amidst his tools and his bottles. Cardinal 
Richelieu and the duke of Orleans settled pensions on him, 
and Corneille was among his panegyrists. His ** Chevilles,'* 
1644, 4to; his " Villebrequin," 1663; his « Rabot,'' m 
12mo, &c. had a great run. Among a considerable num- 
ber of dull frivolities we meet with some happy lines. He 
died in 1662 at Nevers, which he never could be brought 
to quit for a lodging at Versailles. He had a just notion of 
greatness, and was capable of feeling and inspiring the 
charms of friendship. An epicurean without libertinism, 
and a stoic without supersition, he so associated these two 
sects as to have it said, that if Epicurus and Zeno had 
lived in his time, he would have brought them to drink 
together. He stuck to his mediocrity in order to preserve 
his happiness. The poets his contemporaries were his 
friends, and not envious of his fame. Mainard says, that 
the muses ought never to be^ seated but on tabourets ma^ 
by the hand of this poetical joiner. St. Amand proved that 
he understood the art of poetry as well as that of making 
boxes. The duke de St. Aignan tells him, in some very 
agreeable lines, that, by his verses and his name, he is the 
first of men. Such praises were probably offered in ridi- 
cule; but Billaiit knew how to make the most of his friends, 
And is said to have tried the sincerity of their friendship 
with very little ceremony. A new edition of his works was 
published in 1806, 12mo, Paris, and the year before a 
comedy was acted on the Paris stage, with some success, 
called '^ Chevilles de Maitre Adara.^' Two poetical trades- 
men, in his time, endeavoured to rival him, but without 
success, RagQeneau, a pastry-cook, and Reault, a lock- 
smith. Each addressed a sonnet to him ; that of the pastry- 
cook concludes with a point quite in character : 

" Tu soufiriras pourtant que je me flatte un pea : 
Avecque plus de hruti tu travaiUes sans doute^ 
Mois pour moi je travaille avecque plus de /tfu.** • 

I Biogi VhiTertellt.— Month. Ker. toll. XXXI. XXXVIII. snd Ulk 
• G«ii. Diet— Diet, Hilt.— MoKri.— Biog. Uwt. 


BILLBERG (John), a Swedish astrononQer^ was bora* 
about the middle of the seventeenth century* He becaoie 
professor of mathematics at Upsal in 1679, bat his zeal for 
the Cartesian system made him be considered as a dan- 
gerous innovator, and he might have been a serious sufferer 
from the prejudices raised against him, if he had not met 
with a kind protector in Charles XL This prince having 
travelled to Torneo, was so struck with the phenomena of 
the sun at the spring solstice, that be sent Billberg and 
Spola to make observations on it, in the frontiers of Lap- 
land, and their observations were coiifirmed by those of the 
French mathematicians .^nt thither by Louis XV. Under 
king Charles's protection, Billberg received considerable 
promotion, and having studied divinity, was at last made 
bishop of StrengneSk He died in 1717, leaving, 1« ^' Trac^ 
tatus de Cometis," Stockholm, 1682. H, *^ Elementa Geo> 
metrices,'' Upsal, 16b7. 3. '^ Tractatus de refiactione so* 
lis inoccidui," Stockholm, 1696. 4. << Traotatus de refor«« 
matione Calendarii Juliani et Gregoriani^** Hto^kholm;,1699, 
and many other philosophical and theological dissertatioas.^ 

BILLT, or BILLY (James de), was bom at Guise in 
Picardy, of which place his father was: governor, in 1535^ 
and died at Paris at the house of Genebrard his friend, 
^ the 25th x)f December 1 58 1. He presided over the abbey 
of St. Michel en PLerm, which John bis brother bad ceded 
to him in order to become a Carthusian monk. There are 
of his several pieces both in verse and prose ; and especially 
.translations of the Greek fathers into Latin. The most 
esteemed of them are, those of St. Gregory of Nazianzea^ 
of St. Isidore of Pelusium, and of St John Damascenus* 
Few of the learned have been more masters^ of the GredL 
tongue. He distinguished himself in other (ieptrtments of 
literature. He composed several pieces of 'French poetry, 
1576, in Svo, and published learned ^' Observatioues sa* 
crse,^' 1585, in folio. His life was written ia l^atin by 
Cbatard, I^ris, 1582, in 4to. It is also found at the end 
of the works of St. Gregory Nazianzeaus^ of the edition 
of 1583.* 

BILL! (Jacques de), a Jesuit, who was bom at Com* 
piegne in 1602, and died at Dijon in 1679, aged seventy^- 

seven ; published a great number of mathematical ivorks^ 

 ' • ' 

* Biog. UniTewelle. 


asa B I L L I. ^ 

Qf wfakih the '^ Opas aslrcmoimcony'* Paris, 1661, in Cto, 
is tbie most known. ^ 

. BILLINGSLEY (Sir Henry), an excellent mathema- 
tician, and lordrmayorof London in the reign of queen 
Elizabeth^ was son to Roger Billingsley of Canterbury. He 
spent near three years in his studies at the university of Ox- 
ford, during which time he contracted an acquaintance with 
an eminent matbemaitioian, whose name was Whitehead, and 
who had been an Augustin friar at Oxford, but Billingsley 
being removed from the university, and bound apprentice 
to an haberdasher in London, he afterwards raised himself 
80 considerable a fortune by trade^ that he was successively 
chosen sheriff, alderman, one of the commissioners of the 
customs for the port of London, and at last lord mayor of 
^at city in 1597, and received the honour of knighthood. 
He made a great progress in the mathematics, by the as<- 
distance of his fridnd Mr. Whitehead, who being left desti- 
tute upon the dissblution of the monasteries in the reign of 
king Henrj.rVUL' yvas received by Mr. Billingsley into his 
family, and infedtitakied by him in his old age in his house 
at London 4 and when he died, he gave our author all the 
inathematical' observations, which be had made and col- 
lectedj .with his notes upon Euclid^s Elements, which he 
had drawn upai&d digested with prodigious pains.' He was 
one of file original society of antiquaries. Sir Henry Billings- 
ley died very much advanced in years, Nov. 22, 1606, and 
was interred in: the church of St. Catherine Coleman, Lon*» 
don. H^ translatied the Elemenu of Euclid into English^ 
to which he added a great number of explanations, ex« 
amples, scholia," annotations, and inventions, collected from 
tbe best mathematicians both of the former times, and 
those in vfhicb: he lived, public^ed under the title of ^' The 
^Elements of :6eometry of the most antient philosopher 
Euclid, of Megara, faithfully. translated* hito the Engli}sh 
tongue, i Whereunto are added certain scholia, annota- 
tions," ' &c. Ltmdon, 1 570, fol. Dr. John Dee prefixed to 
this work a long pre&ce, full of variety of learning relating 
to the mathematics. ' 

» >BlLSON (Thomas), a learned writer, and bishop, in 
die*endof the sixteenth ^nd beginning of the seventeentli 
pentury, was bom. in the city of Winchester, being the soa 
of ]tlarman Bilson, the same probably who was fellow of 

' t M«f<ri, • Wood's Athen^i vol. I.«<-Geti, Z)ict.«-ArGhtMlogia, voV {. 2Q(, 

B I L S ON. 26S 


Biferton-college in 1536, and derived his descent by. his 
grandmother, or great-grandmother, from the duke of Ba^^' 
yaria* He was educated in Winchester school; and in 
1.565^ admitted perpetual fellow of New-college, after he 
bad served two yeai*s of probation. October 10, 1566, he 
took his degree of bachelor, and April 25, 1570, that of 
master of arts ; that of bachelor of divinity, June 24, 1579; 
and the degree of doctor of divinity on the 24th of Ja- 
nuary 1580. In his younger years, he was a great lover 
of, and extremely studious in, poetry, philosophy, and 
physic. But when he entered into holy orders, and ap* . 
plied himself to tbe study tof divinity, which his genius 
chiefly led him to, he became a most solid and constant 
preacher, and one of the most accomplished scholars of 
bis time. The first preferment be had was that of master 
of Winchester-school ; be was then made prebendary of 
Winchester, and afterwards warden of tbe college there. 
To this college he did a very important service, about the 
year 1584, by preserving thelrevenues of it when they were 
in danger of being swallowed up by a notorious forgery, ot 
wbichy however, we have only an obscure account. In 
1585, he published his book of ^^ The true difference 
betweehe Christian Subjection and unchristian Rebellion,*^ 
and dedicated it to queen Elizabeth ; a work, which, al^ 
though it might answer her immediate purpose, was of 
fetal tendency to Charles I. few books being more fre« 
queutly quoted by the mal-contents to justify their resist- 
ance to that prince. In 1593, he published a very able 
defence of episcopacy, entitled, " The perpetuall Govern- 
ment of Christes Church: wherein are handled, the fa- 
therly, superioritie which God first established in the pa- 
triarkes for the guiding of his Church, and after continued 
In the tribe of Levi and the Prophetes : and lastlie con- 
firmed in the New Testament to the apostles and their 
successors : as also the points in question at this day, 
touching the Jewish Synedrion : the true kingdome of 
Christ: the Apostles* commission: the laie presbyterie: 
the distinction of bishops from presbyters, and their sue? 
cession from the apostles times and hands : the calling and 
moderating of provinciall synods by primates and metro- 
politanes : the allotting of dioceses, and the popular elect- 
ing of «uch as must feede and watch the flock : and divers 
^other points concerning the pastoral regiment of the h6us6 
pf Cod." On the 20th of April^ 1596, he Wfts elected^ 

2«4 . B I L S O N. 

confirmed June the 11th, and the 13th of the same month 
consecrated bishop of Worcester ; and translated in May 
following to the bishopric of Winchester, and made a 
privy-courisellor. In 1599,' he published "The effect of 
certaine Sermons touching the full Redemption of Mankind 
by thexleath and bloud of Christ Jesus; wherein,*" besides 
the nierite of Christ's suffering, the manner of his offer- 
ing, the power of his death, the comfort of his crosse, the 
glorie of his resurrection, are handled, what paines Christ 
suffered in his soule on the crosse : together with the 
place and purpose of his descent to hel after death ;" &c. 
Lond. 4to, These serqions being preached at Paul's Cross 
in Lent 1597, by the encouragement of archbishop Whit- 
gift, greatly alarmed most of the Puritans, because they 
contradicted some of their tenets, but they are not now 
thought consonant to the articles of the church of Eng- 
land. The Puritans, however, uniting their forces, and 
ifiaking their observations, sent them to Henry Jacob, a 
learned puritan, who published them under his Own name. 
The queen being at Famham-castle, and, to use the bi- 
shop's words, " taking knowledge of the things questioned 
between him and his opponents, directly commianded him 
neither to desert the doctrine, nor to let the calling which 
he bore in the church of God, to be trampled under foot 
by such unquiet refusers of trueth and authoritie." Upon 
^this royal command, he wrote a learned treatise, chiefly 
delivered in sermons, which was pu*blished in 1604, under 
the title of " The survey^of Christ's sufferings for Man's 
Bedemption : and of his descent to hades or hel for our 
cleliverance," Lond. fol. He also preached the sermon at 
Westminster before king James I. and his queen, at their 
coronation on St. Jameses day, July 28, 1603, from Rom. 
xiii. 1. London, 1603, 8vo. In January 1603-4, he was 
one of the speakers and managers at the Hamipton-Court 
conference, in which he spoke much, and, according to 
Mr. Fuller, most learnedly, and, in general, was one of 
the chief maintainors and supports of the church of Eng- 
land. The care of revising, and putting the last hand to, 
the new translation of thq English Bible in king James Ist^s 
reign, was committed to our author, and to Dr. Miles 
Smith, afterwards bishop of Gloucester. His last public 
^ct, recorded in history, was the being one of the dele- 

fates that pronounced and signed the sentence pf divorce 
etween Aobert PevereuX| earl of £sseX| and the lady 

B I l! S O N. 265 

* ' • • 

Frances Hovmrd, in the year 1613: and H^c,son being' 
knighted soon after upon this very account, as ^as ima- 
gined, the world was so malicious as to give him the title, 
of sir Nullity Bilson. This learned bishop, aftefr having 
gone through many employments, departed this life oit 
the 18th of June, 1616, and was buried in Westniihster- 
abbey, near the entrance into St* Edmund*s chapel, oil the 
south side of the monument of king Richard II. His cha- 
racter is represented to the utmost advantage by several 
persons. Sir Anthony Weldon calls him " an excellent ci- 
vilian, and a very great schoUer :" Fuller, ** a deep and 
profound scholar, excellently well read in the fathers :'* 
Bishop Godwin, ** a very grave ndan ; and how great a di- 
vine (adds he), if any one knows not, let him consult his 
learned v^ritings :'* Sir John Harrington, ** I find but foure 
lines (in bishop Godwin's book) concerning him ; and if £ 
should give him his due, in proportion to the rest, I should 
spend foure leaves. Not that I need make him better 
known, being one of the most eminent of his ranck, and a 
man that carried prelature in his very aspect; His rising 
was meerly by his learning, as true prelates should rise. 
Smt non nwdo labe malt sed stcspicione carentes,' not onely 
fi-ee from the spot, but from the speech of corruption.** 
He wrote in a more elegant style, and in fuller and better- 
turnted periods, than was usual in the times wherein he lived. 
It is related of our prelate, that once, when he was preach? 
ing a sermon at St. Paul's Cross, a sudden panic, occa- 
sioned by the folly ar caprice of one of the audience, 
seized the multitude there assenpbled, who thought that 
the church was falling on their heads. The good bishop, 
who sympathized with the people more from pity than 
from fear, after a sufficient pause, reassumed and Went 
through his sermon with great composure. * 

BINGHAM (Joseph), the writer of several tracts on 
theological subjects, and author of that laborious perform- 
ance, " Otigines ecclesiasticae, or the Antiquities of the 
Christian church," was the son of Mr. Francis Bingham, a 
respectable inhabitant of Wakefield in Yorkshire, wherd 
our author was born in September, 1668. He learned the 
first rudiments of grammar at a school in the same town, 
and on the 26th of May 1684, was admitted a member of 

1 Gen. pict.— Bion;. BriU— ^itli. Ox. vol. I. — Harrington's Brief View, p« 71* 
— Grani^er. 



University college in Oxford. There he applied with per-, 
severing industry to those studies which are generally con- 
sidered as most laborious. Though he by no means neg- 
lected the writers of Greece or Rome, yet he employed 
most of his time in studying the writings of the fathers. 
How earnestly he devoted himself to these abstruse in* 
quiries, he had an early opportunity of giving an honour- 
able testimony, which will presently be mentioned more 
at large. He took the degree of B. A. in 1688, and on the 
1st of July 1689 was elected fellow of the above-men- 
tioned college. His election to this fellowship was attended 
with some flattering marks of honour and distinction*. On 
the 23d of June, 1691, he was created M. A. about four 
years after which a circumstance occurred which eventually 
occasioned him to leave the university. Being called on 
to preach before that learned body, he would not let slip 
the opportunity it gave him of evincing publicly his iuti- . 
mate acquaintance with the opinions and doctrines of the 
fathers, and at the same time.of displaying ^e zeal with 
which he was resolved to defend their tenets concerning 
the Trinity, in opposition to the attacks of men in much 
more conspicuous stations than himself. Having heard 
what he conceived to be a very erroneous statement of 
that subject delivered by a leading man from the pulpit 
at St. Mary's, he thought it his duty on this occasion to 
point out to his hearers what the fathers had asserted to he 
the ecclesiastical notion of the term person. In pursuance 
of this determination he delivered a very long discourse on 
the 28th of October, 1695, from the famous words of the 
apostle, ^' There are three that bear record in heaven, 
^&c.'' This sermon, though containing nothing more than 
an elaborate defence of the term person, in opposition to 
the explanation which he had lately heard, drew a heavy 
pensure on the preacher from the ruling members of the 
university, charging him with having asserted doctrines 
false, impious, and heretical, contrary to those of the ca- 

* In that f ituation lie paid particu- 
lar attention to the instruction of a 
joung nan whom he had brought from 
Wakefieldt and introduced at Univer- 
aity college ; and who, toon after Mr. 
'gingham's election to a fellowihip, 
was, by his means, elected scholar of 
the same college. This was Mr. John 
Totter, who afterwards became arch- 
bishop of Caalerbary. Mr. Potter's 

tutor happening to die when he was no 
more than two years standing in the 
untTersity, Mr. Bingham took his 
young friend and townsman under his 
wing; and to his having given some 
general dtrectioni to hia ttudies^ simi- 
lar to*hb own, it \% reasonable to sup- 
pose that we owe that excellent bopk^ 
** Pivtter on Chureb-govemment.'* 

tholic chufjcb.; This censure was fpllowed by other cba rgear 
in the public prints^ viz.. tbgise of Amnimiy Tritbeism , and 
liie bere^y of Valentious G^nitilis. These matters ran. ao 
high, that be fpund himself under the necessity of resign- 
iflg bis fellowfbipi and of. withdrawing .from the univer* 
sity; the former of which took place on the 23dofNo<« 
vem^pr. l6^5. How wholly, unmerited these accusations 
were,, pot only appears from tbe sermon itself, no.w in the 
possession of the writer of this article, but also from the 
whole tenor of bis life and writings, constantly shewing, 
himself in both a zealous defender of what is called the 
orthodox notion of the Trinity. However, that such a.cen* 
sure was passed, is most certain, as well from domestic tra* 
ditiou, as from the mention which is repeatedly made of 
it in the manuscript papers of our author ; but we are as- 
sured that no truces thereof are nqw to be found in the 
, books of the university. 

About this time our author was presented, without any 
solicitation on his part, by the famous Dr. Radcliffe, to the 
rectory of Headbourne«Wor^y, a living valued at that- 
time at about .one hundred pounds a year; situated near 
Winchester. Within a few months after his settling in this 
country, being called oa tq preach at a visitation held iu 
the cathedral of Winchester, On the 12th of May, 1696^ 
he seized that opportunity of pursuing the subject which 
be had begun at Oxford, and of exculpating himself from 
those, charges which. had been brought against him. How 
little. oui; divine had desierved those imputations in the opi*» 
nion of his brethren, before wbpm he. preached, may in 
some d^ree be judged from bis having beep, at no greater 
distance of time than the 16th of September, 1697, again 
appointed . to. preach before them on a similar occasion* 
£(e then brought tp a conclusion wbat he wished faither to 
say. on that sut^ect, his manner of treating which had ex* 
posed him t;» the censure of the. university : and having 
done so, he prepared to commit his three* sermons to the 
press. Why this intention was not fulfilled cannot be ga- 
thered froQpi any of his papers, though there exists among 
them a long preface to the sero^ou preached at Oxford^ 
explaining and justifying his, motives for having preached 
and published it; and a second preface annexed to the 
ifirst of those preached at Winton, in which be dedicates 
the two visitation sermons to the clergy of the deanery be- 
fore wbom th^y were delivered i wherein he tells them^ 


that be bas been induced to da so not only from the^sut^ 
jecl contained in them being sncb as wa» tbeir immediate 
concern^ but also that be might have an opportunity of 
giving a more full account of the motives and ciroam- 
stances which bad occasioned hii^ to write or to publish 
ibem. t 

The preface gives a very long and learned account of 
nrhat Mr. Bingham bad in bis sermons asserted concerning 
the opinions of the fathers. To follow or repeat bis ob^ 
aervations on this subject would lead us into matter too 
prolix for an article of biography. 

About six or seven years after our author bad taken up 
bis residence at Worthy, he married Dorothea, one of the 
daughters of the rev. Richard Pococke, at that time rector 
of Colmer in Hampshire. By this lady, before be had 
any other preferment than the small living above-men- 
tioned, he became the father of ten children ; yet neither* 
did he suffer the rapid increase of his family, nor the con- 
sequent narrowness of his finances, to depress bis spirits, 
or impede the progress of his studies. On the contrary, 
be appears to have applied to his literary pursuits with a 
clofiier and more persevering industry; and by those means, 
in the course of what cannot be considered as a long life, 
be was enabled to complete in this country retirement, 
besides several other single volumes, a most learned and 
laborious work, closely printed in ten volumes in octavo, 
under the title of ^* Origines Ecclesiasticie, or the Anti- 
quities of the Christian Cbtrrcb,*' the first volume of which 
he published in 17Q^. He committed the last volume to 
the press in 1722. Of the various difiicnittes with which 
our author liad to contend in the prosecution of his labours, 
he frequently speaks in such pointed terms as cannot but 
excite both our sympathy and regret. He tells us that he 
had to- struggle with an infirm and sickly constitution, and 
constantly laboured under the greatest disadvantages, for 
want of many necessary books, which he had no oppor- 
tunity to see, and no ability to purchase. At the same 
time he does not omit to express his gratitude to Provi- 
dence, which had so placed him, that he could have re-> 
course to a very excellent library, that of the cathedral 
ehurch of Winchester, left by bishop Morley ; though, even 
that was deficient in many works to which he had occasion 
to refer ; and yet when we turn to the Index auctorum at 
the end of his work, we shall perhaps be astonished at die 

B I l^G H A M. £69 

ttat number of books which he appears to have consulted; 
But to such straits was be driven for want of books, that 
be frequently procured imperfect copies at a cheap rate, 
and then employed a part of that time, of wbkh so small 
a portion was albtted him, and which therefore could so 
ill be spared, in the tedious task of transcribing the defi* 
cient pages; instances of which are still in being, and 
terve as memorials of his indefatigable industry on all oc« 

In 1712, sir Jonathan Trelawny, at that time bishop of 
Winchester, was pleased to collate our learned divine to 
the rectory of Havant, near Portsmouth, as a reward for 
his diligence ; which preferment, together with the sums 
he was daily receiving from the sale of his works, seemed 
in some measure to have removed the narrowness of his 
circumstances, and to promise a comfortable maintenance 
for his numerous family ; but this pleasing prospect shortly 
disappeared : he lost almost or. quite the whole of bis 
hardly earned gains in 1720, by the bursting of the well-- 
known Sooth Sea bubble* Yet such was the tranquillity 
of his disposition, that he continued his studies without 
intermission ahnost to the very end of his life ; for though 
but a few months elapsed between the publication of the 
last volume of Origines and his death, yet that short time 
was employed in preparing materials for other laborious 
works, and in making preparations for a new edition of 
Origines. With this view he inserted many manuscript 
observations, in a set of the Antiquities which he preserved 
for his own use, and which are now in the possession of 
the furnisher of this article. But from this and all other 
employments he was prevented by death. *His coustitu- 
tion, which was by nature extremely weak and delicate, 
could not be otluerwise than much impaired by so unre- 
mitted a course of laborious studies, in a life wholly se- 
dentary and recluse, which brought on at an early period 
. all the symptoms and infirmities of a very advanced age. 
The approach of his dissolution being clearly visible both 
to himself and friends, it was settled between the dien 
bishop of Winchester, Dr. Trimnell, and himself, that he 
should resign Havant to enable his lordship to appoint 
some friend of the family to hold it, till his eldest son, then 
about 20 years of age, could be collated to it. As this 
however was not carried into eKe<iution, it is probable tbat 
his death caj{»e oa njiore hastily itfek^n k^d been expected. 

270 B I N G H* A M. 

and prevented Dr. Trimuell from giving him what he fally 
intended, the first vacant prebend in Winchester. 

After a life thus spent in laborious pursuits, Mr. Bing- 
ham died on the 17th of August, 1723, it may truly be 
said of old age, though he was then only in his 55th year. 
His body was buried in the church-yard of Headbourne 
Worthy ; but, as he frequently expressed a dislike to mo-^ 
numents and pompous inscriptions, nothing of that sort 
was erected to his memory. 

At the time of his decease only six of his ten children, 
two sons and four daughters, were living ; these, with their 
widowed mother, were left in very contracted circum- 
stances. Mrs. Bingham was therefore induced to sell the 
copy-right of her late husband's writings to the booksellers, 
who immediately republished the whole of his works in two 
volumes in folio, without making any alterations whatso<> 
ever ; and though the eldest son undertook the office of 
'Correcting the press, he did not insert any of the manu-* 
-script additions which bis father had prepared ; as he was 
then* so very young, that he probably bad not had an op- 
portunity of examining his father's books and papers suf-^ 
ficiendy to discover that any such preparations for a new 
-edition had been made* Of the four daughters, one mar- 
ried a gentleman of Hampshire ; the other three died siu'- 
gle. The second son will be mentioned in the succeeding 
anicle. The widow died in a very advanced age, in bishop 
Warner's college for clergymen's widows, at Bromley, in 
Kent, in 1755. . 

Of such importance have the works of this eminent wri- 
ter been esteemed in foreign countries, that they have aH 
-been correctly translated into Latin by Grichow, a diving 
df Halle in Germany, 11 vols. 4to, 1724 — 38, and were 
reprinted in 1751 — 61. But he did not live to receive 
-this flattering mark of approbation, for he died in 172$. 
iHere it may not be amiss to observe how frequently it oc^ 
curs that the merits of an eminent ancestor derive honour 
<and emolument on their posterity. It is presumed that 
the character of the person whose life we have been writi- 
'ing, was the means of procuring the living of Havant fat 
bis eldest son, and the late learned and excellent bishop 
. of London, Dr. Lowth, expressly assigns that reason for 
bestowing a comfortable living on bis grand-son. . "I vene^ 
-rate (says he in a letter which convej^d the presentation) 
.the memory of your excellent grandfather, my father's par*- 


ticular and most intimate friend. He wa^ not rewarded 
a$ he ought to have hisen ; I therefore give you this living 
as a small recompense for his great and inestimable merits.'* 
We shall conclude this article by giving the general cha- 
racter of this divine : As a writer his learning was extensive 
and acute ; his style zealous and persuasive, and his ap- 
plication uncommonly persevering. His^ temper, on ail 
common and indifferent occasions, was mild and benevo- 
lent ; and to these he united great zeal in the cause in 
which he was engaged. Though his passions were so 
wholly subject to the guidance of religion and virtue, that 
no worldly losses were sufficient to discompose him, yet 
whenever he believed the important interests of the church 
to be in danger, he was always eager to step forth in its 

Besides what are mentioned above, Mr. Bingham wrote, 

1. " The French church's apology for the church of Eng- 
land ; or the objections of dissenters against the articles, 
homilies, liturgy, and canons of the English church, con- 
sidered, and answered upon the principles of the reformed 
church of France. A work chieSy extracted out of the 
authentic acts and decrees of the French national synods, 
and the most approved writers* of that church,'^ 1706, 8vo. 

2. ^' Scholastical history of the practice of the church in 
'reference to the administration of Baptism by Laymen, part 

I." 1712, 8vo. 3. ^' A. scholastical history of Lay-baptism^ 
part II. with some considerations on Dr. Brett's answer to 
the -first part," 8vo. To which is prefixed. The state of 
the present controversy : and at the end is an Appendix, 
containing some remarks on the author of the second part 
of Lay-baptism invalid. 4. " A discourse concerning the 
Mercy of God to Penitent Sinners : intended for the use of 
persons troubled in mind ; being a sermon on Psalm ciii. 
13." Printed singly at first, and reprinted among the 
'rest of his works, in 2 vols, folio, 1725.^ 

BINGHAM (Joseph), the second son of the eminent 
writer before mentioned, was the last of his numerous 
family, and consequently extremely young at the time of 
his father's death. Though he died in very early life, y^t 


^ Biog. Brit a very meagre article.— -Nichols'i Bowyer» vol. I. and from ma- 
ferial* communicated by the rer. Richard Bingham, B. A. minister of Oosport 
'cliapel, Hanti, and late fellow of New college, Oxford, great grandson of 
thii learned writer. 



dwrmg the short period of bis existence, he pursued bis 
j»tudi<es with such unremitting perseverance, and gave such 
early prpofis of genius and sound understanding, «nd so 
strongly evinced his determination to tread in the foot- 
steps of his father, as fully entitle him to a few lines from 
the pen of the biographer. This young man received his 
education on the foundation at the Charter-house, from 
wheuce he was at the usual age removed to Corpus college 
in Oxford. In the university he was a most exemplary and 
persevering student, and was preparing to give public 
proofs of his diligence, having actually printed every part, 
except the title-page and preface, of a very valuable edi- 
tion of the Theban story, which was completed and pub- 
lished after his death by, a gentleman, into whose hands his 
papers had fallen, as a security for a sum of money which 
t^ad been borrowed to facilitate the publication. Whilst 
lie was thus usefully employed, and just as he was on the 
point of being ordained, with every prospect of promotion 
from the patronage of archbishop Potter, he was suddenly 
brought to his grave, at the immature age of 22, by an ilU 
Tiess wholly occasioned by too sedentary a life, and too 
close an application to his studies. He lies buried in the 
cloisters of Corpus college, without either monument, in- 
scription, or stone Erected to his memory, though it might 
most truly be said of him, that he fell a martyr to applica- 
tion, industry, and learning. * 

BINGHAM (George), the sixth son of Richard Bing- 
ham, esq. and Philadelphia, daughter and heir of John Po- 
tinger, esq. by Philadelphia, daughter of sir Johu Erule, 
hart, chancellor of the exchequer, was born, in 171 5, at 
Melcomb Bingham, in the county of Dorset, where that 
antient and respected family have resided for many cen- 

Patronized by Mr. Potinger, his grandfather, who very 
early discovered his promising talents and amiable disposi* 
tion, he was at 12 years of age sent to the^ing^s college 
at Westminster ; and hy his unremitting industry so im- 
proved his abilities, that be vras elected, before he had 
reached his 1 7th year, student of Christ-church in Oxford. 
Being here valued on account of his literary attainments, 
and justly beloved for the urBanity of his manners, he was, 
within four years from his matriculation* elected fellow bf 

1 From the same iaformation. 


All Souls^ college, where be had an opportunity of cialti- 
Tating a sincere and unalterable friendship with many gen- 
tlemen of the most distinguished reputation ; and it has 
been justly remarked to his honour and credit, that he never 
made an acquaintance by whom he was not highly respect- 
edf or formed an intimacy that was not permanent. The 
late excellent judge, sir William Blackstone, who was his 
friend and contemporary, and whom he not a little assisted 
in his << Stemmata Chicheliana,'' well knew his worth, and 
kept up a correspondence with him, with a sincerity and 
fervour unaltered and undimTnished, to the last hour of hi& 
life. In 1745-6, when party ran high, and the Pretender 
had made incursions into England, he served the office of 
proctor in the university, and conducted himself in those 
troublesome times with a proper spirit and resolution, as 
became an upright magistrate and a good man. Being a 
few years after, on the death of the rev. Christopher Pitt, 
the excellent translator of Virgil's ^neid, presented by 
George Pitt, esq. (the late lord Rivers) to the rectory d( 
Pimpern, Dorset, he married a lady to whom he had been 
some time engaged, by whom he had thr^ee children, a 
daughter and two sons ; but his wife, whom he doated on 
with the tenderest affection, was, after the death of her 
youngest child, seized with an illness which terminated in 
a dropsy, and brought her to the grave in the 36th year of ^ 
her age. She was buried, in 1756, in the chancel of the 
parish-church of Pimpern. 

Being now a widower, he divided his time betweeh 
theological studies and the education of his children ; but 
having been presented by sir Gerard Napier to the living 
of More Critchil, he changed his residence from Pimpern 
to his new preferment, that he might by absence alleviate 
the severe stroke he had sustained, and might enjoy the 
acquaintance and friendship of his hospitable and worthy 
patron. Hh patron did not long survive, nor was he al- 
lotted to continue long in his new-chosen habitation ; for 
being seised with a violent ague and fever, from \i^ich he 
with the greatest difficulty recovered by the skill of his 
physician and strength of his constitution, he was obliged 
again to return to the rectory at Pimpern. 

His two sons were now entered on the foundation at the 
college near Winchester, and had both of them made such- 
rapid progress in their education, that they gave him every 
possible s^^tisfaction. The eldest was the senior scholar 

Vol. V. T 


at 16 years of age, and was certain of succeeding at tbe 
next election to that goal of Wiccamical hope, a fellowship 
of New college, in Oxford ; when, a few days prior to that 
ttra, as be was bathing in the navigable river Itchin, in a 
place well known to every Winchester boy by thenam^ of 
77ie Poty he was seized with a cranap within two yards of 
the shore, in the presence of more than 100 expert swim-^ 
jners, and his unfortunate younger brother, who was close 
to him at the moment, and sutik beneath the water never 
to appear again. His lifeless body was not found till half 
an hour had expired; All arts to re-animate him were tried 
in Vain ; and he was buried a few days after in the cloisters 
ef Winchester college, amidst the tears of his afflictedxrodi- 

Mr. Bingham was inconsolable at this event ; and Md 
most intimate friends observed, that it cast a gloom over 
his countenance during the remainder of his long life ; but 
60 silent is real sorrow, that he was never heard to men- 
tion his loss, nor was any account of it found among his 
papers, except an insertion in a Family Bible. 

When the author of the Antiquities of the County of 
Dorset first offered his labours to the public, Mr. Binghana, 
who was not ignorant how much care and study had been 
bestowed in collecting those valuable materials, gave him 
every assistance in his power. By examining with inde- 
fatigable attention the numerous Roman tumuli and cause- 
ways that abound in that country, and by a knowledge of 
many circumstances that had escaped the observation 
of others, he enriched the collection with a treasure of 
many curious accounts, and made no small addition to the 
numerous list of subscribers, by soliciting his friends in 
behalf of Mr. Hutchins. The author expressed his ac- 
knowledgments in niany private letters ; but Mr. Bingham 
-would never permit him to make known from what hand he 
received his communications, nor is the name of G. B. once 
mentioned in the work, except after the marvellous ac- 
count of Sadler^s prophecy, attested by Cuthbert Bound ; 
at the end of the first volume it is added, '^ this narrative 
.was communicated by the rev. G. Bingham, of Pimpern.'' 
The original paper, signed by C. Bound, which has been 
long preserved in the family, is now in the possession of 
the rev. P. Bingham, as aire also many observations, cor- 
rections, . et udditumentd, never yet publijsbed. 

Mr. Bingham died at Pimpern, beloved and regretted^ 

BINGHAM. , 275 

Oct 11) 1800, aged eighty *five» and was buried in the 
cbancei of Pimpem charch, where on a marble monument 
IS engraved a classical and characteristic epitaph by his 
son, the rev. Peregrine Bingham, rector of Radclive, Bucks^ 
- As an author, Mr. Bingham acquired a considerable 
share of fame in his life-time by bis *^ Vindication of the 
Poctrine and Liturgy pf the Church of England/' occa- 
sioned by Mr. Theophiluis Lindsay's Apology for quitting 
his living, 1774, 8vo ; and his essay on the ^^ Millenium,^' 
entitled *^ T« x«?^ ^ >" " Dissertationes Apocalyptlcse ;!* 
" Paul at Athens," an essay ; a " Commentary on Solo* 
mon's Song," and some sermons, all which were published 
by his son above-mentioned in 2 vols. 1804,. 8vo, with Me-« 
moirs of the author, in which it is said, that Mr. Bingham 
Ignited the profoundest erudition with the. most consum- 
mate piety,, and had a perfect knowledge of the Hebrew 
tongue, an intimate acquaintance with the earliest fathers 
of the church, .and an accurate' skill in classic literature^ 
and in history ancient and modern, sacred and profane* 
His opinions, however, on some points, differed much 
from those of his brethren ; particularly in contending 
that Mahomet and his religion are the sole objects of the 
prophecies of Daniel and St. John, which ^o many able di- 
vines have uniformly applied to papal Rome. Upon this 
account, when the Warburtonian lecture was offered him 
in 1781, he declined preaching it, because the object of the 
founder was to prove the truth of Christianity from the 
completion of the prophecies which relate to the Christian 
church, especially the apostacy of papal Rome. Mr. Bing- 
ham conceived that the church of Rome is a part, though a 
corrupt part, of the Christian church, and wnich, agreeing 
with us in fundamentals, may be still capable of reforma- 
tion. In his sentiments on the Millenium, he restricts that 
9taie to the enj.oyment of uninterrupted peace by the 
church for a determined time, and therefore neither ad- 
.jnits that the Millenium is already past, which Hammond 
and a few ^morethought, nor that it will be, what the ma- 
jority of writers have described, the literal reigning of 
the saints on earth, with Christ, for a thousand years. ^ 

BINI (Severin), in Latin BiNius, was born at Randel- 
raidt| in the country of Juliers, and became canon and 
professor of divinity at Cologn, where he died in 1641. 

> LH^ prefixed to hit Worki.— Gent. Maf* 1809» 1804. 

T 2 

276 B I N I. 

He is known, and not much to his credit, as the editor of 
a " Collection of the Councils," Cologne, 1606, 4 vols. fol. 
161S^ 9 vols, and Paris, 1636, 10 vols, with notes from 
Baronius, . Bellarmin, Suarez, &c. but he has taken so 
many liberties in capriciously altering these councils in 
many parts, that it becomes necessary to caution the reader 
against the purchase of his work. Usher calls him *^ Con- 
taminator Conciliorum.^* ^ 

BINNING (Hugh), a Scotch divine, was born in the 
shire of Air, 1627, and educated in the university of Glas* 
gow, where he took his degrees, and in his nineteenth 
year was appointed regent and professor of moral philoso- 
phy, and was among the first in Scotland that began to 
reform plrilosophy from the barbarous terms and jargon of 
the schoolmen. As a preacher his talents were extremely 
popular, and after he had preached some time as a proba-^ 
tioner, he was elected minister of Govan, near Glasgow. 
In his ministerial conduct and character few excelled bin), 
a^d the sweetness of his temper was such, that all seemed 
to know his worth but himself. At last his incessant la- 
bours brought on *a consumption, which put a period to 
his life at Govan, 1654, aged 29. He once had an inter- 
view with Cromwell when the latter was in Scotland, and 
had appointed a meeting of the presbyterians and inde- 
pendents to dispute before him. Mr. Binning was present 
on this occasion, and managed the cause of presbyterianism 
with so much skill as to puzzle Cromwell's independent 
ministers. After the dispute, Oliver asked the name of 
that ^Mearned and bold young man,^* and being told his 
name was Hugh Binning, he said, with a wretched play 
on words, " He hath bound well indeed, but," clapping his 
hand on his sword, ^^ this will loose all again.^^ His tracts, 
sermons, and commentaries on the epistle to the Romans, 
were published separately ; but they have .been since col- 
lected into one volume, 4to, and printed at Edinburgh, 

BJOERNSTAHL (James Jo^as), a Swedish traveller 
of considerable note, was born iii the province of Suder- 
mania, in 1731. After completing his studies at Upsal, he 
was engaged as tutor in the family of baron de Rudbeck, 
with whose son he travelled in England, France, Italy, 

1 Biog. UDiTerselle. — Moreri. — ^Foppen Bibl. Belg. who has the hnpudence 
to call Usher ''pseudla-archiepiscopus*" 
' * Biog. Scoticana. 

B J O E R N S T A H L. 917 

Germany, &c. During his residence at Paris, he appli^ 
himself eagerly to the study of the oriental languages, for 
which he had always had a strong predilection. On his 
return, Gustavus III. employed him on a voyage to Greece, 
Syria, and Egypt, and at the same time appointed him titu- 
lar professor of the university of Lunden. He departed 
accordingly in 1776 for Constantinople, where he remained 
some time to acquire the Turkish language ; and was af- 
terwards pursuing his journey, when he was seized with 
the plague, and died at Salonichi, or Salonica, July 13, 
1779. His letters, containing an account of his travel&f, 
were published in Swedish at Stockholm, 1778, 3 vols. 8vo. 
They contain many curious particulars respecting medals, 
manuscripts, scarce books, and some interesting anecdotes 
of Voltaire, whom he visited, yet he is accused of inac- 
curacy in many points; but it ought to be added, tbffct 
these letters were not intended for publication* * 


BION, a Greek philosopher, who flourished 300 B. C. 
was born at Borysthenes, a Greek towo on the borders oi 
the river of that name, now the Dneipen Of his family, 
he is said to have given the following account to king An« 
tigonus, who had heard something of his mean birth^ and 
thinking to embarrass him, demanded bis name, his .CQun« 
try, his origin^ &c. Bion, without being in the least dis-* 
concerted, answered, '^ My father was a freed-man, whbse 
employment was to sell salt-fish. He had been a Scythian, 
born on the banks of the Borysthenes. He got acquainted 
with my mother in a place of bad fame^ and there the 
couple celebrated their hopeful marriage. My father af« 
terwards committed some crime, with the precise nature of 
which I am unacquainted ; and for this, he, his wife, and 
his children, were exposed to sale. I was then a sprightly 
boy. An orator purchased me : and on his death, be- 
queathed to me all his effects. I instantly tore bis will, 
threw it into the fire, and went to Athens, wh'erel applied 
to the study of philosophy."' In this city he first attached 
himself to Crates, and became a cynic, and then embracied 
the opinions of Theodorus, the atheist, and Theophrastus, 
and at last becanae a philosopher in his own way, without 
belonging to any sect The name of philosopher, bow- 
ever, seems ill applied to him. He uttered, indeed| somQ 

. * Biog. UniTerif ne.-^axii OnQmaitioso. 

S78 B I O N. 

wise and moral sayings, but his general conduct was that 
of extreme profligacy. He died at Chalcis, and during h\» 
last illness, is said to have repented of his libertinism, for 
which he endeavoured to atone by superstitious obser- 
vances. He wrote copiously on the subject of morals, and 
•Stobeus has preserved a few fragments. * 

BIONDI (John Francis), was born in Liesena, an 
island in Dalmatia, in the Gulf of Venice, in 1572, and 
Was intrioduced by the celebrated sir Henry Wotton, the 
Embassador there, to the notice of king James I. He was 
by that prince sent with a secret commission to the duke of 
Savoy, and was afterwards made a gentleman of the bed- 
chamber, and received the honour of knighthood. His 
elegant ** History of the Civil Wars betwixt the houses of 
York and Lancaster,^' which was written in Italian, and 
translated into English by Henry Carey, earl of Mon-r 
mouth, gained him great reputation* It should be ob- 
served that, like other foreign writers of our English story, 
he has strangely disfigured the proper names. His history 
was first printed at Venice, 1637, 3 vols. 4to, and at Bo- 
logna in 1647. The English translation appeared in 1641. 
The subsequent troubles in England prevented him from 
continuing it as he intended. He also wrote some Italian 
romances. He married a sister of sir Theodore May erne, 
and went from England to the canton of Berne, where he 
died in 1644.* 


BIRAGO (Francis), an Italian author of great autho- 
rity in the science of which he may be said to have been 
profiessor,' that which the Italians call Scienza cavalleresca, 
which embraces all questions relative to nobility, the pro- 
fession of arms, the ancient customs of chivalry, and the 
laws of honour. He was born in 1562, of a noble Milanese 
family, and lived and wrote as late as the year 1637, but 
beyond that his history cannot be traced. Being the eld- 
est of six brothers, he assumed, in his writings, the title 
of signor Metono and Siciano, two fiefs belonging to his 
family in the territory of Pavia. From Crescenzi, a con- 
temporary, and author of a *^ treatise on the nobility of 
Italy," we learn that Birago was arbitrator of all chivalrous 
diaputes in Lombardy : and that in' all parts of Italy he 

1 Stanley <— Gen. Diet— Moreri.— -Fenelon*! Livei by Cormack. — Bracker. 
* Granj^r. — And Granger's Letters, ip. 41.-- Bio|;. UniT. — Walpole's R^yal 
and Kobie Authors^ in art. Henry earl of Monmouth. 

B 1 R A GO. 279 

was consulted as an oracle, and bis opinions were decisiye, 
tieing considered as a gentleman who united honourable 
spirit with high blood. He wrote several works on the 
subject, enumerated by Ginguen^, the principal of which 
were collected and published in one vol. 4to, under the 
title *^ Opere cavalleresche distinte in quattro libri, ciod 
in discorsi > consigli, libro I e II ; e decisioni,'.* Bologna^ 

BIRAGUE (Clement), an engraver on precious stones, 
was born at Milan, but exercised his art principally in 
Spain about the middle of the sixteenth century* He was 
the first who discovered a method of engraving on the 
diamond, which before was thought impenetrable by the 
graver. The first work he executed of this kind was a 
portrait of don Carlos the unfortunate son of Philip II. 
He ajso^ engraved, on diamond, the arms of Spain as a seal 
for that prince. ' 

BIRAGUE (Flaminio de), one of the king of France's 
gentlemen of the household, distinguished himself for his 
taste for French poetry, although an Italian by birth. He 
took Ronsard for his model, and copied at least his faults. 
His " Premieres oeuvres poetiques" were printed at Paris," 
in 1581 and 1385, 12mo, dedicated to his uncle Rene de 
Birague, cardinal and chancellor of France, They consist 
of a number of sonnets, and other minor pieces, addressed 
to a young lady, named Maria, for whom he professed a 
passion, but he regrets the time he has lost in that firuit* 
less pursuit. He wrote also, according to general opinion, 
a satire entitled, ** UEnfer de la mere Cardine, traitant 
de rhorrible bataille qui fut aux enfers, aux noces du por* 
tier Cerberus et de Cardine,"^ Paris, 1583, 8vo, and 1597, 
both editions very rare. In 1793, however, the elder Di- 
dot thought it worth while to print an elegant edition in 
8vo, of only one hundred copies, eight of which are on 
vellum. ' 

BIRCH (Thomas), a late valuable historical and bio- 
graphical writer, was born in the parish of St. John^s' 
Clerkenwell, on the 23d of November, 1705. His parents 
were both of them quakers, and his father, Joseph Birch, 
was a coffee-mill maker by trade. Mr. Joseph Birch en- 
deavoured to bring up his son Thomas to his own business ; 
but so ardent was the youth^s passion for reading, that he 

} JiogrUnJTWclk, » rti4» • Ibid, 


'solicited his father to be indulged in hi^ inclination, pro* 
mising, in that case, to provide for himself. The first 
school he went to was at Hemel-hempsted in Hertfordshire, 
kept by John Owen, a rigid quaker, for whom Mr. Birch 
afterwards officiated, some little while, as an usher, but at 
present he made very little progress. The next school in 
which he received his education was taught by one Welby, 
who lived near TurnbuU-street, Clerkenwell, a man who 
never had above eight or ten scholars at a time, whom he 
professed to instruct in the Latin tongue in the short space 
of a year ajid a half, and had great success with Mr. Birch, 
who afterwards lived with him as an usher; as he also after- 
wards was to Mr. Besse, . the £amous quaker in George's 
court near St. John's lane, who published the posthumous 
works of Claridge. It is farther said, that he went to 
Ireland with dean Smedley ; but in what year he passed 
over to that country, and how long he resided with the 
dean, cannot now be ascertained, in his removals as sea 
vsher, he always took care to get into a still better school, 
and where he might have the greatest opportunity of stu* 
dying the most valuable books, in which he was indefati- 
gable, and stole many hours from sleep to increase his 
stock of knowledge. By this unremitting diligence, though 
he had not the happiness of an university education, he 
sf}on became qualified to take holy orders in the church of 
England ; and as his early connections were of a different 
kind, his being ordained was a matter of no small surprise 
to his old acquaintance. In 1728, he married the daughter 
Qrf one Mr, Cox, a clergyman to whom he was afterwards 
cqrate ; and in this union he was singularly happy : but 
his felicity was of a short duration, .Mrs. Birch dying in 
le$s than twelve months after their marriage. The dis- 
order which carried her off was a consumption accelerated 
' by childbearing, and almost in the very article of her 
death she wrote to her husband the following: letter: 

•^ This day . I ret^^rn you, my dearest life, my sincere, 
hearty thanks for every favour bestowed X)n your most faith- 
ful and obedient wife, 

" July 31, 1729. Hannah Birch." 

How much Mr. Birch was affected by this calamity ap« 
pears from some verses written by him, August 3d, 1729, 
on his wife's coffin, and inserted in Mrs. Howe*s Miscel- 
laneous Works. That Mrs. Birch was a woman of very 
amiable accomplishments, is not only evident from the 

BIRCH. 281 

verses now meiitionecl^ bat from two* Latin epitaphs drawn 
up for her ; one by her hasband, and the other by Dr. Dale^ 
which last was translated into English by Mr. James Ralph* 
In both these epitaphs, she is celebrated as having pos- 
ses.sed an uncommon share of knowledge and taste, and 
many virtues. ' After this melaneholy event, he was or-« 
dained deacon by the bishop of Salisbury^ Dr. Hoadly, 
Jan. 17, 1730, and priest by the same prelate, Dec. 21, 1 73 1^ 
and at the same time was presented to the rectory of Sid«« 
dington St. Mary, and the vicarage of Siddington St. Peter, 
m Gloucestershire. He had been recommended, by a 
common friend, to the friendship and favour of the late 
lord high chancellor Hardwicke, then attorney-general ; 
to whom, and to the late earl of Hardwicke, he was in- 
debted for ail his preferments. The chancellor gave him 
the living of Ulting'in the county of Essex, to which be 
was instituted by Dn Gibson, bishop of London, on the 
20th of May, and he took possession of it on the day fol- 
lowing. In 1734, he was appointed one of the domestic 
chaplains to William earl of Kilmarnock, the unfortunate 
nobleman who was afterwards beheaded, on the 18th of 
August, !74'6, for having been engaged in the rebellion of 
1745. The earl of Kilmarnock was, we believe, in more 
early life, understood to be a whig ; and under no othet 
character could Mr. Birch have been introduced to his 
lordship's notice. On the 20th of February, 1734-5,' Mr* 
Birch had the honour of being chosen a member of the 
royal society, sir Hans Sloane taking a leading part in the 
election. The same honour was done him on the 1 1th of 
December 1735, by the society of antiquaries ; of which 
be afterwards became director. A few weeks before he 
was chosen into the latter, the Marischal college of Aberdeen 
had conferred on him, by diploma, the degree of master 
of arts. In the Spring of 1743, by the favour of bis noble ' 
patron before mentioned, he received a more substantial 
benefit ; being presented by the crown to the rectory of 
Landewy Welfrey in the county of Pembroke. To this 
benefice, which was a sinecure, he was instituted on the 
7th of May, by Dr. Edward Willes, bishop of St. David's. 
On the 24th of February, 1743-4, be was presented to the 
rectories of 8t. Michael, Wood- street, and St. Mary, Stain- 
ing, united. His next preferment was likewise in the city 
6t London ; being to the united rectories of St. Margaret 
Pattens, and St. Gabriel, Fenchurch-street, to which he 

^62 BIRCH. 

was presented iii the beginning of February, 174ir»6. In 
January, 1752, he was elected one of the secretaries of the 
royal society, in the room of Dr. Cromwell Mortimer, de- 
ceased. In Jsinuary 1753, the Mariscbal college of Ab^« 
deen created him doctor of divinity ; and in that year, the 
same honour was conferred on him by that excellent pre* 
late. Dr. Thonms Herring, archbishop of Canterbury. Our 
author was also a trustee of the British Museum. The last 
preferment given to Dr. Bifch, was the rectory of Depden 
in Essex ; for which he was indebted to the late earl of 
Hardvvicke. Depden itself, indeed, was in the patronage 
of Mr. Chiswell, and in the possession of the rev. Dr. Cock. 
But the benefice in lord Hardwicke's gift, being at too great 
a distance from town, to be legally held by Dr. Birch, he ob^ 
tained an exchange with Dr. Cock. Dr. Birch was instituted 
to Depden by the late eminent bishop Sherlock, on the 25tik 
of February 1761 ; and he continued possessed oi this pre* 
ferment, together with the united rectories of St. Margaret 
Pattens, and St. Gabriel, Fenchurch-street, till his decease. 
In 1765, he resigned his ofGce of secretary to the royal 
society, and was succeeded by Dr. Maty. Dr. Birch'» 
Iiealth declining about this time, he was ordered to ride for 
the recovery of it; but being a bad horseman, and going 
out, contrary to advice, on a frosty day, be was unfortu- 
ni&tely thrown from his horse, on the road betwixt London 
^nd Hampstead, and killed on the spot. Dr. William Wat-^ 
son, of Lincoln's Inn Fields, as soon as he heard of the 
accident of the &11, hastened to the relief of his friend, but 
in vain. It is uot known whether Dr. Birches fall might 
9ot have been occasioned by an apoplexy. This melan- 
choly event happened on the 9th of January 1766, in the 
61st year of his age, to the great regret of the doctor's 
numerous literary friends. Some days after hi^ death, he 
was buried in the chancel of his own church of St. Mar«> 
garet Pattens. Dr. Birch had, in his Ufe*time, been very 
generous to his relations ; and none that were near to him 
being living at his decease, he bequeathed his library of 
books and manuscripts, many of which are valuable, to 
the British Museum. He, likewise, left the remainder gf 
his fortune, which amounted to not much more than five 
hundred pounds, to be laid out in government securities, 
for the purpose of applying the interest to increase the 
stipend of the three assistant librarians. Thus manifesting 
at his death, as he had done during his whole Ilfei hia ^« 

B I R C H. Mi 

^ect for literature, and biis desire to promote useful knour* 

Having related the more personal and private circum- 
stances of Dr. Birch's history, we proceed to his various 
publications. The 6rst great work he engaged in, was 
^^ The General Dictionary, historical and critical ;'' wherein 
a new translation of. that of the celebrated Mr. Bayle was 
included ; and which was interspersed with several thou-* 
sand lives never before published. It was on the 29th of 
April, 1734, that Dr. Birch, in conjunction with the rev. 
Mr. John Peter Bernard, and Mr. John Lockman, agreed 
with the booksellers to carry on this important undertake 
ing; and Mr. George Sale was employed to draw up the 
articles relating to oriental history. The whole design 
was completed in ten volumes, folio; the first of which 
appeared in 1734, and the last in 1741. It is universally 
allowed, that this work contains a very extensive and use-> 
ful body of biographical knowledge. We are not told 
what were the particular articles written by Dr. Birch ; 
but there is no doubt of his having executed a great part 
of the dictionary: neither is it, we suppose, any dispa- 
ragement to his coadjutors, to say, that he was superior. 
to them in abilities and reputation, with the exception of 
Mr. George Sale, who was, without controversy, eminently^ 
qualified for the department he had undertaken. The 
next great design in which Dr. Birch engaged, was the. 
publication of " Thurloe's State Papers." This collection, 
which, comprised seven volumes in folio, came out in 1742. 
It is dedicated to the late lord chancellor Hardwicke, and 
'there is prefixed to it a life of Thurloe ; but. whether it 
was written or not by our author, does not appear. The 
same life had been separately published not long before. 
The letters and papers in this collection throw the greatest 
light on the period to which they relate, and are accom- 
panied with proper references, and a complete index to 
^acb volume, yet was a work by which the proprietors* 
were great losers. In 1744, Dr. Birch published, in octavo, 
a ** l^ife of the honourable Robert Boyle, esq ;" which 
hath since be^n prefixed to the quarto edition of the works 
of that philosopher. In the same year, our author began 
his assistance to Houbraken and Vertue, in their design of 
publishing, in folio, the ^^ Heads of illustrious persons of 
Great Britain," engraved by those two artists, but chiefly.* 
hy Mr. Houbraken. To each bead was annexed, by Dn 

284 BIRCH. 

Birch, the life and character of the person representecil. 
The first volume of this work, which came out in numbers, 
was completed in 1747, and the second in 1752. Our 
author's concern in this undertaking did not hinder bis 
prosecuting, at the same time, other historical disquisi- 
tions : for, in 1747, appeared, in octavo, *^ His inquiiy 
into the share which king Charles the First had in the 
transactions of the earl of Glamorgan.^' A second edition 
of the Inquiry was published in 1756, and it was a work 
that excited no small degree of attention. In 1751, Dn 
Birch was editor of the ^' Miscellaneous works of sir Wal- 
ter Raleigh ;'' to which was prefixed the life of that un- 
fortunate and injured man. Previously to this, Dr. Birch 
published ^^ An historical view of the negociations between 
the courts of Ed^land, France, and -Brussels, from 1592 
to 1617 ; extracted chiefly from the MS State Papers of 
sir Thomas Edmondes, knight, embassador in France, and 
at Brussels, and treasurer of the household to the kings 
James I. and Charles I. ^nd of Anthony Bacpn, esq. bro- 
ther to the lord chancellor Bacon. To which is added, a 
relation of the state of France, with the character of Henry 
IV. and the principal persons of that court, drawn up by 
sir George Carew, upon his return from his embassy there 
in 1609, and addressed to king James I. never before 
printed." This work, which consists of one volume, in 
octavo, appeared in 1749; and, in an introductory discourse 
to the honourable Philip Yorke, esq. (the late earl of 
Hardwicke), Dr. Birch makes some reflections on the uti- 
lity of deducing history from its only true and unerring 
sources, the original letters and papers of those eminent^ 
men, who were the principal actors in the administration 
of affairs ; after which he gives some account of the lives 
of sir Thomas Edmondes, sir George Carew, and Mr. An- 
thony Bacon. The " Historical View*' is undoubtedly a 
valuable performance, and hath brought to light a variety 
of particulars relative to the subjects and the period treated 
of, which before were either not at all, or not so fully 
known. In 1751, was published by our author, an edition, 
in two volumes, 8vo, of the " Theological, mora), dra- 
matic, and poetical works of Mrs. Catherine Cockburn;'' 
with an account of her life. In the next year came out 
his '* Life of the most reverend Dr. John TUlotson, lord 
archbishop of Canterbury. Compiled chiefly from his 
original papers and letters.'* A second edition^ corrected 

B I R C H. 235 

an3 enlarged, appeared in 1753. This work, which wa» 
dedicated to archbishop Herritig, is one of the most pleas- 
ing and popular of Dr. Birch's performances; apd he has 
done great justice to Dr. Tillotson's memory, character, 
and virtues. Our biographer hath likewise intermixed 
with his narrative of the good prelate's transactions, short 
accounts of the persons occasionally mentioned ; a method 
which he has pursued in some of his other publications. 
In 1753, he revised the quarto edition, in two volumes, of 
Milton's prose works, and added a new life of that great 
poet and writer. Dr. Birch gave to the world, in the fol- 
lowing year, his " Memoirs of the reign of queen Eliza-* 
beth, from the year 1581, till her death. In which the 
secret intrigues of her court, and the conduct of her fa-^ 
vourite, Robert earl of Essex, both at home and abroad, • 
are particularly illustrated. From the original papers of 
his intimate friend, Anthony Bacon, esq. and other manu- 
scripts never before published." These memoirs, which 
are inscribed to the earl of Hardwicke, give a minute ac- 
count of the letters and materials from which they are 
taken : and the whole work undoubtedly forms a very va- 
luable collection-; in which our author has shewn himself 
(as in his other writings) to be a faithful and accurate com- 
piler ; and in which, besides a full display of the temper 
and actions of the earl of Essex, much light is thrown oir 
the characters of the' Cecils, Bacons, and many eminent 
persons of that period. The book is now becoming scarce, 
and, as it may not speedily be republished, is rising in its 
value. This is the case, likewise, with regard to the edi- 
tion of sir Walter Raleigh's miscellaneous works. Dr. 
Birch's next publication was " The history of the Royal 
Society of London, for improving of natural knowledge, 
from its first rise. In which the most considerable of those 
papers, communicated to the society, which have hitherto 
not been published, are inserted in their proper order, as 
a supplement to the Philosophical Transactions." The 
two first volumes of this performance, which was dedicated 
to his late majesty, appeared in 1756, and the two other 
volumes in 1757. The history is carried on to the end of 
the year 1687 ; and if the work had been continued, and 
had been c<Miducted with the same extent and minuteness^ 
it would have been a very voluminous undertaking. But, 
thoagh it may, perhaps, be justly blamed in this respect, 
it certinnly contains many curious and entertaining anec* 



dotes concerning the manner of the society^s proceeding* 
at their first establisboient. It is enriched^ likewise, with 
a number of personal circumstances relative to the mem^ 
bersy and with biographical accounts of such of the knbre 
considerable of them as died in the course of each year* 
In 1760, came out, in one volume, 8vo, our author^s " Life 
of Henry prince of Wales, eldest son of king James I. 
Compiled chiefly from his own papers, and other manu- 
scripts^ never before published.*' It is dedicated to his 
present majesty, then prince of Wales. Some have ob- 
jected to this work, that it abounds too much with trifling 
details, and that Dr. Birch has not given sufficient scope 
to such reflections and disquisitions as arose from his sub- 
ject. It must, nevertheless, be acknowledged, that it af- 
fords a more exact and copious account than had hitherto 
appeared of a prince whose memory has always been re- 
markably popular; and that various facts, respecting se- 
veral . other eminent characters, are occasionally intro- 
duced» Another of his publications was, ^^ Letters, speeches^ 
charges, advices, &c. of Francis Bacon, lord viscount St. 
Alban, lord chancellor of England.'* This collection^ 
which is comprised in one volume, 8vo, and is dedicated 
to the honourable Charles Yorke, esq. appeared in 1763. 
It is taken from some papers which hsid been originally i^ 
the possession of Dr. Kawley, lord Bacon's chaplai% whose 
executor, Mr. John Rawley, having put them into the 
bands of Dr. Tenison, they were, at length, depointed in 
the manuscript library at Lambeth. Dr. Birch, speaking 
of these papers of lord Bacon, says, that it can scarcely 
be imagined, but that the bringing to light, from, obscurity 
and oblivion., the remains of so enmient a person, will be 
thought an acquisition not inferior to the discovery (if the 
ruins of Herculaneum should afford such a treasure) of -a 
new set of the epistles of Cicero, whom our immortal 
cpuntryman most remarkably resembled as an orator, a 
philosopher, a writer, a lawyer, and a statesman. Though 
this, perhaps, is speaking too highly of a collection, which 
contains many things in it seemingly not very material, it 
must, at the same time, be allowed, that nothing can be 
lot^lly uninteresting which relates, to so illustrious a man^ 
or tends, in any degree, to give a farther insight into bift 
character. To this catalogue we have still to add " Pro- 
fessor Qreaves's miscellaneous worj^s," 1737, in two vohk 
*VQ. Dn Cudworth's " Intellectual System/' (improved 

B I It C H. 2S7 

fieom the Latiit edition of Mdsheim;) his discourse on die 
true notion of the Lord's Supper, and two sermons^ with 
an account of his life and writings, 1743, in two vols. .4to. 
An edition of Spenser's " Fairy Queen," 1751, in three 
vols. 4to, with prints from designs by Kenu ^^ Letters 
between col. Robert Haoimond, governor of the Isle of 
Wight, and the committee of lords and commons at Derby- 
bouse, general Fairfax, lieut.-general Cromwell, commis- 
; ^>^y general Ireton, &c. relating to king Charles L whiJe 

I he was confined in Carisbrooke-castle in that island. Now 

first published. To which is prefixed a letter from John 
Ashbumham, esq. to a friend, concerning his deportment 
towards the king, in his attendance on his majesty at 
£[ampton«court, and in the Isle of Wight," 1764, Svo^ 
Dr. Birch's last essay, " The life of Dr. Ward," which 
was finished but a week before his death, was published 
by Dr. Maty, in 1766. 

Mr. Ayscough has Extracted, from a small pocket-book 
lielonging to Dr. Birch, the following memoranda of some 
pieces written by him, of which he was not before known 
to be the author. 1726, '^ A Latin translation of Hughes^s 
Ode to the Creator." 1727, " Verses on the General 
history of Printing ;" published in the General history of 
Frinting. Collections for Smedley's View, 1728, ** Abe- 
lard to Philotas." 1732, Began the General History. 1739, 
'^ Account of Alga," published in the Works of the Learned 
for July. ^^ Account of Milton," published in the Works 
of the Learned. 1741, Wrote the letter of Cleander to 
Smerdis, in the Athenian Letters. 1 742, Wrote an ac* 
count of Orr's sermon, in the Works of the Learned. 1 743, 
Wrote the preface to Boyle's works. 1760, By a letter 
from Dr. 3tonhotise, it appears that- Dr. Birch was the 
author of the Life df the rev. Mr. James Hervey, which is 
)>refixed to that gentleman's writings. He was employed, 
likewise, in correcting a great number of publications, 
and among the rest Murden's State Papers. At the time 
of the doctor's death, he had prepared for the press a coU 
lection of letters, to which he had given the title of *^ His* 
torical Letters, written in the reigns of Janaes I. and 
Charles I. containing a detail of the public transacticKis 
and events in Great Britain during that period ; with a va^p- 
tiety of particulars not mentioned by our historians. .Now 
first published from the originals in the British Museum, 
\ Paper-^office,, and private collections." These are all th^ 

separate publications, or intended works, of Dr. Birch that 

2&3 B IRC H. 

biav€ come to our.knowledge, excepting a Sermon on tbl» 
proof of the wisdom and goodness of God, from the fiame 
and constitution of man^ preached before tbe college of 
Physiciaiis, in 1749, in consequence of lady Sadlier'switL:- 
to which we may add/ that he revised new editions of Ba- 
con's» Boyle^s^ and Tillotson's works. The liv^es of Boyl^ 
and Tillotson, though printed by themselves, were dMR^n 
lip partly with a view to their being prefixed to these great 
fioen's .writifigs. It would swell this article-too much, weve- 
we to enter into a detail of our author^s comnmuications to 
the royal society, and of tbe papers transmitted by him to 
tbat illustrious body. Whoever looks into his history of 
the early proceedings of the society, will have no doubt of 
the assiduity and diligence with which he discharged his 
peculiar duty as secretary. But there is nothing which 
'Sets Dr* Birches industry in a more striking light than the 
vast number of transcripts which he made with hisown 
hands. Among these, not to mention many other instan- 
ces, there are no less than sixteen volumes in quarto, of 
Anthony Bacon's papers, transcribed from the Lambeth 
libi^a^ry and other collections ; and eight mone Volumes 
of the saqote size, relative to history and literature. Our 
author's correspondence, by lett/rs, was, likewise, ^ry 
large and extensive ; of which numerous proofs occur in ^ 
the British Museum. What enabled Dr. Birch to go 
through such a variety of undertakings, was his bein^k 
very early riser. By this method, he had executed th^ 
business of the morning before numbers of people had be^ 
gufi it : and, indeed, it is the peculiar advantage of rising 
betimes, tbat it is not in the power of any interruptions, - 
avocations, or etigagements whatever, to derive a maii of 
the hours which have already been well employed, or to - 
rob him of the consolation of reflecting, that he hatb not 
speqt the day in vain. With all this closeness of applica- 
tion. Dr. Birch was not a solitary recluse. He was of a cbeer- 
ful: and social temper, and entered much into conversation ' 
with the wojid. He was personally connected with most of 
theliterary men of his time, and with some of them he maiif- 
tained an intimate friendship, such as sir Hans Sloane, J^t. 
Mead, Dt4 Salter, Mr. Jortin, and Dr* Maty ; DanfielWriiy, 
esq. Dr. Morton,'Dr. Ducaml, Dr. William Wal<ion, &c. &c. 
'*Wnh r^ard to^the great, though perhaps he stood w^U with 
mutj di ybem^ his chief' connection was with the earls of ' 
Hasrdwiekei, ^nd with the rest of Ihe bnmohes of that* noble 

BIRCH. 289 

mncl respectable family. No one was more ready than Dr. 
Birch to assist his fellow^ creatures, or entered more ardently 
imo useful and laudable undertakings. He was particularly 
active in the Society for promoting literature by the printing 
of books, to which we are indebted for the publication of 
Tanner^s Bibliotheca Britannico-Hibernica, and some few 
other valuable works. In short, Dr. Birch was entitled to 
that highest praise, of being a good man, as well as a man of 
knowledge and learning. His sentiments with respect to 
subjects of divinity resembled those of bishop Hoadiy. 

We have seen that it has been objected to Dr. Birch, 
that be was sometimes too minute in his publications, and 
that he did not always exercise, with due severity, the 
power of selection. The charge must be confessed not to 
be totally groundless. But it may be alleged in our- au- 
thorns favour, that a man who has a deep and extensive ac- 
quintance with a subject, often sees a connection and im- 
])ortance in some , smaller circumstances, which may not 
immediately be discerned by others ; and, on. that account, 
may have reasons for inserting them, that will escape the 
notice of superficial minds. The same circumstance is' no- 
ticed in the following character of Dr. Birch by oneof oiir 
predecessors in this Dictionary, Dr. Heathcote, who knew 
Br. Birch well, and consorted with him, for the last thir- 
teen years of his life. Dr. Heathcote ^^ believes him to 
have been an honest, humane, and generous man ; warm 
and zealous in his attachments to persons and principle, 
but of universal benevolence, and ever ready to promote 
the happiness of all men. He was cheerful, lively, and. 
spirited^ in the highest degree ; and, notwithstanding the 
labours and drudgery he went through in his historical pur- 
suits, no. man mixed more in company ; but he was a very 
early riser, and thus had done the business of a morning be-* 
fore others had begun it. He was not a man of learning, 

Eroperly 90 called ; he understood the Latin and French 
mguages, not critically, but very well ; of . the Greek be 
knew veiy little. He was, however, a man of great general 
knowledge, and excelled particularly in modern history. 
As a collector and compiler, he was in the tnain judicious 
in the choice of his materials; but was sometimes too 
minute in uninteresting details* and did not always exer- 
cise, with due severity, the power of selection. He had 
a. favourite position, that we could not be possessed of too 
flflf&ny facts ; and he never departed from it, though it waA 

290 • BIRCH. 

often urg^d to him, that facts, ivhich admit of no reason- 
ing, and tend to no edification, which can only serve to 
encumber, and, as it were, smother useful intelligencei 
had better be consigned to oblivion, than recorded. And 
indeed, iii this very way of biographical compilation, we' 
have always been of opinion, that, if it were less fashion- 
able to relate particulars of every man, which are common 
to almost all men, we should be equally knowing, ahd our 
libraries would be by far less crowded. In his manners, 
Dr. Birch was simple and unaffected; very communicative, 
aiid forward to assist in any useful undertaking ; and of a 
spirit perfectly disinterested, and (as his friends used to 
tell him) too inattentive to his own emolument.'^ ^ 

BIRCHINGTON (Stephen), or Bryckinton, or Brick- 
^ INGTON, SO called from Birchington, in the isle of Tbanet, 
where he was born, was a Benedictine monk^ belonging 
to the church of Canterbury, into which order he entered 
about the year 1382. He wrote a history of the arch- 
bishops of Canterbury to the year 1368, which forms the 
first article in the first volume of .Wharton's Anglia Sacra, 
who copied it from the MS. in the Lambeth library* 
Other historical MSS. in the same library are attributed to 
him, hot remain unpublished. He is supposed to have 
died in 1407.' 

BIRCRBEK (Simon), an English divine of theseven-^ 
teeoth century, was born in 1584:, and in 1600 became a 
student in Queen's college, Oxford, where he took bia 
master's degree, and obtained a fellowship. In 1607 he 
went into holy orders, and acquired much reputation for 
his preaching, and among the learned, for his ayqoaint-i* 
ance with the fathers and schoolmen.. In 1616 he was ad« 
mitted to the reading of the sentences, and the year fel* 
lowing became vicar of the church of Gilltng, and the 
chapel of Forcet, near Richmond, in Yorkshire, where he 
increased his popularity by his punctual discharge of the 
pastoral office, and by his exemplary life. During the 
usurpation he was not ejected from Uiis living, and died 
Sept. 16561 His principal work, which was highly valued 
by Selden ind other learned men, is entitled ** The Pro-* 

testant's etidence, db^ing that for 1500 years next after 


* Biog. Brit and eorrectioQt prefixed to tbe subsequent ▼olumes.-^NichoU's 

f vnmftiom'9 AagUa Sscm, vol. I. Pr«t p. xbt. «*T«iiwr.<— FabrtcU BttU. 



B 1 R C K B E I^. 29A 


Christy divers guides of God^s church htxe in sQtidiy 
points of religion taught as the church of England now 
doth/' London^ 1634, 4to, and in 1657, folio, much eii# 
larged. Some histories of the church, particularly that of 
Milner, seem to be written on this pian. ^ 

BIRD (WiLUAM), s^n eminent musician and Composer, 
was one of the children of the chapel in the reign of Ed^ 
Ws^rd VI. and, as asserted by Wood in the Ashmolean 
MS. was bred up under Tallis. It appears, that in 1375 
Tallis and Bird were both gentlemen and also organists of 
the royal chapel ; but the time of their appointment tp 
this 'latter oi&ce cannot now be ascertained with any exact- 
ness* The compositions of Bird are many and various ; 
tho^e of his. younger years were mostly for the service of 
the church. He composed a work entitled '^ l^acrarum 
C^tlonumy quinque vocum, printed in 1589; among, 
which is that noble composition '^ Civitas sancti tui,^' which 
for many years past has been sung in the church as an 
anthem, to the words ''Bow thine ear, O Lord!'* tie was 
also the author of a work entitled '' Gradualia^ ae Can- 
tiones sacras, quinis, quaternis, trinisque vocibus concin- 
natae, lib. pcimus.'' pf this there are two editions, the 
latter published in 16 IQ. Although it appears by these 
works, that Bird was in the strictest sense a church 
musician, he occasionally gave to the world compositions 
of a secular kind ; and he seems to b^ the first among: 
English musicians that ever mad6 an essay in the compo- 
sition of that elegant species of vocal harmony, the ma* 
drigal ; the '' La Verginella*' of Ariosto^ which he set in 
that form for five voices, being the most ancient musical 
composition of the kind to be met with in the works of 
English authors. Of his compositious for private enter* 
tainment, there are extant, '' Songs of sundry natures, 
some of gravitie, and others of myrth, fit for all compianies 
and voyces, printed in 1589;' and two other collections 
of the same kind, the last of them printed in 1611. But 
the most permanent memorials of Bird's excellences are 
hia mpt^ts and anthems; to which may be added , a fine 
service in the key. of D with the mmor third, the first 
composition in Dr. Boycei's Cathedral Music, vol. III. 
and that welKknown canon of his, " Non nobis, Domine." 
Besides his salaries and other emoluments of his profession, 

I Wood»s Ath. vol. II. 
U 2 . 

299 BIRD., 

it is to be supposed tiiat Bird derived sojnae advantsges 
from the patent granted by queen Elizabeth to Taiiis and 
him, for the sole. printing of music and music-paper; Dr. 
Ward speaks of a book which be had seen with the letters 
T. E., for Thomas East, Est, or Este, who printed music 
under that patent. Tallis dying in 1 585, the patent, by 
-the terms of it, survived to Bird, who, no doubt for a va- 
luable consideration, permitted East to exercise the rig^ 
of printingvunder the protection of it ; and he in the titl€|<- 
page of most of bis publications styles himself the ^^-as^ 
sigiiee of William Bird.'* Bird di^d in 1623, * 
. BIRINGUCCIO (Vanocci), an Italian mathematician^ 
was bom at Sienna about the end of the fifteenth century, 
and died about the middle of the sixteenth. After bavit^ 
served in tl^ wars under the dukes of Parma and Ferrarjiy 
and the republic of Venice, he employed himself in stu- 
dying the art of fusing and casting metal for cannon^ and 
imprioviJDg the qqality of gunpowder. He was the first of 
. bis nation who wrote, upon these subjects. The work in 
which be laid down his . experience and practice, was en- 
titled '< Pirotecnia, nella quale si tratta non sole della di- 
^versita delle .miners, 'ma anco di quanto si . ricerca alia 
.pr^ktica di esse^ e che s'appartienne alParte della fusione 
o getto de' luet^Ui,^' Venice, 1540, 4to, often reprinted 
and translated. • 

BIRINUS (Sj.j a priest of , Rome, who in the year 634 
obtained leave of pope Honorius to pleach the gospel ^ 
the idolaters in- Britain, at which, the pope was so much 
pleased, that he caused him to be. ordained bishop. This 
missionary landing in the kingdom of the West Saxons, 
with .many others baptised king Cynegilsus, who began ^ 
reign in. the year 611, and filled the throne thirty-one 
years. St Birinus fixed his see at Dercis, now Dorches- 
ter, in Oxfordshire, in the windows of which beautiful 
cburch are still some remains of painting relative to tb/e 
history of his mission. He built and consecrated many 
churches, and had great success in converting the natives, 
until bis death, about the year 650. November 29 is his 
day in !tiie calendar. ^ He was first buried at Dorchester, 
but bis ijeimains were afterwards translated to Winchester^' 

1 liiwkios's Hist, of MJMtc— Barney's Ditto. 

• Biog. Uni^erselle. 

9 Tanner.— 'Bvtler'8 lares of the Saints.— Neve's Fasti Anfl. p. 137, ^3. 

B I R K E'K HEAD. 393 

BIRKENHEAD or BERKENHEA© (Siu John), a pa^ 
liticai author in the s^^vente^nth (5eiitury, was the son of 
Richard Birkenhead, of Northwych^ in the ''county of 
-Cheshire, an honest saddler, who, if some authors may. de- 
serve credit, kept also a little ale-house. Our author was 
born about r6l5, and having recefived some tinctttre:.of 
learning in the common grammar-schools, came to 03c^ 
ford, and was entered in 1632, a servitor of Oriel college, 
under the tuition of the learned Dr. Humphrey Lloyd, af- 
terwards bishop of Bangor. Dr. Lloyd recommended hioi 
to Laud, archbishop of Canterbury, as his* amanuensis, 
and in that capacity he discovered such talents, that the 
archbishop, by his diploma, created him A. M. in 1639, 
and the year following, by letter commendatory from the 
same great prelate, he was chosen probationary fellow of 
AlUsouls college. This preferment brought him to reside 
constantly in Oxford, and on king Charles L making that 
city his head-quarters during the civil war, our author was 
employed to write a kind of journal in support of the royal 
cause, by which he gained great reputation ; and bis ma- 
jesty recommended him to be chosen reader in moral phi- 
losophy, which employment he enjoyed, though with very 
small profit, till 1648, when he was expelled by the par- 
liament visitors. He retired afterwards to London, where 
adhering steadily to his principles, he acquired, among 
those of his own sentiments, the title of *^ The Loyal 
Poet,^' and suffered, from such as had then the power in 
their hands, several imprisonments, which served only to 
sharpen his wit, without abating his coun^e. He pub- 
lished, while he thus lived in obscurity, and, as Wood says, 
by his wits, some very tart performances, which were then 
very highly relished, and are still admired by the curious. 
These were, like^fais former productions, levelled against 
the republican teaders, and were written with the same 
vindictive poignancy that was then fashionable. Upon the 
restoration of king Charles H. he was created April 6, 
166 1, on the king's letters sent tor that purpose, D. C. L. 
by the university of Oxford; and in that quality was one, 
of the eminent civilians consulted by the convocation on 
kbe question ^ Whether bishops ought to be present in 
capiul cases*?*' and with tiie rest, Feb. 2, 1661-2, gave 
it under his hand, they ought and might. He was, about 
the same time, elected a burgess, to serve in parliament 
for Wilton, in the county of Wilts, and continuing bis 


services to bi^ master, wasbyhikn promoted, oii the first 
Vapancy, to some office at court, which he quittedt after* 
wards, and became master in the Faculty office* He was 
knighted November 14, 1662, and upon sir Richard Fan^ 
sb&v^'s going with a public diaracter to the court of Ma-c 
drid, sir John Birkenhead succeeded him as master of re* 
quests. He w^ also elected a member of the royal so4 
ciety, an honour at that time conferred on none who were 
not well known in the republic of letters, as men capable 
of promoting tt^e trtily noble designs of that learned bodyi: 
He lived afterwards in credit and esteem with men of wit 
and learning, and received various favours from the court, 
;.n consideration of the past, and to instigate him to othei^ 
sei'vices ; which, however, drew upon him some very se- 
vere attacks from those who opposed the court. Anthony 
Wood has preserved some of their coarsest imputations, 
fbr what reason is not very obvious, as Wood is in general 
very partial to the loyalist writers. He died in West* 
Hdinster, December 4, 1679, and was interred at St. Mar- 
tin's in the Fields, leaving' to his executors, sir Richard 
Mason, and sir. Muddiford Battiston, a large and curious 
oollection of pamphlets on all subjects. 

Sir John's newspaper which he wrote at Oxford, was 
entitled ^^ Mercurius Aulicus, communicating the intelli* 
gence and afFairs.of the court to the rest of the kingdom;** 
It wa^ printed weekly in one sheet, and sometimes more, 
in 4to ; and was chiefly calculated to raise the reputation 
of the Ring's friends and commanders, and ridicule those 
who sided with the parliament. They came out regularly 
from the beginning of 1642, to the latter end of 1645, 
and afterwards, occasionally. When Birkenhead was 
otherwise engaged. Dr. Peter Heylyn, supplied his place, 
but was not thought so capable of that species of writing, 
as he did not excel in popular wit, which is necessary to 
render such kind of pieces acceptable to the pubKc. The 
parliaihent thought fit to oppose this court •journal by ano* 
ther on their side of the question, under the title of ^' Met* 
curius Britannicus," written by Marchmont Nedham, to 
whom the royalists gave the name of '^ fouUmouthed 
' Nedham ;" who, finding himself somewhat unequal to tb^e 
Oxford writer, thought fit to ascribe the '* Mercurius Auf 
licus" to several persons, that his deficiency might do the 
less prejudice to his party. Jacob blunderingly calls the 
*^ Mercurius Aulicus," a poem. Sir John's other satirical 


WQtkj^wet^i 1> << The As^emblj^mao/* written m 1647^ 
but printed, as Wood tells us, 1662t3. 2. *' News from 
Pembroke and Montgomery ; or^ Oxford Manchestened/' 
&c.. ,164». 3. " St. Paul's church-yard ; libri theologi'qi, 
pplitici, bistorici, nundinis Paulinis (una cum templo) pror 
stant v^nales, &9." printed in three sheets, 1649, 4to* 
These sheets were published separately, as if. they bad 
been pe^rts of one general catalogue. An account of them 
is in tbe Cens. Lit. vol. IV. 4. ^^ The four-legged Quaker, 
a ballsid, I^Qi tbe tune of tbe dog and elder's maid," 5. ^^ A 
new ballad of a famous German prince, without date,'' &Ck 

. Our author has also several verses and translations ex- 
tant, set lo music by Mr. Henry Law^s ; as particularly 
Anacrepn's ode, called the Lute, translated from the 
Greek, and to he sung by a bass alone ; and an Anniver- 
sary on tbe nuptials of John earl of Bridgwater, 22d July, 
1662. He wrote, likewise, a poem on his staying in Lon- 
don after the Act of Banishment for cavaliers ; and another 
called tbe Jolt, made upon Cromwell the protector's being 
thrown out^ of his coacb-biox in Hyde*Park. He published 
Mr. IKobert Waring's <' Effigies Anioris, sive quid sit 
Amor efflagitanti responsum," London, 1649, 12mo, from 
the origim?, at the author's desire, who was willing to bd 
coqceiJed. The third edition was published after the 
f^toration,. by William Griffith, of Oxford, with an 
epistle )>efore it, written by him to sir John Birkenhead ; 
wherein he gives the character of that gentleman, as well 
^ of tbe author. This was the same piece afterwards 
tran^ated into English by the famous Mr. I^orris of Be- 
merton, and published under th^ title Qf '* The Picture of 
Love unveiled*'* We meet also with several copies of 
Tc^es written by this gentleman, and prefixed to the works 
of the most eminent wits^ and greatest poets of hi^time; 
but satire was his principal excellence, and in genuine 
powers of ridieule be had no superior, at a time when 
those powers were called forth, and well rewarded by both 
parties. ' 

BIRKHEAD (HBNav), a modem Latin poet, was born 

in 1617, near St« Paul's cathedral, in London, and after 

^^^having been educated under the famous Farnaby, was en* 

tered a commoner at Trinity coll€^;e, Oxford, in 1632ft; 

} Bk>g. Brit— CibWs Uvef .— AUi Ox. vol. II.«»-Geiif tm literariay toL IV. 
—Wood's Aanals. 

we B I R K tt E A p. 

admitted scholar th^e. May 28^ 1635, and soon after wai 
seduced to become a member of the college of Jesuits, at 
St. Omer's. He sood, however» returned to the cliurch 
of England) and by the patronage of archbishop Laiidf 
was elected fellow of AJl Souls, in 16^8) being then ba* 
cbelor of arts, and esteemed a good philologist He pro«^ 
ceeded in that faculty^ was made senior of the act cele- 
brated in 1641, and entered on the law faculty. He kept 
bis fellowship during the usurpation, but resigned it after 
the restoration, when he became registrar of the diocr se 
of Norwich. This too -he resigned in 1684, and resided^ 
first in the Middle Temple, and then in other places, in 
a retired condition for many years. The time of bis death 
is not mentioned ; but in the title of Trapp's ^^ Lectures 
on Poetry,'' Henry Birkhead, LL.D. some time fellow of 
All Souls college, is styled ^^ Founder of the poetical lec^ 
tures,*' the date of which foundation is 1707. He wrote r 
i,. '^ Poemata in Elegiaca, lambica, Polymetra, &c. mem* 
branatim quadripartita," 1656, 8vo. 2* ^' Otium Lite- 
rarium, sive miscellanea qusedam Poemata," 1656, 8vo. 
He also published in 4to, with a preface, some of the phi- 
lological works of bis intimate friend Henry Jacob, who 
bad the honour of teaching Seldeti the Hebtew language i 
and. he wrote several Latin elegies on the loyalists vdia 
suffered in the cause of Charles I. which are scattered in 
various printed books, and many of them subscribed H. G} 
BI8CIONI (Anthony Maria), a celebrated Italian 
scholar of the last century, was born at Florence, Aug. 14, 
1674. After finishing his studies, ^he taught a school, 
which produced Bottari, the prelate, and some other 
eminent men. The grand duke Cosmo III. having given 
him some benefices, be took priest's orders, and the de» 
gree of doctor in the university of Florence, and spent se«- 
yeral years in preaching, particularly in the cathedral 
church of St Laurence. The cliApter, in 17 IS, appointed 
him keeper of the Mediceo-^Laurentian library, and i6 thtti 
office be was re-elected in 17^^, 1729, and 1739, but he 
could not, with all his endeavours, prevail on l^e chapter to 
grant it him for life. While here, however, be began a 
new course of studies, . learned Greek, Hebrew^ and other 
oriental languages, and applied himself particiitarly to the 
Tuscan : here also he found a very useful patron in Nicolas 

» Ath. Ox. vol. IL^Biog. Brit, yol VH. p. 174, 

B r a c I o N I. i9T 

iy a xery opulent Florentine noblemaii, who re^ 
eeived him into bis house, where he remained eleven years, 
and made him his children's tutor^ his librarian^ secretary^ 
archivist, &c. and amply rewarded him for his services in 
all these departments. He wa9 also appointed apostolic 
prothonotary, synodal examiner at Florence and Fiesola, 
and reviser of cases of conscience in these dioceses. At 
length, in 1741, the grand dulce of his own accord made 
him royal librarian of the Laurentian library, and in 1745, 
gave him a canonry of ^t. Laurence, In his place as 
librarian, he was of essential service to men of letters, and 
was engaged in many literary undertakings which were 
interrupted -^by his death. May 4, 1754, He left a very 
capital collection of rare editions and manuscripts, which 
the grand duhe purchased and divided between the Lau«' 
rentian and Magliabechian libraries. Biscioni during his 
life-time was a man of great reputation, and many writers 
have spoken highly in bis praise. He published very litde 
that could be called original, his writings consisting prin- 
cipally of the notes, commentaries, prefaces, letters, and 
dissertations,, with which he enriched the works of others i 
such a^ the preface and notes to his edition of the ** Prose 
di Dante Alighieri e di Gio. Boccaccio,'*' Florence', 1713 
•-^l'72S| 4tn ; his notes on ^* Menzini's Satires ;** his pre* 
face and notes on the ** Riposo'' of Raphael Borghini,^ 
Florence, 1730, 4to, &c. &c. The only work he published* 
not of this description, was a vindication of the first edition 
of the ^^ Cantt Carnascialeschi,'' against a reprint^of that 
work by theabb^ Bracci, entitled '^ Parere sopra la secon- 
da edizione de' Canti Carnascialeschi e in difesa della 
prima edizione,'* &c. Florence, 1750, 8vo. He had begun 
the catalogue of the Mediceo-Laurentian library, of which 
the first volume, containing the oriental manuscripts, was* 
magnificentiy printed at Florence, 1752, ibiio, and the rest 
continued by the canon Giulanelli, many years after, who 
added the Greek MS8. Biscioni left many notes, critical 
remarks, &c. on books, a history of the Panciatichi family* 
and of his own family, and soipne satires on those who had 
so long, prevented him from being perpetual keeper of the 
Laurentian library, an injury he seems never to have for« 

1 Biof. Ubircitclk.— MfnacheUL 

298 B I SIC O B. 


Bl8CO!i (RiCflAiiD), an Englisb dMntf ^proMAyAit 
flfofi or gmndsoit of tb^ rev. John Biscoe of New Inn haU, 
Oxford, « noncenfonnis^ was himself educated at a dis* 
sentHig academy kept by I>r. 'Benion . at ShrewsbiHy, and 
was ordained a dissenting mittister, Dec« 19, 1716. In 
l72Sf hd confofowd and received deacon's and priest' si 
orders in tbe cbavoh of England, and in 1727 was presented 
to tbe living of Sd. Martin Outwieb, in the city of London, 
wbicb ke retaitred until hisji d^atb, July 174^. He heid" 
ako a prebend 6f St Paul'sy and was one of bis majesty'^ 
dhapljains in ordinary. He is. now chiefly known for a^ 
learned aodelaboiiaBbe work, entitled ^< Tbe History 6f the 
Acts of the Holy Apostles confirmed from ether anthors ; 
and considered as fall evidence of the truth of CbrtstiatrHty, 
with a prefatory discidurse upon the nature of that evi- 
dence;"' being tbe substance » of his sermons preached at 
Boyle's lecture^ in 1736, 1737, 1738, and published in 
U vols. 1742, 8tq« Dr. Doddridge frequently refers to it^ 
as a work of great utility^ and as shewing ^^ in the most con- 
vincing manner^ bow incontestably tbe Acts of the Apos- 
tles demonstrates the truth of Christianity." ^ 

BISHOP (SitieiUEL), late head^master of Merchant 
Taylors' school and a poet of considerable merit, was 
descended froin a respectable family, originally of Wor- 
cestershire, and was born in St. John's street, London, his 
fbtber's residence, Sept. 3 1, O. S. 173]. He was tender 
and delicate in his constita%io4i, yet gave early indications 
of uncommon capacity 'and application, as appears from 
his having been called, when only nine years old, to con- 
strue the Greek Testament for a lad of fourteen, the son 
of an opulent neighbour. With t^his promising stock of 
knowledge, he was sent to Merchant Taylors' school, June 
1743, when between eleven and twelve years of age, and 
soon evinced a superiority over his fellows which attracted 
the notice and approbation of his masters. He read with 
avidity, and composed with success. His first essays, how- 
ever imperfisct, ^ewed great natural abilities, and an ori- 
^nal vein of wit. History and poetry first divided his at- 
tention, but the last predominated. He not only acquired 
that knowledge of the Latin and. Greek classics, \lhich is 
usually obtained in* a public seminary, but also became 

1 Wood's Ath. vol. lI.--Bi«tetUBt Diswoten' Ma^naunt, vol. VI. p. 306. 

firi ^ H O p. 29sr 

ilttiiiiately tequarnted with the best audiore ih our own 
laDguage : and some of his writings prove that he had 
pernsed Milton, Dryden, Pope, and Swift, at an early age, 
with macb diserimination and critical judgment. In Jime 
1750, be was elected to St John's college, Oxford, and 
admitted a scholar of that society, on the 25th of the same 
ihonth. During his residence here, he not only coi^rected 
bis taste by reading with judgment, but also improved hi» 
powers by habitual practice in composition. Besides se«^ 
veral poetical pieces, with which he supplied hir friends, 
be wrote a great number of college exercises, hymns, para- 
pbrases of scripture, translations from the ancients, and 
imitations of the moderns. 

In June 1753, he was admitted felbw of St John's, and 
in April 1754, he took the degree of B. A. and about the 
9ame time was ordained to holy orders. He was then set-^ 
tied in the curacy of Headley in Surrey, whither he had 
removed on account of a declining state of health,. but 
change of air soon restored him, and he continued to di-* 
vide his time between Headley and the university, till 1758, 
when he took the degree of M. A. He then quitted/Head«^^ 
ley, and came to reside entirely in London, on being 
elected under-master of Merchant Taylors' school, July 
2<^« He was appointed also curate of St. Mary Abcfaurch;: 
and some time afterwards lecturer of St Christopher^^-. 
Stocka, a choeeh since taken down for the enlargement of: 
the Bank. In 1762, he published ^< An Ode to the earl 
of Lincoln on the duke of Newcastle's Retirement,'' without 
his name. In 1763 and 1764, he wrote several essays and 
poems, printed in the Public Ledger, and soon after a: 
volume of Latin poems^ P^^y translated, and partly ori- 
ginal, under the title of '* Ferise poeticse." This was pub-^' 
lisbed by subscription, beyond which the sale was not con« 
siderable. He also appears to have tried his talents for 
dramatic composition, but not meeting with sufficient en- 
couragement, he very wisely relinquished a pursuit that 
could have added little dignity to the character of a clergy^ 
man and a public teacher. From this period he devoted 
bis talents to the amusementof a few friends, and the labo« 
rions duties of his profession, which he continned te dis- 
charge with the utmost fidelity, during the prime of his- 

In January 1783, he was elected head-knaster of Mer- 
chant Taylors, the duties of whi^ch important station en- 

300. B I S H O 1^. 

tirely occupied bU atteDtion, and in 1789, the company ef 
Mercbs^nt Taylors presented him to the living of St. Martin 
Outwicb, .as a reward for his long and faitbful services. 
Pn Warren^ bi$bop of Bangor, a few years before had ob.« 
tained tor him, troin the earl of Ayiesford, tbe rectory of 
Ditton ip Kent But he did not long enjoy these prefer* 
ments ; bodily infirmities grew fast upon him, and repeated 
fits of tbe gout underuiiaed his constitution. In the :be> 
ginning of 1795, be was alarmed by an oppression on bis 
breath, which proved to be occasioned . by water on tiie 
(;hest, and terminated in his death, Nov. 17, 1795^ -He 
left a widow, whose virtues he has aifectionately com.- 
memorated in many, of bis poems, and one daughter. The 
year foilowiiig his death, his '^ Poetical Worlds'' were pubs^ 
limbed by subscription, in 2 vols. 4tOj with Mejmoirs of the 
Life Qf the Author, by the rev. Thomas Clai*e, M.:A; noisr 
vicar of St. Bride's, Fleet-street, from which the present 
sketch is taken ; and in 1798, the same editor pubtisfaeda. 
volume of Mr. Bishop's ^^ Sermons, chiefly upon practical 
subject^;:^' The poems entitle Mr. Bishop to a.very dis.^ 
tinguished rank among minor poets, and among those who 
write with ease and elegance on familiar subjects ;- but^ife 
doubt whether his talents could have reached tbe higher 
species of the art. He is sometimes nervoas, sometinntft 
. pathetic, but never sublime ; yet his vein of bumour was 
well calculated for tbe familiar verses, epigrams, &c.)«vhieli 
are so plentiful in these volumes.. His style is always pure^ 
and his imagination uncommonly fertile in those lesser 
poems which require a variety of the grave, gay, the witty 
and thjS instructive*^' * • ' 

BISHOP (William), vicar apostolical in Enghnd^ and 
tbe first popish bishop that was sent thither after the refor- 
mation, was born in 1553, at Brayles in Warwickshire« 
He stuciieci in the university of Oxford; Wood thinki^ 
eithei* in Gloucester-hall (now Worcester college), or in 
Lincoln college, the heads of both which were secret &» 
vourei:s of popery : from Oxford' he went to Rbeims and 
Rome, and having been sent back to Eiigland^- as amis* 
sionary, he was arrested at Dover, and confined in prison 
in London until the end of the year 1584. Being then re^ 
Jeased, he went to PariS| took bis degree of ticentiate, and 

' Life prefixed to his Poems, 1796, 4to. Tbere has junce appeared an Sro 
edition^ or selection, i 

'6 I S H 1^. 301 

tsme agsdn to England in 1591. In two years lie ^turned 
to Paris, completed his. degree of doctor, and soon after 
his arrival in England, a dispute arising among the popish 
dergy here, 4ie was sent to Rome with another missionary 
to appeal to the pope. In 1612 we find him again in Eng- 
iaiid, and in' confinement, on account of the oath of alle- 
giance, to which, however, he was not so averse as many 
of his brethren. He bad, in fact, written against the bull 
of pope Pius V. to prove that the catholics were bound to 
be faithful to their sovereigns, and in 1602 he had signed 
a declaration of the same principle, without any equivoca- 
cation or mental reservation, which gave great offence to 
the Jesuits. Out of respect, however, to the authority of 
the pope, who had proscribed that oath, he refuised to take 
it, and was committed to prison. On his release he went 
to Paris, and wrote some tracts against those eminent pro- 
testant divines, Perkins and Abbot. Since the death of 
Watson, bishop of Lincoln, the last of the popish bishops 
who outlived the reformation, it had often been intended 
to .re*establish the episcopal government in England ; and. 
tbe marriage of the prince Charles, afterwards Charles I. 
witb the Infanta of Spain, seemed to offer a fair opportu- 
nity for carrying this scheme into execution, the hopes of 
the catholics being considerably raised by that match. Ac- 
cordingly, Dr. Bishop was consecrated at Paris, in 1623, 
by the title of bishop of Chalcedon, and being sent to Eng- 
land, began his career by forming a chapter, appointing 
gtaad vicars, archdeacons, and rural deans, &c. but did 
not enjoy his promotion long, as he died April 16, 1624. 
His party speak liberally of his zeal, virtues, and learning, 
and he undoubtedly was the more useful to their cause in 
England, as he contrived to exercise his functions with- 
out giving much offence to government. Dodd and Wood 
lurre given a list of his controversial writings, which are 
now in little request, but it must not be forgot that he was 
the publisher of Pits's very useful work, " De illustribus 
Anglie^ Scriptoribus,'* 1623, to which he wrote a very 
learned preface. ' 

BISSAT, BI8SET, or BISSART (Patrick), professor 
^ canon law in the university of Bononia in Italy, in the 
sixteenth century, was descended from the earls of Fife 

- I Wood's Atb. >rol. I.-*Dodd's Ch. HUt vol. 11.— FuUert Worthie?.— Biog. 


302 B I is S A T. 

in Scotland, and born in that county in ttie reigii of Jaoiei 
V. He was educated at St Andrew's, from whence he re- 
moved to Paris, and, having spent some time in Umt uni« 
versity, proceeded to Bononia, where be commented doc* 
tor of laws, and was afterwards appointed professor of ca- 
non law. He continued in that office several vears. with 
great reputation, and died in 1568* He is said to have 
been not only a learned civilian, but an excellent poet, 
orator, and philosopher. He wrote " P. Bissarti opera' 
omnia : viz. poemata, oratioues, lectiones ferialesj &c.^' 
Venice, 1565, 4to. * 

BISSE (Thomas), an English divine, was educated at 
Corpus Christi collegej Oxford, where he proceeded M.A; 
in 1698, B. D. in 1708, and D.D. in 1712. In 1715 he 
was, chosen preacher at the Rolls, and in )7!6, on thede* 
privation of John Harvey, A. M. a nonjuror, he was pre^^ 
sented to the chancellorship of Hereford, by his brother 
Dr. Philip Bisse, bishop of that diocese. He was also a 
prebendary of Hereford, and rector of Crudley and Wes- 
ton. He died April 22, 1731. He was a frequent and 
eloquent preacher, and published several of his occasional 
sermons. Thoseof most permanent reputatipn are, 1. "The 
Beauty of Holiness in the Common Prayer, as set forth in 
four Sermons preached at the Rolls chapel," 1716, and 
often reprinted. 2. " Decency and order in public wor- 
ship, three Sermons," 1723. 3. ** A course of Seembns 
on the Lord's Prayer,'* 1740, 8vo. Some '* Latin Poems" 
were published by him in 1716, which we have not seen. ^ 

BISSET (Charles), an ingenious physician, was bom' 
at Glenalbert, near Dunkeld in Perthshire, Scotland, in^ 
1717^ Afteracourse of medical studies at Edinburgh, he' 
was appointed in 1740, second surgeon to the military bos^ 
pital in Jamaica, and spent several years in the Wes^ India 
islands, and in admiral Vernon's 3eet, where he- acquired 
a .knowledge of the diseases of the torrid zone^ Having 
in 1745, cufitracted a bad stat^ of health at New Green- 
wich in Jamaica, he was under the necessity of restgning^ 
his place of second surgeon to the hospital, and returning 
to England. In May 1746, he purcha^ an ensigncy in 
the forty-seqond regiment, commanded by lord John Mur<« 
ray ; and by this transition, his attention being turned irom 

1 Mackenzie's Lives, vol. HI. — ^Tanti€|r, who, on the nuUiarily.of DenifKteo 
makes him flourish in 1401 > but see Bisarrus in Tanner. 
« Nichols's Bowjer.  

. B I S S E T. 80S 


medical pursuits to military a^t^ijr^, fortification became His 
favourite study. After a fruitless descent o» the coast of 
Brittany in France in September 1746, und pasMug ibl .wiu** 
t^at Limerick in Ireland, tliey were, in th^ be^unjog of 
the next campaign, brought into action at Sandberg, near 
Hulst in Dut«h Fiaiulers| where one D^Ueb regiment and 
two £ngUsh suffered very much. Here, haying drawn a 
sketch of the enemy's approaches, with the environs, and 
some time after, a pretty correct oi>e o£.Bei^en-op-rZoomy 
with the permanent lines, die environs, and the enetmy^s 
first parallel, which were presented by lord John Murray 
to his rpyal highness the lace duke of Cumheriaud, his 
highness ordered. Mr. Bisset to attend the siege of that 
fortress, and give due attention daily to the progress of 
the attack, and to the defence, in order to take accurate 
journals of them. These journals, iUusitrated with pians^ 
were delivered daily^ to lord John Murray, who forwarded 
them to the duke, by. whose appUcatiop to the duke of 
Montague, then master of the ordnance, Mr. Bisset re- 
ceived a warrant a# engineer extraordinary in the brigade 
of engineers which wi|s established to ser^^. in the Low 
Countries during the war; and be was also promoted to a 
lieutenancy io the army. The brigfule of engineers being 
renformed at the end of the war, and he being at the same 
time put upon the balf^pay list as lieutenant, be continued 
to employ great p^rt of his time in the study, of fortifica^ 
tion : and in 1751, after visiting France, published bis 
wmrk ^' On the Theory and Construction of Fortifications,** 
8vo, and some time after, being unemployed, he resumed 
the medical profession to which he bad been loriginaljy 
destined, and retired to the village of Skeiton, in Cieve- 
land, Yorkshire, where, or in the vicinity, be ever after 

In 1755, when a French war was iof^pending, he pub* 
lished a y Treatise on the Scurvy, with remarks on the cuve 
of scorbutic ulcers," 8vo, and in 1762, an '' Essay on the 
Medical Constitution of Great Britain." . Jn 1765 the .uni<* 
versity of St Andrew?s conferred upon him the degree of 
M. D. in 1766, he published a volume of ^^ Medical Es<* 
says and Observations," Newcastle, 3vo> cojiuaining va* 
rious papers on the climate and diseases of the Wast In«* 
dies. A few years before his death, he deposited in the 
library of the infirmary at Leeds, a manuscript volume of 
700 pages of medical observations ; and presented a trear 

304 B I S S E T. 

tise on forttfication to his royal highness the prince of 
Wales* He published also a small tract on the naval art 
of war, which, with sonie political papers and MSS. in the 
possession of his widow, form the whole of his works pub- 
lished and unpublished. He died at Knayton, near Thirsk, 
in May 1791, in the seventy-fifth year of his age. * 

BITAUBE' (Paul Jeremiah), a French poet and miscel- 
laneous writer, was bom at Konigsberg, Nov. 24, 1732, of 
a family of .French refugees, of the protestant religion. 
After completing his education, he became a clergyman of 
that communion, and appears to have formed his taste for 
oratory and poetry from a frequent perusal of the Bible^ 
the style of the hisdorical part of which he much admired. 
He was a no less warm admirer of Homer. Although a 
Prussian by birth, he was a Frenchman at heart, and having 
accustomed himself to the language of his family, he felt a 
strong desire to reside in what he considered as properly 
his native country, conceiving at the same time that the 
best way to procure his naturalization would be through 
the medium of literary merit. As early as 1762, he pub- 
lished at Berlin a translation of the Iliad, which he called a 
free translation, and was in fact an abridgment ; and this 
served to introduce him to D* Alembert, who recommended 
faim so strongly to the king, Frederick II. that he was ad- 
mitted into the Berlin academy,^ received a pension, aiid 
afterwards visited France in order to complete his transla- 
tion of Homer. A first edition had been printed in 1764, 
2 vols. 8vo, but the mos|: complete did not appear until 
I7S0, and was followed by the Odyssey in 1785. Such 
was the reputation of both among hts countrymen, that 
the academy of inscriptions admitted bis iiame on their list 
of foreign members. Modern French critics,' however, 
have distinguished more correctly between the* beauties 
and defects of this translation. They allow him to have 
been more successful in his ^^ Joseph,^' a poem published 
first in 1767, and with additions in 1786,. and now become 
* almost a classic in France. It Was translated into English 
in 1783, 2 vols. 12mo, but is certainly not likely to become 
a classic in this country, or where a taste prevails for sim- 
pKcity and elegance. His *^ Joseph^^ was followed by '< Les 
Bataves,'' a poem of which some detached parts had ap- 
peared in 1773, under the title of ** Guillaume de Nassau,** 

A Gent. M»f . to). UHI. pp. 5$8, 9€5. 

B I T A U B .£'• 9Gf 

Amsterdam. This was reprinted in 177 5|. and again ia 
1796. During: the war in 1793. as he attached himself to 
the French interest, be was struck ofF the list of the aca-^ 
demy of Berlin, and bis pension withdrawn; but on the 
peace of Bale, . his honours and his pension were restored. 
if his sovereign punished him thus for acting the French- 
man, he was not more fortunate with his new friends, who 
imprisoned him because he was a Prussian. On the 
establishment of the institute, however, Bitaub6 was chosen 
of the cla$s of literature and the fine arts ; but gave a very, 
bad specimen of his taste in translating the ^^ Herman i^d 
Dorothea'' of Goethe, and comparing that author with^ 
Homer, whose works, from this opinion, we should sup- 
pose he had studied to very little purpose. Some time 
before bis death, which happened Nov. 22, 1808, he was 
admitted a member of the legion of honour. . His ;6ther 
works were : 1. ** £xamen Confession de Foi du Vi-t 
caire Savoyard," 1763, a very liberal expostulation with 
Rousseau on account of his scepticism. 2. ^' De Tinflu- 
ence des Belles-lettres sur la Philosophie,'* Berlin, J767, • 
8vo; and 3. " Eloge de CoriieilW 1769, gvo : none. of 
which are in the collection of his works published at Paria 
in 1804, 9 vols. 8vo. ' Bitaub6 cannot be ranked among 
writers eminent for genius, nor is his taste, even in the 
opinion of his countrymen, of the purest standard^ but his 
works procured him a considerable name, and many of 
the papers he wrote in the memoirs of the Paris academy 
discovej: extensive reading and critical .talents. His pri* : 
vate character appqars . to have been irreproachable, ai^ ; 
his amiable manners and temper procured bum many friends . 
diiring the revolutionary successions. ^ 

BITO, a Greek mathematician, whose country is un- > 
known, wrqt^ a treatise on wariike machines, which he 
dedicated to Attains^ king of Pergamus, about the year : 
25J9 B.C, . It is printed in Gr. and Lat in the " Mather ; 
naatici Veteres," Paris, 1693, foL* i 

BLACK (Joseph), one of the mo§t eminent chemical 
philosophers of the last century, was born in France, on 
the banks of the Garonne, in 1728. . His father, Mr. John , 
Black, was a native of Belfast, in Ireland, but of a Scotch 
family, which had been some time settled there. Mr^ 
3l^ck resided most commonly at Bourdeaux, where b^ 

I Biog. UnireiMlle. f VgHtiti de Sckn^ Math.— Fabr. Bibl. Gni$, 

Vot. V. X 

306 h L. A C A, 

carried on the wine trade. He married a daughter of Mr. 
Robert Gordon of the family of Halbead, in Aberdeenshire, 
who was also engaged in the same trade at Bourdeaux. 
Mr. Black was a gentleman of the most amiable mtoners, 
candid and liberal in his sentiments, and of no common 
information. He enjoyed the particular intimacy and 
friendship of the celebrated president Montesquieu, wba 
most likely acquired his knowledge of the constitution of 
Britain, for which he was known to have a strong partiality, 
firom the informaJtion communicated by Mr. Black. Long 
before Mr. Black retired from business, his son Joseph 
was sent to Belfast, that he might have the education of a 
British subject. He was then twelve years of age, and six 
years after, in the year 1746, he was sent to continue his 
education in the university of Glasgow. Being required 
by his father to make choice of a profession, be preferred 
that of medicine, as most suited to the general bent of 
his studies. 

It was fortunately at this time that Dr. CuUen had just 
entered upon his great career, was become conscious of 
. his strength, and saw the great unoccupied field of philo- 
sophical chemistry open before him. He quickly suc- 
ceeded in taking* chemistry out of the hands of mere artists, 
and exhibited it as a liberal science. His pupils became 
zealous chemists, as well as refined physiologists. Young 
Black was particularly delighted with the science, and his 
great bias to the study was soon perceived by Dr. CuUen, 
who delighted to encourage and assist the efforts of his 
students. He soon attached Mr. Black to himself so 
closely, that the latter was considered as his assistant in 
all his operations, and his experiments were frequently 
referred to as good authority. Our young philosopher 
bad laid down a very comprehensive plan of study, as ap« 
pears from his note-books, which are still preserved. In 
these be wrote down every thing that occurred to him, and 
they exhibit the first germs and progress of his ideas, till 
the completion of those great discoveries which produced 
so complete a revolution in chemical science. 

In 1750, he went to Edinburgh to finish his medical 
studies, and while in that city be lived with his cousin* 
german, Mr. Russel, professor of natural philosophy in 
that' university. At this time the medical professors en- 
tertained different opinions concerning the action of lithon- 
trlptic medicine, particularly lime- water, and the students 

BLACK. 807 

i&- usual entered eagerly into the controfersjr* ' It 
to have been this circumstance that led Mr. Black to ir h 
vestigate the cause of causticity, a property in which. all 
the lithoDtriptics then in vogue agreed. At first he sus^ 
pected that linae, during the burning of k, tniCibed aonidi 
thing from the fire, which it afterwards communicates to 
alkalies: this he attempted to separate and collect^ but 
obtained nothing. This led him to the real cause, whldh 
he detected about the year 1752, and published' apoh 
after, in fats inaugural dissertation on magnesia*. Lime«< 
stone her found a compound of lime and fixed air. Heat 
separates the air and leaves the lime. The common alkmt 
lies of commerce, are compounds of the pure alkatind 
substance and fixed air. Lime abstracts the fixed air frenn 
these bodies ; hence their causticity. This iaq»ortaat disf 
covery was detailed at full length in the abovie disBertaiion 
on magnesia and quick- lime, published 1755. 

At this time Dr. CuUen was. removed to Edinburgh, anxl 
there being a vacancy in the chemical diair at Glasgow^ 
it was immediately agreed that it could not be hestoweA. 
with gr^iUier propriety than upon the author of so im«- 
portant a discovery. Accordingly, Dr. Black was s^p- 
pointed professor of anatomy, ahd lecturdr on chemistry in 
the university of Glasgow, in 1756, but not ' oonceiviDg 
himself so well qualified for filling the anatomidal. chair, 
he obtained the concunrence of the university i!o eschaiige 
ta^s with the professor of medicine. While in'Glasgow, 
therefore, his chief business was delivering lectures on 
the institutes of medicine. His reputation as a professor 
increased ev^ year, and he became a fBivourite practw 
tioner in that large and active city. Indeed, .the siwe^- 
ness of his temper could not fail to make him a wc^teome 
visitor in every family. His countenance was no le$s en* 
gaging than his manner was attractive. The ladies re- 
garded themselves as honoured by his attentions, particu- 
larly as they' were exclusively bestowed oh those who 
evinced a superiority of mental accomplishments: or pro- 
priety of demeanour, and of grace and elegance of manner. 
This situation, and the anxious care which he took of his 
patients, may in some measure account for the little prQ»- 
gross made by Dr. Black in that fine careei* of exfieri- 
mental investigation which be had so auspiciously opened. 
Yet his inactivity must be lamented as highly ]n|urion)[M to 

X 2 

f 0$ B L A C K. 

science ; it displayed an indolence or carelesmess of ro^ 
putation not altogether to be justified. 

But perhaps the other regions of chemistry held out 
temptations too captivating not to engage his attention. 
It was between the years 1759 and 1763, that be brought 
to maturity his speculations concerning heat, which bad 
occupied his attention at intervals, from the very first dawn 
of his philosophical investigations. His discoveries in this 
department of science were by far the most important of 
all that he made^ and perhaps indeed the most valuable 
which appeared during thehusy period of. the eighteenth 
century. To enter fully into the nature of bis investiga^* 
.ticms would be improper in this, place; but the sum of 
tbem . all was usually expressed by him in the following 
propositions. . . 

1. When a solid body is converted into a fluid, there 
enters into it^ aiid unites with it, a quantity of heat, the 
presence of which is not indicated by the thermometer, 
SLnA this combination is the cause of the fluidity which the 
jbody assumes. On the. other hand, when a fluid body is 
<sonverted into a solid, a quantity of heat separates from 
it, the presence, of which was not formerly indicated by 
(the thermometer. And this separation is the cause of the 
-•olid form* which the fluid assumes. 

, .2. When a liquid body is raised to the boiling tempe* 

'ratufe by the continued and copious applicatioa of beat^ 

4ts particles suddenly attract to themselves a great quanti^ 

iof heat, and by this combination their mutual relation is so 

^changed, that longer attract each other, but are 

Converted into an elastic fluid-like air. On the other hand, 

-when these elastic fluids, either by condensation^ or by 

^jtbe apjriication of cold bodies, are reconverted into liquids^ 

-they gtre^out a vnst quantity of beat, the presence of which 

-Was not formerly indicated by the thermometer 

• Thus water when converted into ice gives out 140* of 

beat^ aod ice when converted into water absorbs 140* of 

heat^ and vi^ter when converted into steam absorbs about 

.1000* of heal: without becoming .sensibly hotter than 212^ 

Philosophers had been long accustomed to consider the 

thermometer as the surest method of detecting heat in 

bodteS) yet this instrument gives no indication of the 140* 

of heat wbicfh enter into air when it is convearted into 

waten HOC of the lOQO* which combine with wfttier when it 

BLACK. sot 

is cop verted into steam. Dr. Black, therefore, said thM 
the heat is concealed (latit) in the water and steam, and- 
he briefly expressed this fact by calling the heat in that 
case latent heat. < 

Dr. Black having established this discovery by simple 
and decisive experiments, drew up an account of the whole 
investigation, and read it to a literary society which met 
every Friday in the faculty- room of the college, con- 
sisting of the members of the university, and several gen- 
tlemen of the city, who had a relish for philosophy apd 
literature. This was done 'April 23, 1763, as appears by 
the registers. This doctrine was immediately applied by 
its author to the explanation of a vast number of natural 
phaenomena, and in his experimental investigations he was 
greatly assisted by his two celebrated pupils Mr. Watt and 
Dr. Irvine* 

As Dr. Black never published an account of his doctrine 
of latent heat, though he detailed it every year subsequent 
to 17€2 in his lectures, which were frequented by men of 
science from all parts of Europe, it became known only 
through that channel, and this gave an opportunity to 
others to pilfer it from him pieee-meal. Dr. Crawford's 
ideas respecting the capacity of bodies for heat, were 
originally derived from Dr^ Black, who first pointed out 
the method of investigating that subject. 
• The investigations of Lavoisier and Laplace concerning 
heat, published many years after, were obviously borrowed 
from Dr. Black, and indeed consisted in the repetition of 
the very experiments which he had suggested. Yet these 
philosophers never mention Dr. Black at all : every thtng- 
in their dissertation assumes the air of originality; and,-, 
indeed, they appear to have been at great pains to prevent 
the opinions and discoveries of Dr. Black from being ( 
known among their countrymen. But perhaps the most: 
extraordinary, procedure was that of Mr. Deluc ; this phi<-.,> 
losopher had expressed his admiration of .Dr. Black's IJieory ' 
of latent heat, and had offered to become his editor. Sf .r^ 
Black, after much entreaty, at last consented, and the 
proper information was communicated to Mr. Deluc,: - Ati 
last the ^^ Id^es sur la Meteorologie'' of that philosophers 
appeared in 1788. But what was the astonishment of Dr* ; 
Black and his friends^ when they found the dottjciiie^ 
aladftied by Deluc as his own, and an expressicm o£ satis**/ 

34.0 BLACK. 

f«^tiott at the knowledge vAAth be had acquired of Dr. 
Black!9 coincidence with him in opinion ! 

' Dr. Black continued in the university of Glasgow from 
1756 to 1766, much respected as an eminent professor,' 
much employed as an able and most attentive physician, 
and much beloved as aa amiable and accomplished gentle- 
man, and happy in the enjoyment of a small but select 
society of friends. Often, however, says Dr. Robison, 
have I seen how oppressive his medical duties were on his 
8|)irits, when he saw that all his eiForts did not alleviate 
the sufferings of the distressed. When his dear friend 
Dr. Dick, professor of natural philosophy, was carried off, 
Dr. Black's distress indeed was exceedingly great, parti- 
cularly as he thought that another mode of treatment might 
have been more successful. 

In 1766 Dr. CuUen was appointed professor of medicine 
in the univei^ity of Edinburgh, and thus a vacancy was 
made in the chemical chair of that university. Dr. Black 
was with universal consent appointed his successor. In this 
new scene his talents were more conspicuous, and more 
extensively useful. He saw this, and while he could not 
but be highly gratified by the great concourse of pupils 
which the high reputation of the medical school of Edin* 
burgh brought to his lectures, his mind was forcibly im* 
pressed by the importance of his duties as a teacher* 
This had an effect whichj perhaps, was on the whole ra- 
ther unfortunate. He directed his whole attention to his 
lectui^s, and his object was to make them so plain that 
they should be adapted to the capacity of the most illite- 
rate of his hearers. The improvement of the science 
seems to have been laid aside by him altogether. Never 
did any man succeed more completely^ His pupils were 
not oilly instructed, but delighted. Many became hki 
pupils merely in order to be pleased. This contributed 
greatly to extend the knowledge of chemistry. It became 
in Edinburgh a fashionable part of the accomplishment of 
a gentleman, 

' Perhaps, also, )be delicacy of his constitution precluded 
Jiilh from exertion ; the slightest cold, the most trifling 
approach tp repletion, iriimediately affected his breast, 
oottasibned feverishness, and, if continued for two or tbreo 
days, brought 6n a spitting! of blood. :Nothing restored 
but refaaaticp of thought and gentle exercise.' Th^ 

9 L A C K. 3U 

sedentary life to which study confined him wa? manifestly 
hurtful, and be never allowed hinoself to indulge in any 
intense thinking witbput finding these complaints sensibly 
increased. , 

So completely trammeled was he in this respect, that» 
although his friends saw others disingenuous enopgh to 
avail themselves of the novelties announced by Dr. Black 
in his lectures, and therefore repeatedly urged him to 
publish an account of what he had done ; this remained 
unaccomplished to the last. Dr. Black often began the 
task, but was so nice in his notions of the manner in which 
it should be executed, that the pains he took in forming a 
plan of the work, never failed to affect his health, and 
oblige him to desist. Indeed, he peculiarly disliked ap- 
pearing as an author. His inaugural dissertation was the 
work of duty. His <^ Experiments on Magnesia, Quick- 
lime, and other alkaline substances," was necessary to pu^t 
what he had indicated in his inaugural dissertations on a 
proper foundation. His ^^ Observations on the mojre ready 
Freezing of water that has been boiled," published in the 
Philosophical Transactions for 1774, was also called for; 
and his ^^ Analysis of the Waters of some boiling Springs 
in Iceland," made at the request of bis friend T, I. Stan- 
ley, esq. was read to the royal society of Edinburgh, ai^d 
published by vthe council And these are the only works 
of his which appeared in print beforp the publication of his 
lectures after his death, by professor Robison, in 1803, 
2 vols. 4to. 

The aspect of Dr. Black was comely and interesting. 
His couatenance exhibited that pleasing expression of in*, 
ward satisfaction, which, by giving ease to the beholder, 
never fails to please. His manner was unaffected and 
graceful. He was affable, and readily entered into con- 
versation, whether serious or trivial. He was a stranger 
to none of the elegant accomplishments of life. He had 
a fine musical ear> with a voice which would obey it in 
the most perfect manner ; for he sung and performed pa 
the flute with great taste and feeling, and could sing a 
plain air at sight, which many instrumental performed 
cannot do. Without h^viug studied drawing, he had acr 
quired a considerable power of expressing with his pencil 
and seemed in this respect to have the talents of a history 
painter. Figure, indeed, of every kind, attracted his at« 
tention. Even a retort, or a crucible, was to his eye an 

S12 B L A C K. 

Example of beauty or deformity. He had the strongest 
daim to the appellation of a man of propriety and correct* 
ness. Every thing was done in its proper season, and be 
ever seemed to have leisure in store. He loved society, 
and felt himself beloved in it ; never did he lose a single 
friend> except by the stroke of death. His only appre- 
hension was that of a long continued sick bed ; less, per« 
haps, from any selfish feeling, than from the consideration 
of the trouble and distress which it would occasion|to at- 
tending ftiends : and never was this generous wish more 
completely gratified. On the 26th Nov. 1799, and in the 
seventy-first year of his age, he expired without any con- 
vulsions, shock, or stupor, to announce or retard the ap- 
proach* of death. Being at table with his usual fare, some 
bread, a few prunes, and a measured quantity of milk di- 
luted with water, and having the cup in his hand, when 
the last stroke of the pulse was to be given, he set it down 
on his knees, which were joined together, and kept it 
steady with his hand, in the manner of a person perfectly 
at ease ; and in this attitude expired, without spilling a 
drop, and without a writhe in his countenance, as if an 
experiment had been required to shew to his friends the 
facility with which he departed. His servant opened the 
door to tell him that some one had left his name ; but 
getting no answer, stepped about half-way towards him, 
and seeing him in that easy posture, supporting his bason 
of milk with one hand, he thought that he had dropt asleep, 
which sometimes happened after his meals. He went 
back and shut the door; but before he went down stairs, 
some anxiety, which he could not account for, made him 
return again, and look at bis master. Even then he was 
satisfied 'after coming pretty near him, and turned to go 
away ; but returning again, and coming up close ta him, 
be found him without life. 

To this sketch, abridged from professor Robison's life 
for the Literary Journal, we have only to add, that Four« 
croy, the eminent French chemii^t, used to call Dr. Black, 
the illustrious Nestor of the chemical revolution, and 
indeed, in every part of Europe, where > chemistry has 
been studied. Dr. Black was named with peculiar vene-* 

iration. ^ 


I life tthj snpra.-7^6e also Bibliotheque Britaimi^ue, voL XXVlIL 


r. BLACKALL (Offsprinq, D. D.)> an eminent Engluk 
jdivine, was born in London, 1654, and educated at Ca»- 
iherine-hall, Cambridge. In 1690, he was inducted into 
the living of South Okenden, Essex, and four years after- 
wards to the rectory of St. Mary Alderinary, London ; and 
.was successively chosen lecturer of St. Oiave's, and of St. 
Dunstan's in the West. He was likewise appointed chap* 
.lain to king Wiliiani. He preached before the house of 
commons Jan. 30, 1699, and in bis sermon animadverted 
•on Mr. Toland for his asserting in his life of Milton, that 
Charles I. was not the author of ^^ Icon Basitike," and for 
.some insinuations against the authenticity of the holy 
scriptures ; which drew him into a controversy with 
that author. In 1700, he preached a course of sermons at 
Boyle^s lecture, in the cathedral church of St. Paul, which 
were afterwards published. In 1707, he was consecrated 
to the bishopric of Exeter. Burnet, having mentioned 
;him and sir William Dawes as raised to bishoprics, tells 
us, ^^ that these divines were in themselves men of value 
and worth ; but their notions were all on tbe other side. 
They had submitted to. the government; but they, at least 
Blackall, seemed to condemn the revolution, and all that 
had been done pursuant to if And it. is asserted in an 
anonymous pamphlet, published in 1705, that he had re- 
fused for two years to take the oath of allegiance to king 
William. - But what contributed most to his fame in his 
life- time was a controversy he had with Mr. (afterwards 
bisho{}) Hoadly, which was occasioned by his sermon upon 
liom. xiii. 3, 4, entitled, ^^ The Divine Institution of 
Magistracy, and the gracious design of its institution,*' 
preached betbre the queen at St. Jameses on Tuesday, 
March 8, 1708, being the anniversary of her< majesty's 
happy accession to the throne, and published by her ma- 
jesty's special command. The next year, 1709, Mr. 
Hoadly animadverted upon the bishop's sermon, in a piece, 
(entitled ^^ Some Considerations humbly offered to the right 
reverend the lord bishop of Exeter, occasioned by his lord* 
ship's sermon before her majesty, March 8, 1708." Upon 
.this the bishop published ^^An Answer to Mr.Hoadly's Let- 
ter," dated from Bath, May the lOth, 1709. Mr. Hoadly en* 
deavoured to vindicate himself, in ^.^ An humble Reply to the 
right reverend the lord bishop of Exeter^s answer; in which 
the Considerations offered to his lordship are vindicated, 
^nd an apology is added f^r defending tjie foundation of 


ibe present government/' London, 1709, in 8va In this 
controversy, bishop Blackall defends the High-charcby 
Tory, principles (as they usually are called), of the divine 
institution of magistracy, and unlimited passive obedience 
and non*resista^nce ; which Mr. Hoadly opposes. There 
.were several pamphlets written on the side of the bishop 
against Mr. Hoadly ; particularly one, entitled, ^^ The best 
Answer that ever was made, and to which no answer will 
be made ;" supposed to be written by Mr. Lesley, a non- 
juring clergyman, and which Mr. Hoadly animadverts upon 
in the postscript to his humble reply. The wits in the 
Tatler engaged in this controversy on the side of Hoadly, 
and with an illiberality not usual in the writers of that paper. 
He died at Exeter, Nov. 29, 1716, and was interred ill 
the cathedral there. Archbp. Dawes, who had a long and 
intimate friendship with him, declares, that in his whole 
conversatiori he never met with a more perfect pattern of a 
true Christian life, in all its parts, than in him : so much 
primitive simplicity and integrity; such constant even- 
ness of mind, and uniform conduct of behaviour ; such un^ 
affected and yet most ardent piety towards God ; such or* 
thodox and steadfast faith in Christ ; such disinterested and 
fervent charity to all mankind ; such profound modesty, 
humility, and sobriety ; such an equal mixture of meekness 
and courage, of cheerfulness and gravity; such an exact 
discharge of all relative duties ; and in one word, such an 
indifFerency to this lower world and the things of it; and 
such an entire affection and joyous hope and expectation 
of things above. He says also, that his *^ manner of 
preaching was so excellent, easy, clear, judicious, sub- 
stantial, pious, affecting, and upon all accounts truly use- 
ful and edifying, that he universally acquired the reputa- 
tion of being one of the best preachers of his time." Fel- 
ton, in his Classics, commends him as an excellent writer. 
M. de la Roche, in his memoirs of literature, tells us, that 
our prelate was one of those English divines, who, when 
they undertake to treat a subject, dive into the bottom of 
it, and exhaust the matter. His works were published by 
archbishop Dawes, in 2 vols. fol. 1723, consisting of Prac- 
tical discourses on our Saviour's Sermon on the mount, and 
on the Lord's Prayer, together with his sermons preached 
at Boyle's lecture, with several others upon particular oc- 
casions. ^ 

» Gen. Diet— Biog. Brit— Tatlcf, 8vo edition with nates, vol. L p. 393, 
461, 470, 51»«-524. 


BLACKBOURNE (John), a learned Englbh divme 
the last century, was born in 16S3, and educated at Tribttgr 
college, Cambridge, where he took the degree of M* A. 
Whether he had any promotion in the church is not cer« 
tain ; but soon after the revolution, he refused to take the' 
oaths, and consequently excluded himself from advanotng' 
in the church. From that time be lived a very exemplary 
and studious life, endeavouring to be useful to niankindy 
both as a scholar and divine. To preserve his independ- 
ence, he became corrector of the press to Bowyer, die 
celebrated printer, and 'was one of the most accurate of 
his profession. The edition of lord Bacon's works in 1740 
was superintended by him ; and he was also editor of the 
castrations of Holinshed's Chronicle,, and of Bale's 
'* Chronycle concernynge syr Jol^an Oldecastelh" A 
handsome compliment is paid him in Maittaire's Lives of the 
Paris printers, 1717; and again in his '' Miscellanea ali- 
quot Scriptorum carmina," 1722. For some years before 
his death, he was a nonjuring bishop, but lived retired ia 
Little Britain among his old books. What his hopes were^ 
of a second revolution will appear from the answer he gave 
a gentleman who asked him if be was in bis diocese i 
*' Dear friend, we leave the sees open, that the gentle-^ 
men who now unjustly possess them, upon the restoration^ 
may, if they please, return to their duty and be continued. 
We content ourselves with full episcopal power as suffra-> 
gans." Mr. Blackboume died Nov. 17, 1741, and his li« 
brary was sold by auction in February 1 742. He was 
buried in Islington church-yard, with an epitaph, which 
may be seen in our authority. * 

BLACKBURN (William), an eminent surveyor and 
architect, was born in the borough of Soutbwark, on the 
20th of December, 1750. His father was a respectable 
tradesman in St. John's parish, and his mother was a native 
of Spain. The whole of his grammatical education was 
derived from a "common seminary in the neighbourhood ; 
and at a proper age he was placed under a surveyor of no 
eminence, but from whom he derived very few advantages 
in the knowledge of his profession. However, from the 
natural bent of ah ardent mind, he sought the acquaint^ 
ance of men of genius, several of whom belonged to the 
Boyal Academy. Into that aoadeixiy he was admitted as ^ 

, , ^ NicUoU^s Bowyer. 


student; and in 1773 he was presented with the medal for 
the best drawing of the inside of St. Stephen's church iii 
Walbrook. This prize he bore away from many competi- 
tors ; and) at the delivery of it, received a high compli- 
ment to his abilities from the late sir Joshua Reynolds, the 
president. About the same time he entered into business 
for himself in South wark, and carried it on for some 
years with increasing success among his private connec- 
tions, when an event occurred which brought him into 
public notice and reputation. An act of parliament had 
passed in 1779, declaring, that 'Mf any offenders con- 
victed of crimes for which transportation had been usually 
inflicted, were ordered to solitary imprisonment, accom- 
panied by well regulated labour and religious instruction, 
it might be the means, under providence, not only of de- 
terring others from the commission of the like crimen, but 
also of reforming the individuals, and; enuring them to the 
habits of industry .'' By this act his majesty was authorised 
to appoint three persons to be supervisors of the buildings 
to be erected; and the supervisors were to fix upon any 
common, heath, or waste, or any other piece of ground, 
in Middlesex, Essex, Kent, or Surrey, on which should 
be erected two plain strong edifices, to be called " Peni- 
tentiary Houses ;" one for the confinement and employ- 
ment of six hundred males, the other of three hundred fe- 
males. In the same year in which the act was passed, 
three supervisors were appointed to carry it into execution* 
These were John Howard, esq* George Whatley, esq. and 
Dr. John FothergilL This commission however was dis- 
solved, first by the death of Dr. Fothergill, and soon after 
that event by the resignation of Mr. Howard, who found it 
not in his power to coalesce with his remaining colleague. 
Another set of supervisors was therefore ^.ppointed in 1781, 
being sir Gilbert Elliot, hart, sir Charles Bunbury, hart, 
and Thomas Bowdler, esq. One of the principal objects 
with these gentlemen was to provide that they should be 
constructed in the manner most conducive to the ends of 
solitary confinement, useful labour, and moral reformation. 
Accordingly, the supervisors proposed premiums for the 
best plans that should be produced of the penitentiary 
houses intended to be erected* The highest, preiqium was 
a hundred guineas, which was unanimously assigiied to Mr. 
Blackburn, in the month of March 1782. This preference^ 
as^ pecuniary consideration, was a matter of little conse« 



quence. The grand advantage that was to be expected 
from it, with regard to Mr. Blackburn, was, that tie ftboukl 
be employed as the architect and surveyor of the boildings 
proposed. And in fact he was appointed by the super* 
visors to that office^ and the plan of a penitentiary house 
•for male offenders was accordingly arranged by bim, and 
proper draughts were made for the use of the workmen ; 
and a gre^t part of the work was actually contracted for by 
different persons. Yet the designs of government were 
not carried into execution ; the circumstances of the times 
having diverted the attention of public men from this imi- 
portant object : nor has it ever since been resumed. Ne^ 
verthele^s, . though . Mr* Blackburn might in this respect be 
disappointed of his Just expectations, he did not lose his 
reward, i»or was the nation deprived of the benefit arising 
from his ingenuity. A spirat of erecting prisons in conv 
formity to his plans was, immediately- excited ; and many 
county gaols, and other structures of the same nature^ 
were built under his inspection. Besides the completion 
of several prisons^, Mr. Blackburn was engaged in o4;(ier 
designs of a similar nature, when be was arrested by the 
hand of death, in the fortieth year of his age.. He de- 
parted this life on the 28th day of October, 1790, at Pret- 
ton in Lancashire, being on a journey to Scotland, whither 
he was going at the instance of his. grace* the duke of Buc- 
cleugh, and the lord provost of Glasgow, with a view to 
the erection of a new gaol in that city. From Preston his 
remains were. removed to London, and interred in the 
burying- ground of Buahill-fields. 

A few weeks before. his decease, he had been applied to 
respecting a penitentiary house for Ireland. At a former 
period, in 1787, he went over to that country, upon an ap<> 
plication from Limerick; in consequence of which he 
drew the plan of a new gaol for that city. He also sug- 
gested many, improvements which might be made in the 
gaol of Newgate in the city of Dublin, and which wene 
accordingly adopted. 

It .was not to the erection of prisons only that Mr. Black* 
burn's talents were confined. Three elegant designs wene 
drawn by him for a new church at.Hackney, one of which 
was intended to have been carried into execution; but 
after his decease the scheme was ]aid aside, on account of 
the expence which the completion of it would occasion. 
He was employed, likewise, in preparing various designs 

918 B:L A C K B.U R:N. 

tor bottsies^.vilks^ &c. lit many .of bis dniwings ^eat 
taste is 'displayed, as weii as a tborough knowledge of bis 
favourite science of architecture.!' It was. in cont^pki'- 
tiofi, some tikiie after his deaths to eagrave and publish 
ills: principai drawings; but the, inbention of doing; it is 
dropped^ at least for the .present.. . . 

Being a dissenter of the presbyterian denomiiiation, be 
fvas in the habits of iutimacy with the principal persons of 
that persuasion both in town and country ;. without how* 
ever confining his regard and affection to any particular 
«ect. But what confers peculiar honour . on. Mr. Black- 
burn's memory is, that he enjoyed the intiniate friendship 
and entire esteem of the excellent Mr. Howard ; that he 
concurred with him in his ideas^ aad eminently promoted 
his benevolent designs. Mr. Blackburn frequently corre- 
sponded with Mr. Howard, when that gentleman was env 
gaged, either at home or abroad, in his journeys and voy- 
ages of humanity. Of Mr. Bbckburn Mr. Howard used to 
say, that he was the only man he ever met with, who was 
capable of delineating to his mind, upon paper, his ideas 
of what a prison ought to be. . 

The person of Mr. Blackburn was of the middle stature ; 
and from his early youth he was so very corpulent, that his 
friends were filled with apprehensions, too unhappily ve- 
rified,, that his life would not be a long one. Till he 
became twenty-five years of age, he drank nothing, but 
water. But at that time, in consequence of a severe fit of 
sickness, be was advised by the late Dr. John Fotbergill to 
change his beverage for malt liquor^ and occasionally to 
take a glass of wine. The aiHiction of another severe ill- 
ness, later in life, was sustained by him with eminent and 
eKemplary resignation and fortitude. Previously to his 
last journey he was considerably better, and entertained 
hope« that traveUing might contribute to the restoration of 
his former. health : but it was ordered otherwise by the sn«- 
preme Disposer of even^. By a sudden stroke he was for 
ever taken from his beloved wife and children ; who, with 
a number of select friends, were left to lament a loss^ 
which they must feel so long as they remain in this world. 
The chara<:ter of Mr. Blackburn was, in every view of it, 
amiable and respectable. In discharging the duties and 
relations of life, he was uniform and consistent He was 
very cheerful . in his temper, and affable and engaging in 
his behaviour. Being endued with a great flow of spirits. 


and much vivacity of mind, his conversation was at oncef 
agreeable and instructive. In February, 1783, Mr. Black-* 
burn married Lydia, the daughter of Mr. Joshua Hobaon, 
an eminent buiider in his neighbourhood ; an amiable wo«*. 
man, with, whom he lived in the most perfect harmony, 
and by. whom he left four children. ^ 

BLACKfiURNE (Francis), the celebrated author of 
the ^^ Confessional," was born at Richmond in Yorkshire^ 
June 9, 1705. At the age of seventeen he was admitted 
pensioner of Catherine-hall, Cambridge, where his pecu** 
liar notions on civil and religious liberty rendered him ob^ 
noxious to his superiors, and occasioned the loss of a fel-* 
lowship for which he was a candidate. In 1739, he waa 
ordained by Dr. Gooch, bishop of Norwich, at £ly chapel, 
Holborn, and in a short time afterwards was inducted into 
the rectory of Richmond in Yorkshire, where he resided 
constantly for forty years, during which he composed all 
the pieces contained in the late edition of his works, be-< 
sides a multitude of smaller ones. His first appearance as 
an author was on the following occasion. In 1749, thd 
rev. John Jones, vicar of Alconbury, near Huntingdon, 
published his ^' Free and candid disquisitions relating to 
the Church of England," containing many observations on 
the supposed defeote and improprieties in the liturgical 
forms of faith and worship of the established church. As 
Mr. Blackburne corresponded with this gentleman, who 
had submitted the work to his perusal in manuscript, and 
as there were many of his opinions in which Mr. Blackburne 
aoincided, it was not unnatural to suppose that he had a 
hand in the publication. This, however, Mr. Blackburne 
solemnly denied, and his biographer has assigned the pro* 
bable reason. " The truth," says he, ** is, Mr. Black- 
burne, whatever desire he might have to forward the work 
of ecclesiastical reformation, could not possibly conform 
his style to the milky phraseology of the ^ Disquisitions,* 
nor could he be content to have bis sentiments mollified 
by the gentle qualifications of Mr. Jones's lenient pen. He 
was rather (perhaps too much) inclined to look upon those 
who had in their hands the means and the power of reforming 
the errors, defects, and abuses, in the government, forms 
of worship, faith and discipline, of the established church ; 
as guilty of a criminal negligence, from which they should 

1 Communicated for the lafst edition of tbiji Diclionar)v— Goat. Mag, vol. LV. 
325, XLIX 567.— Aikin'9 Life of Howard, p. 108, 1Q9. 

%M B L A C K B U R N E. 

have been roused by sharp and spirited expostulations. He 
thought it became disquisitors^ with a cause in band of 
such high importance to the influence of vital Christianity, 
rather to have boldly forced the utmost resentment of the 
class of men to which they addressed their work, than, by 
meanly truckling to their arrogance, to derive upon them*, 
selves their ridicule and contempt, which all the world 
saw was the case of these gentle suggesters, and all the 
return they had for the civility of their application." Ani*. 
mated by this spirit, which we are far from thinking can- 
did or expedient, Mr. Blackburne published " An Apo^ 
logy," for the " Free and candid disquisitions," to which, 
whatever might b<g its superior boldness to the ^^ milky 
phraseology" of Mr. Jones, he yet did not venture to pub 
his name ; nor, although he was suspected to be the author, 
did he meet with any of that ^' arrogance," which is attri- 
buted to those who declined adopting Mr. Jones's scheme 
of church-reformation. On the contrary, in July, 1750, 
he was collated to the archdeaconry of Cleveland, and in 
August following to the prebend of Bilton, by Dr. Mat- 
thew Hutton, archbishop of York, to whom he had been 
for some years titular chaplain ; and when his friends inti- 
mated their suspicions that he would write no more ^^ Apo- 
logies" for such books as ^^ Free .and candid Diquisi- 
tions," he answered, " with a cool indifference," that he 
had made no bargain with the archbishop for his liberty. 
His next publication, accordingly, was an attack- on Dr. 
Butler bishop of Durbam's charge to his clergy in 1751, 
which, in Mr. Blackburne'? opinion, contained some doc^ 
trines diametrically opposite to the principles on which the 
protestant reformation was founded. This appeared, in 
175*2, under the title of " A iSerious Enquiry into the use 
and importance of external religion, &c." but was not 
generally known to be his, until Mr. Baron, an enthuskiast 
in controversies, republished it with Mr. Blackburne's 
name, in his collection, entitled " The Pillars of Priest- 
craft and Orthodoxy shaken." 

His next publications were on the subjects of the new 
style-^— Archdeacon Sharpe's charges — the Jew naturaliza- 
tion-bill — a letter to archbishop Herring, on church refor- 
mation — none of which require much notice. When in 
1755, Dr. Law's notion appeared concerning the soul and 
the state of death, or what was called '^ the soul-sleeping 
system/' Mr. Blackburne adopted, and defended it in a tract 

B L A C K B U R N E. 


entitled ^' No proof in the Scriptures of an intermediate 
state of happiness or misery, between death and the resur* 
rectton/' and he urged the same opinion. in a subsequent 
tract ; but as the Confessional is the publication on which 
his fame principally rests, the history of it is more interest-* 
ing than any detail of his minor' tracts. On Commence^- 
ment Sunday 1757, Dr. Powell, an eminent tutor of St. 
John's college, Cambridge^ published a sermon on sub- 
scription to the Liturgy and XXXIX articles, in which he 
maintained that a latitude was allowed to subscribers, evea 
so far as to admit of the assent and consent of different 
persons to different and even opposite opinions, according 
to their different interpretations of the propositions to be 
subscribed. Dr. PowelPs casuistry on the subject appeared 
to Mr. Blackburne so detestable, and so subversive of the 
principles of good faith among men, that he determined to - 
expose and refute it to the best of his power, and accord- 
ingly published " Remarks on the rev. Dr. Powell's Ser- 
mon in defence of Subscriptions, &c." 1758. His senti« 
ments on the subject of subscriptions are thus explained, 
in that part of his life which was written l>y himself. 
'* When he took possession of the living of Richmond, he 
had been engaged in a way of life that did not give him 
time or opportunity to reflect upon subjects of that nature 
with precision ; and though, upon taking his first prefer- 
ment, he determined conscientiously to perform the duties 
of it, yet he was by no means aware of the difficulties that 
afterwards embarrassed him in qualifying himself for hold- 
ing it. He, therefore, then subscribed as directed by law, 
without scruple, and without apprehending the obligation 
he laid himself under, according to the form, of giving his 
assent and consent to the whole system of the church. 
When the same form was to be subscribed to qualify him 
to hold the archdeaconry and prebend, he consulted some 
of *his friends, and particularly Dr. Law (afterwards bishop 
of Carlisle), who gave him his opinion at large, containing 
such reasons, as had occurred to himself on the several oc- 
casions he had to undergo that discipline. He was like- 
wise referred to Dr. Clarke's Introduction to his Scripture 
Doctrine of the Trinity : and lastly, to the sixth article of 
the church of England; all which appeared plausible 
enough to satisfy him, for that time, that with these salvos 
and modifications, he might safely subscribe to the prescribed 
forms.— Some time afterwards, however, upon a prospect 
Vol. V. Y 

Ui p L A C K B U R N E. 

of farther advancement to a considerable preferment, hd 
took occasion to re-consider these arguments, and thought 
they fell short of giving that satisfaction which an honest 
i^an would wish to have, when he pledges his good faith 
to society in so solemn a form as that prescribed by the 
36th canon, enjoining subscription to the articles and li« 
turgical forngis of the church of England. 
. ^Mi> this situation of mind, he set himself to examine 
iiito the rise and progress of this requisition in protestant 
cburphes, and into the arguments brought in defence, or 
pather in excuse of it ; the result of which was the compi- 
lation since known by the name of the * Confessional, or 
a full and free enquiry into the right, utility, and success 
of establishing Confessions of Faith and Doctrine in Protes-^ 
taot churjches.' This work lay by him in manuscript for 
son)p years. He had communicated his plan to Dr. Ed- 
mund Law, who encouraged him greatly in the progress 
of it, and appears by many letters in the course of their 
correspondence to have been extremely impatient to have 
it published.; The fair copy, l\owever, was never seen by 
any of the author^ s acquaintance, one confidential friend 
excepted, who spoke of its existence and contents to the 
l^te. patriotic Thomas Hollis, esq. to whom the author at 
this time was not personally known. Mr. Hollis mentioned 
this ma4iuscript to Mr. Andrew Millar, the bookseller, who 
in 1763, intending a summer excursion to visit his friends 
in Scotland, was desired by Mr. Hollis to call upon Mr. 
Blackburne at Richmond, where, after some conversation, 
the manuscript was consigned to Mr. Millar's care /or pub- 
lication, and accordingly came out in the spring of 1766. 
The only condition made with Mr. Millar was, that the 
author's name should be concealed,'* 

Such is the author's account of the origin of this celcr 
brated woirk, which soon gave rise to a controversy of 
considerable length. We follow him with more reluctance 
in his account of its reception, in which he states that, 
grievous oiFence was taken at it by that part of the clergy 
" who affect to call themselves orthodox ;" and archbishop. 
Seeker is stated to have thrown off his mask of moderation 
at,once. More caini reasoners^ however, at this later pe- 
riod may be of opinion, that many of the opponents of the 
Confessional stood in no need of affectation to indicate the 
class to which they belonged ; and that the. archbishop, as, 
veil as many of his brethren, might think themselves amply 

B L A C K B U R N E. $2% 

justified in considering the Confessional, as hating a ten-^ 
dency to render the principles of the church of England a 
series of private opinions ending in no general system, and. 
affording encouragement to perpetual fluctuation and in* 
decision, under pretence of regard for conscience. Nor^ 
as the press was to be the medium of this, cbntrovefsy, can 
we, upon any principles of candour, conceive, why arch-^ 
bishop Seeker, or any of his brethren, should be censured 
for encouraging the best writers they could find. 

This controversy lasted from 1766, the period of pub- 
lishing the first edition of the Confessional, to 1772, when 
it was in part revived, or rather continued (for it had never 
been entirely dropt), in consequence of an application 
made to parliament for relief in the matter of subscription^ 
During this  time, between seventy and eighty pamphlets 
were published by the contending parties, of which not 
above ten or twelve appeared widi the authors* names* 
Some of these are supposed to have been funiiahed by Mr* 
Blackbunie. One singular effect followed the first publi-*' 
catioQ of the Confessional. It was supposed that the au^ 
thor of such a work could ndt possibly remain in the church 
after having made so many, objections to her constitution ; 
and accordingly a congregation of dissenters in London 
sent a deputation to him, to know whether he was inclined 
to accept the situation of their pastor. But whatever ob-^ 
jections the learned archdeacon had to certain points of 
discipline and doctrine peculiar to the church of England, 
which be wished to be reformed ; he never conceived that 
the best'way to bring about such a reformation was to leave 
her entirely in the hands( of those who were adverse to it ; 
and therefore, although he abstained from any open oppo«- 
sition to the principles and conduct of Mr. Lindsey and 
Dn Disney (both his rekitions and friends)^ he does not 
appear to have approved either. His own words, however^ 
will best illustrate his sentiments on this delicate subject. 

^^ Mr. Blackbume had his objections to the liturgy and 
articles of the church of England, as well as Mr. Lindaey, 
and in some instances to the same passages, but differed 
widely from him on some particular points, which, he 
thought, :ks stated by Mr. Lindsey and his friends, could 
receive rib' countenance from siaripture, unless by a licen- 
tiousness of interpretation that could not be j ustified. But 
Dr. Priestley and. some of (bi$ .friends having carried, the 
obligation to secede fcom^theiphaich of England ferther 

Y 2 



than Mr. Blackburne thought was either snfficiently can« 
did^ charitable, or modest, and had thereby given coun«- 
tenance to the reproach, thrown upon many moderate and 
worthy .men, by hot and violent conformists, for continu- 
ing to minister in the church, while they disapproved many 
tilings in her doctrine and discipline, he ex« 
pedient, in justice to himself and others of the same sen- 
timents, to give some ^eck to the crude censures that 
had been passed upon them. And, accordingly, intending 
to publish '* Four Discourses' delivered to the clergy of 
the archdeaconry of Cleveland, in the years 1767, 1769, 
1771, and 1773, he took that opportunity to explain him- 
self on this subject in a preface, as well on behalf of the 
seceders, as .of those whose Christian principles admitted 
of dieir remaining in the church without offering violence 
to their consciences.^' — Of Dr. Priestley's conduct he 
speaks yet more decidedly in a letter dated Jan. 4, 1770, 
to a dissenting minister,-^'' I cannot think the dissenters 
will be universally pleased with Dr. Priestley's account of 
their principles, not to mention that some degree of mercy 
seemed to be due to us, who have shown our benevolence 
to all protestant dissenters, and have occasionally asserted 
their rights of conscience with the utmost freedom. But 
no, it seems nothing will do but absolute migration from 
our present stations, in agreement with our supposed con* 
victions ; though, perhaps, it might puzzle Dr. Priestley 
to find us another church, in which all of us would be at 
our ease, &c." On the secession of Dr. Disney from the 
church, a circumstance which appears to have given him 
great uneasiness, he went so far as to draw up a paper un-^ 
der the title *^ An Answer to the Question, Why are you 
not a Socinian?" but this, although now added to his 
Works, was not published in his life-time, from motives of 
^elicacj^. He had been suspected, from his selationship 
and intimacy with Mr. Lindsey and Dr. Disney, of holding 
the same sentiments with them, and his object in the above 
paper was to vindicate his character in that respect. Still, 
as it did not appear in his life-time, it could not answer 
that purpose, and although we are now told that some tia>e 
before his death, he explicitly asserted to his relation, the 
Rev. Mr. Comber, his belief in the divinity of Christ, the 
suspicions of the public had undoubtedly some foundation 
in the silence which in all his writings he preserved re- 
lipectihg a point of so much importance. 


When considerably advanced in years, he formed the 
design of writing the life of Luther ; and had made some 
collections for the purpose, but was diverted from it by 
being engaged to draw up a work of far less general in- 
terest, the Memoirs of Mr. Thomas Hollis. In 1787, he 
performed his thirty-eighth visitation in Cleveland, after 
which he was taken ill at the house of his friend the Ilev« 
William Comber, but reached home a few weeks before 
his death, which took place Aug. 7, 1787, in his eighty* 
third yean Mr. Blackburne left a widow (who died Aug. 
20, 1799), and four childreo, Jane, married to the Rev. 
Dr. Disney ; the Rev. Francis Blackburne, vicar of Brig* 
nal, near Greta-bridge, Yorkshire ; Sarah, married to the 
Rev. John Hall, vicar of Chew Magna, and rector, of Dun* 
dry in Somersetshire ; and William Blackburne, M. D. of 
Cavendish square, London. ' 

In 1804, his son, the Rev. F. Blackburne, published in 
7 vols. 8vo, his " Works, Theological and Miscellaneous, 
including some pieces not before printed,^' with some ac- 
count of the life and writings of the author, by himself, and 
completed by his son. At the conclusion of this Interest- 
ing memoir, we find a character of Mr. Blackburiie drawn 
up with candour and affection. From this we shall extract 
a few passages, but without deciding whether in every 
respect the same conclusions can be drawn from an atten- 
tive consideration of his labours and opinions. It is certain 
that some of his admirers have wished him pQssessed of 
more steadiness and consistency than his work3 show, 

** Without ever taking an active part in the disputes 
which in his time agitated, and are still agitating, the church 
of England, on the article of predestination, it is certain 
that Mr. Blackburne was, in the general sentiments of his 
creed, what he more than once declared ^imself to be, a 
moderate JJalvinist ; and his writings place it beyond a^ 
doubt, that he believed himself so much more a Protestant 
for being so, His Calvinism, however, was of the largest ' 
and most liberal cast^ This will be easily understood upta 
what he thought of the great work of David Hardey on 
Man-i-* a book,' writes Mr. Blackburne to a friend, in 
1750, * to which, if I am not exceedingly mistaken, Chris- 
tianity is, or will be, more beholden than to all the books 
besides of the two last centuries. But he has joined ne- 
cessity and religion together. — What of that ? Ask the 
church of England in h^. articles.' « 

Mi6 B L AC K B U R N E. 

" While engaged in the controversial field, and main-' 
taining what be believed to be the cause of truth and li- 
berty, Mr. Blackburne, like his admired Luther, pursued 
his adversary often with vehemence, and sometimes with 
asperity of attack : and when either rank or eminence in 
the object of his animadversions was likely to lend a sane-* 
tion to prejudice and supefstition^ or to give an imposing 
air to the encroachments of human authority in matters of 
religion, no writer ever more intrepidly encountered odium, 
by exposing error and bigotry if it were even found, where 
many good and gentle natures will hardly allow it to be 
looked for, under the lawn and the mitre. Yet, doubtless, 
in the execution of so critical an ofEce, the most acute and 
honest judgment might at times faif in discernment, or 
carry severity too far. To say, therefore, that Mr. Black- 
bume never passed an unjust censure, or harboured an 
unworthy dislike, as a polemic, would be to suppose that 
be was perfect in the most difficult of all tasks — the task of 
inquiring into the justness of argument, the integrity of 
motives, and the rectitude of conduct of other men like 

*^ Of all this, in his last years, especially when he had 
retired from the business of controversy, and looked back 
on the scene which he had quitted for ever, Mr. Black- 
burne was duly sensible ; and one day, a few weeks before 
bis death, conversing with a lady then resident at Rich- 
mond, one of the most amiable and excellent of her sex, 
he acknowledged, with great earnestness, that some things 
which he had written and published in the course of his 
life he was afraid might have been too warmly or too 
hastily advanced. Yet no scholar, perhaps, was ever more 
industrious and indefatigable in the investigation botbi of 
facts and of arguments, or less precipitate in delivering 
his researches to the public, than archdeacon Blackburne. 

♦* Nor did mere difference of opinion, even on points of 
the highest political and religious consequence, or on spe« 
eulativ^ topics, where years of study had endeared con- 
yiction to him, operate as a bar to his approbation of the 
merits of his opponent ; and he readily acknowledged, and 
admired, literary tplent and scriptural knowledge, or clear 
and able enforcements of the truths and obligations of re* 
ligion, as well as personal virtue and eminent piety, in 
those from whom otherwise he differed widely, and whom^ 
Y^itk UQ little ea^erness^ he bad sometimes opposed, 

B L A C K B U R N E- 327 

** Mr. Blackbiirne's cordial and eloquent compliment to 
the memory of Jortin, to whom, besides some specific dis- 
agreements, he was "nearly as dissimilar in , general cha- 
racters as Luther to Erasmus, has been more than once re- 
peated. His amanuensis testifies the genuine satisfaction 
which the reading of Dr. Johnson's Prayers and Medita- 
tions appeared to afford his venerable friend ; and he well 
remembers with what delight Mr. Blackburne listened to 
the sermons of bishop Sherlock, which he had doubtless 
often himself perused before -; and with what frankness of 
heart he wished that it had been in his power to be equally 
useful as a preacher of the doctrines of Christianity. 

" Amidst the calls of his public station, and the labours 
of private study, during the most active stages of his life, 
Mr. Blackburne had been always constant in the regular 
performance of family devotion and of solitary prayer. The 
contemplation too of some passage in the Old or New Tes- 
tament, with the comments of the best early or later critics, 
tvas not forgotten in the habitual arrangement of his fore- 
noon. In his latter days, these exercises and meditations, 
and a course of reading congenial to them, suited parti- 
cularly well with the sober and serious cast of a mind like 
•his, and with afflictions fast weaning to a better world* 
Towards the close of his life, retaining strong faculties of 
'memory and intellect, his powers of cheerful and instruc- 
tive conversation were little diminished by age; or what 
they had lost, if any thing they had lost, in vigour, was 
abundantly compensated in that soft mellowness of temper, 
'which, like the mild setting sun of an autumnal evening, 
gilds the declining day of a wise and virtuous old man. 
' ** Such was Francis Blackburne ; a believer of Chris- 
tianity, from the deepest conviction of its truth ; a Pro- 
testant on the genuine principles of the reformation from 
popery; a'fetrenuous adversary of superstition and intole- 
rance, and of every corruption of the simplicity or the 
spirit of the gospel ; a zealous promoter of civil liberty j a 
"close and perspicuous reasoner ; a keen and energetic 
writer; an attentive, benevolent, and venerable archdea- 
con ; an elegant and persuasive preacher; a faithful pas- 
tor and exemplary guide; of unblemished purity of life ; 
of simple dignity of manners ; a sincere and cordial friend ; 
an affectionate husband, and an indulgent father : in short, 
a* just, humane, pious, temperate, and independent man.'** 

1 Life, as above,— «Nlchols*s Bowyer;-^A CJom|)lete list -of the pamphlets oi^ 
the Coofessionai Controversy, Id Gent. Majp. vols. XLl. and XLIU 

S!?8 B L A C K B U R N E. 

BLACKBURNE (John), esq. of Orford, near Warring- 
ton in Lancashire, deserves some notice in a work of this 
description, as a promoter of science. This gentleman 
died in 1786, at the advanced age of ninety-six, ^e re- 
ward of a very regular and temperate life, and a mind un« 
disturbed by any violent emotions. His health and tran- 
quillity were also not a little promoted by the turn he took 
in early life to the cultivation of plants. He was supposed 
to be the second gentleman in England who cultivated the 
pine-apple, and bis garden always continued one of the 
chief objects of botanical curiosity for its products both 
foreign and domestic, in the north of England. Of this a 
catalogue was printed by his gardener, Mr. Neal, in 1779. 
He retained his faculties in very considerable perfection 
till within two or three years before his death. He was 
exemplary in the discharge of religious duties, and la 
charity to the poor. His daughter Anna, who died, ad- 
vanced in years, in 1794, was also attached to scientifie 
pursuits, particularly natural history, of which she formed 
a viery extensive museum at her seat at Fairfield near War- 
rington. She was equally fond of botany, and was the 
friend and constant correspondent of Linnseus and many 
other celebrated botanists on the continent and at home. 
A plant which she discovered, Linnaeus named in honour 
of her, Blackbumiana. She bequeathed her museum to 
her nephew John Blackburne, esq. M. P. for Lancashire. ^ 

BLACKLOCK (Thomas), ia very extraordinary poet, 
was bom in 1721, at Annan in the county of Dumfries, in 
Scotland. His parents were natives of Cumberland, of the 
lowet order, but industrious and well-informed. Before 
he was six months old he lost his sight by the small-pox, 
and therefore, as to all purposes of memory or imagination, 
may be said never to have enjoyed that blessing. His 
father and friends endeavoured to lessen the calamity by 
reading to him those books which might convey the in« 
struction suitable to infancy, and as he advanced, they 
proceeded to others which he appeared to relish and re- 
member, particularly the works of Spenser, Milton, Prior, 
Pope, and Addison. And such was the kindness which 
his helpless situation and gentle temper excited, that he 
was seldom without some companion who carried on this 
singular course of education, until he had even acquired 
tome knowledge of the Latin tongue. It is probable that 

1 Gent Mag. vol. LVII. and LXIV. 

B L A C K L O C K. 329 

he remembered much of all that was read to him, but hig 
mind began very early to make a choice. He first disco* 
vered a predilection for English poetry, and then, at the 
age of twelve, endeavoured to imitate it in various at- 
tempts, one of which is preserved in his works, but rather 
with a view to mark the commencement than the perfec- 
tion of bis talent. 

In this manner his life appears to have passed for the first 
nineteen years, at the end of which he had the misfortune 
to lose his father, who was killed by the accidental fall of 
a malt-kiln. For about a year after this, he continued to 
live at home, and began to be noticed as a young man of 
genius and acquirements, such as were not to be expected 
in one in his situation. His poems, which had increased 
in number ias he grew up, were now handed about in ma- 
nuscript, with confidence that they were worthy of the 
attention of the discerning, and some of them having been 
shewn to Dr. Stevenson, an eminent physician of £din« 
burgh, he formed the benevolent design of removing the 
author to that city, where his genius might be improved 
by a regular education. He came accordingly to Edinburgh 
in the year 1741, and continued his studies in the univer-r 
sity, under his kind patron, till the year 1745. In 1746 a 
volume of his poems, in octavo, was published, but with 
what effect we are not told. The rebellion, however, 
which then raged in Scotland, disturbed arts and learning, 
and our author returned to Dumfries, where he found an 
asylum in the house of Mr. M*Murdo, who had married 
his sister, and who, by company and conversation, en- 
deavoured to amuse his solitude, and keep up his stock of 
learning. At the close of the rebellion he returned to 
Edinburgh, and pursued his studies for six years longer. 

He now obtained the acquaintance of Hume, the cele- 
brated historiai), who interested himself with great zeal in 
his behalf, and among oth^r services, promoted the pub- 
lication of the quarto edition of his poems in 1756.; but 
previously to this a second edition of the octavo had been 
published at Edinburgh in 1754. In this last mentioned 
year he became known to the Rev. Joseph Spence, poetry 
professor of Oxford, who introduced him to the English 
public by " An Account of the Life, Character, and Poems 
of Mr. Blacklock, student of philosophy in the university 
of Edinburgh." In this pamphlet Mr. Spence detailed the 
extraordinary circiimistances of his education and genius 

330 B L A C K L O C K. 

with eqaal taste and humanity, and a subscription was iai« 
mediately opened at Dodsley's shop for a quarto edition, 
to be published at a guinea the large^ and half a guinea 
the small paper. 

Having completed his education at the university, he 
began a course of study, with a view to give lectures on 
oratory to young gentlemen intended for the bar or the 
pulpit, but by Hume's advice he desisted from a project 
which the latter thought unlikely to succeed, and deter- 
mined to study divinity, which promised to gratify and 
enlarge the pious feelings and sentiments that had grown 
up with him. Accordingly, after the usual probationary 
course, he was licensed a preacher of the gospel, agree- 
ably to the rules of the church of Scotland, in 1759. In 
this character he attained considerable reputation, and 
was fond of composing sermons, of which he has left some 
volumes in manuscript, and a treatise of morals, both of 
which his friends once intended for the press. Two occa- 
sional sermons are said to have been published in his life- 
time, but {Irobably never reached this country, as no no- 
tice of them occurs in our literary journals. 

His occupations and disposition at this period of his life 
are thus related by the rev. Mr. Jameson, of Newcastle, 
who knew him intipiately. 

^' His manner of life (says that gentleman) was so uni- 
form, that the history of it during one day, or one week, is 
the history of it during the seven years that bur personal 
intercourse lasted. Reading, music, walking, conversing, 
and disputing on various topics, in theology, ethics, &c* 
employed almost every hour of our time. It was pleasant 
to hear him engaged in a dispute, for no man could keep his 
temper better than he always did on such occasions. I have 
known hinl frequently very warmly engaged for hours to* 
^ether, but never could observe one angry word to fall 
from him. Whatever his antagonist might say, he always 
kept his temper. * Semper paratus et refellere sine perti- 
nacia, et refelli sine iracundia,* He was, however, ex- 
tremely sensible to what he thought ill usage, and equally 
so whether it regarded himself or his friends. But his re-;- 
Sentment was always confined to a few satirical verses, 
which wfere generally burnt soon after,'* 

" The late Mr. Spence (the editor of the quarto edition 
of his poems) frequently urged him to write a tragedy ; and 
Assured him that he had interest enough with JVlrV GafricI^ 

B L AC K L O C K. 831 

to get it acted. Various subjects were proposed to him, 
several of which he approved of, yet he never could be 
prevailed on to begin anything of that kind^. It may 
seem remarkable, but as far as I know, it was invariably 
the case, that he never could think or write on any subject 
proposed to him by anot;her. 

"I have frequently admired with what readiness and 
rapidity he could sometimes make verses. I have known 
him dictate from thirty to forty verses, and by no means 
bad ones, as fast as I could write them ; but the moment 
he was at a loss for a rhyme or a verse to his liking, he 
stopt altogether, and could very seldom be induced to 
finish what he had begun with so much ardour." 
. To this his elegant biographer adds : ^^ Ail those 
who ever acted as his amanuenses, agree in this rapidity 
and ardour of composition which Mr. Jameson ascribes to 
him in the account I have copied above. He never could 
dictate till h^ stood up ; and as his blindness made ^yalking 
about without assistance inconvenient or dangerous to him;, 
he fell insensibly into a vibratory sort of motion of his body, 
which increased as he warmed with his subject, and was' 
pleased with the conceptions of his mind. This motion at 
last became habitual to him, and though he could some- 
times restrain it when on ceremony, or in any public ap- 
pearance, such as preaching, he felt a certain uneasiness 
from the effort, and always returned to it when he could 
indulge it without impropriety." 

In 1762, he married miss Sarah Johnston, daughter of 
Mr. Joseph Johnston, surgeon in Dumfries, a connexion 
which formed the great solace of his future life. About 
the same time he was ordained minister of the town and 
parish of Kircudbright, in consequence of a presentation 
from the crown, obtained for him by the earl of Selkirk ; 
butfbe parishioners having objected to the appointment, 
fifter a l^gal disj^iute of nearly two years, his friends advised 
him to resign bis ngbt, and accept of a moderate annuity 
in its stead. If their principal objection was to his want 
of sight, it was certainly not unreasonable. He would pro- 
bably in the course of a few years have found it very in- 

^ Mr. Jameson was probably igpo* eaqnot recollect. The manuscript was 

raot of the circumstance of his writing, put into the hands of the- late Mr. 

pt a Bjibsequent period, a tragedy ; Crosbie, then an eminent advocate at 

bmt upon what subject, bis relation, thebar of ScotUnd, but has never sioco 

fiQff^ whoqd I received the intelli|(ence| been recovered. Mackemzx^. 


convenient, if not painful, to execute all the duties of the 
pastoral 6ffice. With the slender provision allowed by thii^ 
parish, he returned to Edinburgh in 1764, and adopted the 
plan of receiving a limited number of young gentlemen 
into his house, not only as boarders, but as pupils whose 
studies be might occasionally assist. And this plan sue* 
ceeded so well that he continued it till 17 87, when age 
and infirmity obliged him to retire from active life. In 
1767, the degree of D. D. was conferred upon him by the 
university and M;arischal college of Aberdeen, doubtless 
at the suggestion of his friend and correspondent. Dr. 
Beattie, to whom he had in the preceding year sent a pre- 
sent of his works, accompanied by some verses. Dn 
Beattie returned a poetical epistle, which is now prefixed 
to Blacklock's poems, and ever after maintained a corre-^ 
spondence with him, and consulted him upon all his sub« 
sequent works, particularly bis celebrated ^^ Essay on 
Truth;* > 

In the same year, he published ^' Paraclesis; or conso«< 
lations deduced from natural and revealed Religion: in 
two dissertations ; the first, supposed to have been com^ 
posed by Cicero ; now rendered into English : the last 
originally written by Dr. Blacklock.'' The plan of the 
original dissertation is to prove the superiority of the con- 
solations to be derived from the Christian revelation ; but 
it is painful to find by his preface that his motive for wri- 
ting it, was' ^^ to alleviate the pressure of repeated disap- 
pointments ; to sooth his anguish for the loss of departed 
friends, to elude the rage of implacable and unprovoked 
f ncmies ; in a word, to support his own mind, which, for a 
pumber of years, besides its literary difficulties, and its 
patural dis^dvantsiges, had maintained an incessant conflict 
^ith fortune.^' Of what nature his disappointments were, 
or who could be implacable enemies to such a man, m# are 
l^ot told. His biographer, indeed, informs us that he *' had 
from nature a constitution delicate and nervous, and his 
ixiind, as is almost always the case, was in a gre^t degree 
subject to the indisposition^ of his body. He frequently 
complained of a lowness and depression of spirits, which 
neither the attentions of bis firiends, nor the unceasing care 
~pf a most affectionate wife, were able entirely to remove.'* 
j^et us bop^, therefore, for the honour of mankind, that 
his complaints, were those, not of a man who had enehiies^ 
but of one who was sensible that, with strong powers of 

B L A C K L O C K. S3S 

wiind, and well-<*foiinded consolations, he was yet excluded 
from many of the rational delights of which he heard others^ 
«peak, and of which, if he formed any idea, it was pro- 
bably disproportionate and distressing. 

In 1763 he published a translation, from the French of 
the rev. James Armand, minister of the Walloon church in 
Hanau, of two discourses on the spirit and evidences of 
Christianity, with a long dedication from his own pen, cal« 
culated for the perusal of the clergy of the church of Scotf 
kad. In this, as in all his prose writings, his style is ele-- 
gant, nervous, and animated, and his sentiments such as 
indioate the purest zeal for the interests of religion. His 
last publication, in 1774, was '^ The Graham, an heroic 
ballad ; in four cantos,'' intended to promote harmony be- 
tween the inhabitants of Scotland and England. As a 
poem, however, it added little to his reputation, and has 
been excluded from the collection of his works formed by 
Mr. Mackenzie, and adopted in the late edition of th^ 
English poets, 

. In 1791 he was seized with a feverish disorder, which 
at first seemed of a slight, and never rose to a very violent 
kind ; but his weak frame was unable to support it, and lie 
died after about a week's illness, July 7, 1791, in the 
seventieth year of his age. A monument was afterwards 
erected to his memory, with an elegant Latin inscription 
from the pen of Dr. Seattle. 

Such are the few events of Dr. Blacklock's life. His 
character, and the character of his writings, are more inte*- 
resting, and will probably ever continue to be the subject 
of contemplation with all who study the human mind, or 
revere the dispensations of Providence. His perseverance 
in acquiring so extensive a fund of learning, amidst those 
privations ^hich seem to barr all access to improvement, 
16 an extraoi^inary feature in his character, and notwith* 
standing the kind zed of the friends who endeavoured to 
make tkp for his want of siglit by reading to him, many of 
his attainment must ever remain inexplicable. 
. With respect to his personal character, his biographer, 
i^nd indeed all who* knew him, have expatiated on the 
gentleness of his manners, the benignity of his disposition, 
and that warm interest in the happiness of others which 
led him so' constantly to promote it in the young people 
who were Committed to his charge. In their society he 
appeared entirely to forget the loss of sight, and the me^ 

SH B L A C K L O C K. 

lancholy which, at other times^ it might produce. ^^ lie 
entered/' says his biographer, '^ with the cheerful playful^ 
ness of a young man, into all the sprightly narrative^ 
the sportive fancy, the humorous jest that rose around him. 
It was a sirght highly gratifying to philanthropy, to see how 
much a mind endowed with knowledge, kindled by genius^ 
and above all, lighted up with innocence and piety, like 
Blacklock's, could overcome the weight of its own calamity, 
and enjoy the content, the happiness, and the gaiety of 
others. Several of those inmates' of Dr. Blacklock's house 
retained, in future life, all the warmth of that impression, 
which his friendship at this early period had made upon 
them ; and in various quarters of the world he had &iend» 
and correspondents from whom no length of time or dis-* 
tance of place had ever estranged him. 

*^ Music, which tp the feeling and the pensive, in what-* 
ever situation, is a source of extreme delight, but which to 
the blind must be creative, as it were, of idea and of sen- 
timent, he enjoyed highly, and was himself a tolerable per- 
former on several instruments, particularly on the flute. 
He generally carried in his pocket a small flageolet *, oa 
which he played his favourite tunes ; and was not displeased 
Avhen asked in company to play or to sing them.; a natural 
feeling for a blind man, who thu^ adds a scene to the 
drama of his society." . * 

With regard to his poetry, there seems no. occasion ta 
involve ourselves: in the perplexities which Mr. Spcnce first 
created, and then injudiciously -as well as ineffectually en- 
deavoured to explain. The character of his poetry is that 
of sentiment and reason ; his versification is in general ele- 
gant and harmonious, and bis thoughts sometimes flow 
with an ardent rapidity that betokens real genius. But it 
is. impossible to ascribe powers of description to one who 
liad seen nothing to describe ; nor of ii^vention to one who 
had no materials upon which he could operate. Where 
we find any passages that a{>proach to the de^ription of 
visible objects, we must surely attribute them to memory. 
As he had the best English poets ff€quently jcead to him, 
be attained a free command of the language of poetry, 

* " His first idea of learning to play a dfeam, ii) which he thought he met 

oo this instrunent he used to ascribe with a shepherd's boy on the side of a 

to a circamstance, rather upcommoo, pastotal hill, who biougldt the moifc 

but which, to a mind like his, suscep- exquisite music from that littli^ instfii* 

tible at the same time and creatiTe, meat'' Mackenzie.' 

might oaturally «nQogh ans«« namely, \' 


both in simple and compound words, and we know that 
all poets consider those as common property. It is not, 
therefore, wonderful, that he speaks so often of mounts^ins, 
valleys, rivers, nor that he appropriates tp visible objects their 
peculiar characteristics, all which he must have heard re- 
peated until they became fixed in his memory ; but as no. 
man pursues long what affords little more than the exer- 
cise of conjecture, we are still perplexed to discover what 
pleasure Mr. Blacklock could take, first in a specifes of 
reading which could give him no ideas,, and then in a 
species of writing in which he could copy only the ex- 
pressions of others. He has himself written a very long 
article on blindness in the Encyclopedia Britannica, but 
it affords no light to the present subject, containing chiefly 
reflections on the disadvantages of blindness, and the best, 
means of alleviating them. His poems, however, espe- 
. cially where attempts are made at description, indicate, 
powers which seem to have wanted the aid of sight only to 
bring them into the highest rank. We know that poetical 
genius is almost wholly independent of learning, and seems 
often planted in a soil where nothing else will flourish; 
but Blacklock's is altogether an- extraordinary case : we. 
have not even terms by which we can intelligibly dis- 
cuss his merits, and we may conclude with Denina in his 
Dtscorso deUa Literatura, that Blacklock will appear to 
posterity a fable, as to us he is a prodigy. It will be 
thought a fiction, a paradox, that a man blind from his 
infancy, besides having made himself so much a master 
of various foreign languages, should be a great poet in 
his own ; and without having hardly ever seen the light, 
should be so remarkably happy in description. • 

BLACKMORE (Sir Richard), physician to king Wil- 
liam III. and queen Anne, and a very voluminous writer, 
was son of Mr. Robert Blackjnore, an attorney at law. He 
received the first part gf his education at a country school, 
from whence he. was removed to Westminster in the thirteenth 
year of his age. He was afterwards sent to St. Edmund's- 
hall, in the university of Oxford, where he continued 
thirteen years. He is said to have been engaged for some 
time in the profession of a school -master ; but it is pro- 
bable he did not long continue in that situation ; and, says 
^r* Johnson, to have been once a schoolmaster, is tl>e 

' ' English Poeti, edit. 1810, vol. XVIIL 

S36 p L A C K M a R E. 

only reproach which all the perspicacity of malice, animated 
by wit, has ever fixed upon his private life. It appears 
that he travelled afterwards into Italy, and took the de- 
gree of doctor in physic, at the university of Padua. He 
also visited France, Germany, and the Low Countries, 
and having spent about a year and a half abroad, he re« 
turned again to England. On his arrival in London, he 
engaged in the practice of physic there, and was chosdh 
fellow of the royal college of physicians. He early dis- 
covered his attachment to the principles of the revolution ; 
and this circumstance, together with the eminence which 
he bad attained in his profession, recommended him to 
the notice and favour of king William. Accordingly, ia 
1697, he was appointed one of his majesty's physicians in 
ordinary ; he had also a gold medal and chain bestowed 
on him by that prince, and received from him the ho* 
Hour of knighthood. Upon the king's death, he was one 
of the physicians Who gave their opinions at the opening 
of his majesty's body. When queen Anne ascended the 
throne, he was appointed one of h^r physicians, and con- 
tinued in that station for some time. Sir Richaird Black- 
more was the author of a variety of pieces both in prose 
and verse ; and the generality of bis productions had? 
many admirers in his own time ; for the third edition 
of his " Prince Arthur, an heroic poem in ten books," 
was published in 1696, fol. The following year he also 
published in folio " King Arthur, an heroic poem, in twelve 
books.** In 1700 he published in folio, in verse, ** A Pa- 
raphrase on the book of Job ; as likewise on the songs of 
Moses, Deborah, David ; on four select Psalms ; some 
chapters of Isaiah ; and the third chapter of Habbakuk.** 
He appears to have been naturally of a very serious turn, 
and therefore took great offence at the licentious and im- 
moral tendency of many of the productions of his contem- 
porary authors. To pass a censure upon^ese was the 
design of his poem, entitled " A Satire upon Wit," or 
rather the abuse of it, which was first published in 1700. 
But this piece was attacked and ridiculed by many dif- 
ferent writers, and there seemed to be a kind of confe- 
deracy of the wits against him. How much, however, 
they felt his reproof,^ appears from the following circum- 
stance. In Tom Brown's works /are upwards of twenty 
different satirical pieces in verse against Blackmore, said 
to be written by colonel Codrington, sir Charles Sedley^ 

B L A C K M O R E. 337 

colonel Blount, sir Samuel Garth, sir Bichard Steele, Dr. 
Smith, Mr. William Burnaby, the earl of Anglesea, the 
countess of Sandwich, Mr. Manning, Mr. Mildmay, Dr. 
Drake, colonel Johnson, Mr. Richard Norton, &,c. and 
mgst of these pieces are particularly levelled at our au- 
thor's ** Satire upon Wit," One topic of abuse against 
Blackmore was, that he lived in Cheapside. He was 
sometimes called the " Cheapside Knight," and the ** City 
Bard;" and Garth's verses, in the collection just cited^ 
are addressed ^^ to the merry Poetaster at Sadlers Hall ii^ 
Cheapside." In Cibber's lives we are also told, that " sir 
Richard had, by the freedom of his censures on the liber«' 
tine writers of his age, incurred the heavy displeasure of 
Dryden, who takes all opportunities to ridicule him, and 
somewhere says, that he wrote to the rumbling of his 
chariot-wheels. And as if to be at enmity with Black^more 
had been hereditary to our greatest poets, we find Mr. 
Pope taking up the quarrel where Dryden left it, and per- 
secuting this worthy man with yet a severer degree qf 
satire. . Blackmore had been informed by Curl, that Mr. 
Pope was the author of a Travestie on the ifirst Psalm^ 
which he takes occasion to reprehend in his ^ Essay on Po- 
lite Learning,' vol. IL p. 270. He ever considered it as 
the disgrace of genius, that it should be employed to burr 
lesque any of the sacred compositions, which, as they 
speak the language of inspiration, tend to awaken the soul 
to virtue, and inspire it with a sublime devotion." 

On the 16th of November 1713, he began a paper, 
printed three times a week, called the " Lay Monk.'* 
Only forty numbers of it were published, which, in 1714, 
were collected into a volume, under the tide of the "Lay 
Monastery." The Friday's papers in this collection were 
written by Hughes, and the rest by sir Richard. In a let* 
ter to Mr. Hughes, he declared that he was not deter- 
mined to the undertaking by a desire of fame or profit, 
but from a regard to the public good. In 1716, he pub- 
lished in 2 vols. 8v0, " Essays upon several subjects," and 
in 1718, "A collection of poems," in 1 vol. 8vo. But the 
work which procured him the greatest reputation, was his 
'^ Creation, a philosophical poem,- demonstrating the Ex- 
istence and Providence of a God, in seven books." This 
passed through several editions, and was greatly applauded 
by Mr. Addison. Mr. Locke also formed a very favour- 
j^ble opinion of sir Richard Blackpctore ^ although perhaps hp 

Vol. V. Z 

S38 B L A C K M O R B;. 

estimated his poetical talents too highly. In 1 7^1, onr author 
published in 12mo, ** A new version of the Psalms of 
David, fitted to the tunes used in churches.'* This was 
recommended by public authority, as proper to be used in 
the churches and chapels of England, but it does not ap- 
pear to have been generally adopted. Towards the close 
of his life, his practice as a physician is said to hare de-< 
clined ; which might probably arise from the numerous 
attempts which were made to lessen his reputation. He 
died on the &th Of October, 1729, in an advanced age; 
and manifested in bis last illness the same fervent piety, 
which had distinguished htm in his life. He was certainly 
a man of considerable learning and abilities, and a most 
zealous advocate for the interests of religion and virtue. 
He wrote, indeed, too much, and was deficient in point 
of taste ; nor did he take sufiicient time to polish his com- 
positions. But he was far from being destitute of genius; 
and it is sufficiently manifest, that it was not his dullness, 
"which excited so much animosity against him. Hardly any 
author has ever been more satirized than sir Richard Black- 
more, and yet, so far as we can judge from his writings^ 
there have been few, perhaps none, who have had better 
intentions. He had very just ideas of the true ends of 
MTiting ; and it would have been happy for the world, if 
such ideas had been adopted by, and really influenced, 
authors of more brilliant genius. And though his historical 
and epic poems exposed him to some degree of ridicule, 
j^et he was far from being a proper object of the extreme 
contempt with which he was treated. The merit of bis 
poem on Creation, and the excellency of his life, might 
have procured him better usage. And whatever wer^ 
the defects of his com|)Ositions, he was justly entitled to 
commendation for the morality of their tendency. He 
who labours to reform mankind is more deserving of our 
esteem, than he who would corrupt them, whatever may 
i)e the powers of genius possessed by the latter, or what- 
ever reputation his wit may have procured him. The 
fashion of the times, or the mutual jealousies and animosi- 
ties of contemporary wits and authors, often occasion great 
injustice to be done to worthy men and useful writers. 
But time will, generally, in a great degree, remove suck 
prejudices ; and those who form an impartial^ estimate of 
the character and various productions of Blackmore, wiH 
acknowledge, that as a writer, with all bis faults, be had 

B L A C K M O R E. 33d 

totisiderable merit ; that as a man, he was justly entitled 
to great applause. For, numerous as bis enemies and op- 
ponents were, they seem to have been incapable of fixing 
the least imputation upon his character ; and those who 
personally knew him spoke highly of his virtues. We 
think it an act of justice to endeavour to remove from a 
worthy man some part of that load of obloquy with which 
bis memory has been overwhelmed. To this character, 
from the Biog. Britannica, we may add, that Dr. Johnson 
has increased the number of those liberal-minded men 
who have endeavoured to rescue sir Richard Blackmore's 
name from the contempt with which it has been treated, 
and to do justice to his abilities as well as his virtues* 
To. his " Creation" the doctor has given high praise, 
and has drawn the character of it with singular precision 
and elegance. From the inaccuracy with which Black- 
more in his poems has pronounced the ancient names 
of nations or places, Dr. Johnson has inferred, that the 
thirteen years. he spent at the university, seem to have 
passed with very little attention to the business of the 
place. A strong testimony, however, to his diligence 
whilst at Edmund-hall, has lately been produced in the 
Gentleman's Magazine, from Turner's " Book of Provi- 
dence." *^ Dr. Richard Blackmore," says Turner, " my 
contemporary and colleague (fellow collegian) at Oxon, 
now Jiving, and one of the college in London, was, in his 
first years, one of the most eager and diligent students I 
ever knew ; sitting up at his book till twelve, one, two, 
and sometimes three o'clock in the morning, and theii 
lying down only upon his chairs till prayer -time, till his 
health broke, and he was constrained by necessity to re- 
tire into the country, to repair himself by physic." 

Besides the works mentioned in this account of his life, 
sir Richard wrote : 1. " Eliza, a poem in ten books,." 
1705, folio. 2. "The Redeemer, a poem in six books,'* 
1721, 8vo. 3. "King Alfred, in twelve books," 1723, 
8vo. 4, " History of the Conspiracy against king WiU 
liam the Third," 1723, 8vo. 5. " A discourse on the 
Plague, with a preparatory account of malignant fevers, 
in two parts ;. containing an explication of the nature of 
those diseases, and the methods of cure," 1720, 8 vo. 
6. " A treatise on the Small-pox, in two parts \ and a 
dissertation upon the modern practice of Inoculation," 
!722, 8vo. 7. "A treatise on Consumptions and other 
distempers belonging to the breast and lungs," 1724, 8vo.. 

z 2 

'340 B L A C K M O It E. 


8. " A treatise on the Spleen and Vapours, or hypbcbotl^ 
-driacal and hysterical affections ; with three discourses oti 
the nature and cure of the Cbolic, Melancholy, and Palsy,*' 
1725, 8vo. 9. ** A critical dissertation upon the Spleen,** 
1725. 10. '^Discourses on the Gout, Rheumatism, and 
the King's Evil," 1726, 8vo. 11. " Dissertations on a 
Di*opsy, a Tympany, the Jaundice, the Stone, and the 
Diabetes," 1727, Svo. 12. " Just prejudices against the 
Arian hypothesis," 1725, Svo. 13. " Modern Arians un- 
masked," 1721, Svo. 14. " Natural Theology, or moral 
Duties considered apart from positive : with some ob- 
^rvations on the desirableness and necessity of a super* 
^;Uural revelation," 1728, Svo. 15. " The accomplished 
Preacher; or, an essay upon divine eloquence," 1731, 
^vo. This last piece was published after the author's 
death, in pursuance of his express order, by the rev. Mr. 
John White, of Nayland, in £ssex ; who attended sir 
Richard during his last illness, and bore testimony to the 
elevated piety with which he prepared for his approaching 
dissolution. ' 

BLACKSTONE (Sir William), knight, and LL. D. 
an illustrious English lawyer, was born July 10, 1723, in 
Cheapside, in the parish of St. Michael-le-Querne, at 
the house of his father, Mr. Charles Blackstone, a silk- 
man, and citizen and bowyer of London, who was the 
third son of Mr. John Blackstone, an eminent apothecary, 
in Newgate-street, descended from a family of that name 
in the west of England, at or near Salisbury. His mother 
was Mary, eldest daughter of Lovelace Bigg, esq. of Chil- 
ton Foliot, in Wiltshire. He was the youngest of four 
children, of whom, John died an infant, Charles, the 
eldest, and Henry, the third, were educated at Winches- 
ternschool, under the care of their uncle Dr. Bigg, warden 
of that society, and were afterwards both fellows of New 
college, Oxford. Charles became a fellow of Winchester, 
and rector of Wimering, in Hampshire ; and Henry, after 
having practised physic for sofne years, went into holy 
orders, and died in 1778, rector of Adderburyj in Oxford- 
shire, a living in the gift of New-college. Their father 
died some months before die birth of the subject of this 
article, and their mother died before he was twelve years 

1 Biog. Brit — Gibber's Lives.— >Jobnsen^s Liyes.— Bowleses edit pf Popv't 
Works. — Dr. Johnson's Works.— Gent. -Mag, vol. LVIf. p. 749.— Malonc's 
J)ryden,-vol. IV. p. 647. 

B L A C K S T O N E. 341 

. From bis birth, tbe care both of his education and for<» 
tune was kindly undertaken by bis maternal uncle, Mr. 
l^bomas Bigg, an eminent surgeon in London, and after'- 
wards, on tbe death of bis eldest brothers, owner of the^ 
Chilton estate, which, if we mistake not, is still enjoyed 
by that family. The affectionate care of this uncle, in 
giving all his nephews a liberal education, supplied the 
great loss they had so early sustained, and compensated, 
in a great degree, for their want of more ample fortunes, 
and it was always remembered by them with the sincerest 
gratitude. In 1730, being about seven years of age, he 
was put to school at the Charter-house, and in 1735 wafl, 
by the nomination of sir Robert Walpole, on the recom^* 
mendation of Charles Wither, of Hall, in Hampshire, esq.. 
his cousin by the mother^s side, admitted upon the foua* 

In this excellent seminary he applied himself to every- 
branch of youthful education, with the same assiduity which 
accompanied his studies through life. His talents and in-* 
dustry rendered him the favourite of bis masters, who en-* 
couraged and assisted him with the utmost attention ; so 
that at the age of fifteen he was at the head of the school, 
and, although so young, was thought well qualified to be 
removed to the university ; and he was accordingly en« 
tered a commoner at Pembroke college, Oxford, Nov. 30, 
1738, and was the next day matriculated. At this tineie 
he was elected to one of the Charter-house exhibitions, by 
the governors of that foundation, to commence from the 
Michaelmas preceding, but was permitted to coatinue a 
scholar there till after the 12th of December, beiag the 
anniversary commemoration of the founder, to give him 
an opportunity of speaking the customary oration, whiefa 
he had prepared, and which did him much credit. Abeul 
this time, also, he obtained Mr. Benson^s gold prize medal 
of Milton, for verses on that poet. Thus, before he 
quitted school, his genius received public marks of ap« 
probation and reward; and so well pleased was the society 
of Pembroke collie with their young pupil, that, in the 
February following, they unanimously elected him to one 
of iady Holford's exhibitions for Charter •house scholars in 
that bouse. , 

Here he prosecuted his studies with unremitting ard^iu:, 
and, although the classics, and particularly the Greek aiKJl 
^om^apaets, were hi^ favourites, they did not ent^/slyi 

342 B L A C K S T O N E. 

engross bis attention ; logic, mathematics, and the other 
sciences were not neglected. From the first of these, 
(studied rationally, abstracted from the jargon of the schools), 
he laid the foundation of that close method of reasoning 
for which he was so remarkable ; and from the mathe- 
matics, he not only reaped the benefit of using his mind 
to a close investigation of every subject that occurred to 
him, till he arrived at the degree of demonstration which 
the nature of it would admit, but converted that dry study, 
as it is usually thought, into an amusement, by pursuing 
the branch of it which relates to architecture. This sci- 
ence he was peculiarly fond of, and made hirtiself so far 
roaster of it, that at the early age of twenty, he compiled, 
a treatise entitled " Elements of Architecture," intended 
for his own use only, and not for publication, but esteemed 
by those judges who have perused it, in no. respect un- 
worthy of his maturer judgment, and more exercised pen. 

Having determined on his future plan of life, and made 
ehoice of the law for his profession, he was entered in the 
Middle Temple, Nov. 20, 1741, and found it necessary to 
quit the more amusing pursuits of his youth for the se- 
verer studies ta which he had dedicated himself, and be- 
took himself seriously to reading law. His sensations on 
this occasion are admirably expressed in some verses since 
published in Dodsley's poems, vol. IV. entitled " The 
Lawyer's Farewell to his Muse," in which the straggle of 
bis mind is expressed so strongly, so naturally, with such 
elegance of language, and harmony of versification, as 
must convince every reader, that his passion for the muses 
was too deeply rooted to be laid aside without much reluc- 
tance ; and that if he had pursued that fiowery path, he 
would not, perhaps, have proved inferior to the best of 
our modern poets. Several little fugitive pieces, besides 
this, have at times been communicated by him to his 
friends, and he left {but not with a view to publication) a 
small collection of juvenile pieces, both originals and 
translations, which do him no discredit, inscribed with thi^ 
litie, from Horace, 

" Nee lusisse pudet^ sed non inddere ludum.*' 

Some notes on Shakspeare, which just before his death 
he communicated to Mr. Malone, and which were inserted 
byhim in his supplement to Johnson and Steevens's edition 
ef that author, shew how well he understood the meaning, 
^9 well as the beauties^ of that, his favourite among the 


B L A C K S T O N E, 84^ 

Snglish poets ; and we may mention likewise his elegant 
and acute defence of Addison, inserted in the life of that 
author^ in the second edition of the Biographia Britanoica. 

Ill November 1743, he was * elected into the society of 
All Souls'coliegej and in the November following, bespoke 
the annual speech in commemoration of archbishop Chi-i 
chele, the founder, and the other benefactors to that 
house of learning, and was admitted actual fellow. From 
this period he divided his time between tlie university and 
the Temple, where he took chambers in order to attend the 
courts : in the former he pursued his academical studies, 
and, on the 12th of June 1745, commenced B. C. L. ; in 
the latter he applied himself closely to his profession, 
both in tiie hall, and in his private studies, and on the. 
28th of November 1746, was called to the bar. 

The first years of a counsel's attendance on the courts 
afford little, matter proper, to be inserted in a narrative of 
this kind}' and he, in particular, not being happy in a 
graceful f delivery, or a flow of elocution, (both of which 
he much* v^ai>ted}, nor having any powerful friends or con-» 
nexions to recommend him, made his way very slowly, and 
acquired Uttle notice and little practice ; yet he then began 
to lay in that store of knowledge in the law which he has' 
since communicated to the world, and contracted an ac- 
quaintance with several of the most eminent men in that 
profession, who saw through the then intervening cloud, 
those talents which afterwards were exerted with so much- 

At Oxford his active mind had more room to display- 
Itself; and being elected into the office of Bursar, soon- 
after he bad taken his degree, and finding the muninaent& 
of the college in a confused, irregular state, he undertook; 
and completed a thorough search, and a new arrangement, 
from whence that society reaped great advantage. He 
found also, in the execution of this office, the method of 
keeping accounts in use among the older colleges, though, 
very exact, yet rather tedious^ and perplexed; he drew^ 
up, therefore, a dissertation on the i^ubject, in which he 
entered into the whole theory, and elucidated every intri^ 
cacy that might occur. A copy of this tract is still pfe*- 
served, for the benefit of his successors id the Bursarsbip^ 
But it was not merely the estates, muniments, and s^^pount^, 
of the college, about which he was usefully employed- 
during his residence in that society. Th^ ^od^ingtQ^ 

^44 B L A C K S T O N E. 

fibritry had for many years remained an unfinisfaed boilding. 
He hastened the completion of it, rectified several mis* 
takes in the architecture, and formed a new arrangement 
of the books under their respective classes. 

The late duke of Wharton, who had engaged himself 
by bond to defray the expence of building the apartments 
between the library and common room, being obliged soon 
after to leave his country, and dying in very distressed 
circumstances, the discharge of this obligation was long 
despaired of. It happened, however, in a course of years, 
that his grace^s executors were enabled to pay his debts ; 
when, by the care and activity of Mr. Blackstone, the 
building was completed, the college thereby enabled to 
make its demand, and the whole benefaction recovered. 
In May 1749, as a small reward for his services, and to 
give him further opportunities of advancing the interests 
of the coUeg^i he was appointed steward of their, manors ;' 
and in the same year, on the resignation of bis V||[<cl6 Sey- 
mour Richmond, esq. h(^ was elected record^^of tb^ 
borough of Wallingford, in Berkshire, and recced the 
ting's approbation on tbew30th of May. 

The 26th of April, 1750, he commenced doctor of civil 
law, and thereby became a member of the convocation ; 
which enabled hini to extend his views beyond the narrow 
circle of his own society, to the general benefit of the uni- 
versity at large. In this year he published *^ An essay on 
GoHateral Consanguinity," relative to the claim made by 
such as could by a pedigree prove themselves of kin to the 
founder of All-Souls college, of being elected preferably 
to all others into that society. Those claims became now 
so numerous, that the college, with reason, complained of 
being freqiicfntly precluded from making choice of the 
most ingenious and deserving candidates. In this treatise, 
iVhich was his first publication^ he endeavoured jto prove, 
that as the kindred to the founder, a Popish ecclesiastic^ 
could be;6nly'c<)llat«ral, the length of time elapsed since 
Bis death niust, aceoifding to the rules both of the civil and 
canon law, 'have exitinguisbed consanguinity ; or that the 
whole race'of mankind were equally founders* kinsmen. » 
This work, although it did not answer the end proposed, 
or convince the then visitor, yet did the author great cre- 
dit ; and shewed- that he had read much, and well digested 
^at he* had read. And most probably, the arguments 
contained' in -it had some weight wilb ius Qrace the late 


archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Cornwallis, when about 
forty years ago, on« application to him, as visitor of the 
college, he formed a new regulation, which gives general 
satisfaction, by limiting the number of Founder's kin ; by 
which the inconvenience complained of was in a great 
measure removed, without annihilating a claim founded ou 
the express words of the college statutes. In forming this 
new regulation, his* Grace made choice of Mr. Blackstona 
as hw cOmmon^law assessor, together with Dr. Hay the 

After having attended the courts in Westminster-hall 
for seven years, and finding the profits of his profession 
very inadequate to the expence, in the summer of 1753^ 
he determined to retire to his fellowship and an academicadi 
life, still continuing the practice of bis profession, as a 
provincial counsel. He had previously planned, what he 
noif b^an to execute, his ^' Lectures on the Laws of 
Engtanli^^' a work which has so justly signalized his name* 
In the^^suing Michaelm^ term he entered on his new 
proviflW of reading these lectures ; which, even at their 
commencement, such wQie th€ expectations formed from 
the acknowledged abilities of the lecturer, were attended 
by a very crowded class of young men of the first families, 
characters, and hopes. In July, 1755, he was appointed 
one of the delegates of the Clarendon press. On his ^ 
entering on this office, he discovered many abuses which 
required correction ; and much mismanagement which de« 
manded new and effectual regulations. In order to obtain 
a thorough insight into the nature of both, he made him- 
self master of the mechanical part of printing ; and to pro-^ 
mote and complete a reform, he printed a letter on the 
subject, addressed td Dn Randolph, then vice-chancellor. 
This and his other endearvours produced the desired effect; 
and he had the pleasure of seeing, within the course of a 
year, the reform he had proposed, carried into execution. 
About a year before this, he published ^^ An Analysis of 
the Laws of England," as a guide to those gentlemen Who 
attended his lectures, on tlieir first introduction to that 
study; in which he reduced that intricate science to a 
clear method, intelligible to the youngest student. 

In 1757, on the death of Dr. Coxed, warden of Win- 
chester, he was elected by the surviving visitors of Michel's 
new foundation in Queen's college into that body. Thi» 
p^ew situation afforded fjresb, matter for his active genius ^ 

346 B L A C IC S T O K E. 


and it was chiefly by his means that this donation, which 
had been for some years contested, becanae a very valu- 
able acquisition to the college, as well as an ornan^ent to 
the university, by completing that handsome pile of build- 
ing towards the High-street, which for many years had 
been little better than a confused heap of ruins. The .en- 
grafting a new set of fellows and scholars into an old esta- 
blished society could not be an easy task, and in the pre- 
sent instance was become more difficult, from the many 
unsuccessful attempts that had been made, all of which 
had only terminated in disputes between the members of 
the old and the visitors of the new foundation ; yet under 
these circumstances Dr. Blackstone was not disheartened,, 
but formed and pursued a plan, calculated to improve Mr. 
MicbePs original donation, without departing from his in- 
tention ; and had tbe pleasure to see it completed, en- 
tirely to the satisfaction of the members of the old founda- 
tion, and confirmed, together- with a body of statute^ he* 
drew for the purpose, by actof-.parliament, in 176§..- r 

Being engaged as ^counsel i»- the great contiest for 
knights of the shire for the«oun<ty of Oxford in 17-54, he 
very accurately considered a question then much agitated, 

. whether copyholders of a certain nature had a right to vote 
in county elections I He afterwards reduced his thoughts 
on that subject into a small treatise ; and w^s prevailed on 

'by sir Charles Mordaunt, and other members of parliament^ 
who bad brought in a bill to decide that controverted point, 
to publish it in March 1758j under the title of ** Con* 
siderations on Copyholders." And the bill soon after re- 
ceived the sanction of the legislature, and passed into a 

Mr. Viner having by his will left not only the copy-right 
of his abridgement, but other property to a considerable 
amount, to the University of Oxford, to found a professor- 
ship, fellowships, and scholarships of common law, he was 
on the 20th of October, 1758, unanimously elected Vinerian 
professor; and on the 25th of the same month read his 
first introductory lecture ; one of the most elegant and ad« 
mired compositions which any age or country ever pro- 
duced : this he published at the request of the vice-chan- 
cellor and heads of houses, and afterwards prefixed to the 
first volume of his Commentaries. His lectures had now 
gained such universal applause, that he was requested by a 
Qoble personage, who .superintended the edqcsition. of our 

B L A C K S TONE. 947 


present sovereign, then prince of Wales, to read them to 
his royal highness ; but as he was at that time engaged to 
a numerous class of pupils in the university, he thought 
be couJd not, consistently with that engagement, comply 
with this request, and therefore declined it. But he trans-* 
mitted copies of many of them for the perusal of his 
royal highness \ who,- far from being offended at an excuse 
grounded on so honourable a motive, was pleased to order 
a handsome gratuity to be presented to him. 

In 1759 he published two small pieces merely relative to 
the university ; the one entitled, " Reflections on the 
opinions of Messrs. Pratt, Morton, and Wilbraham, relat- 
ing to lord Litchfield^s Disqualification,^^ who was then a 
candidate for the chancellorship : the other, ** A Case for 
the opinion of counsel on the right of the University ta 
make New Statutes," 

Having now established a reputation by his lectures, 
which be justly thought might entitle him to some particu- 
lar notice at the bar, in June 1759, he bought chambers 
in the Temple, resigned the office of assessor of the vice- 
chancellor's court, which he had held about six years, and 
soon after the stewardship of AiUSouls college; and in 
Michaelmas term, 1759, resumed his ^attendance at West-^ 
minster, still continuing to pass some part of the year at 
Oxford, and to read his lectures there, at such times as 
did not interfere with the London terms. The year before 
this he declined the honour of the coif, which he was 
pressed to accept of by lord chief justice Willes and Mr* 
justice (afterwards earl) Bathurst. 

In November 1759, he published a new edition of the 
Great Charter, and Charter of the Forest ; which added 
much to his former reputation, not only as a great lawyer, 
but as an accurate antiquary, and an able historian. It 
must also be added, that the external beauties in the print- 
ing, the types, &c. reflected no small honour on him, as 
the principal reformer of the Clarendon press, from whence 
no work had ever before issued, equal in those particulars 
to this. This publication drew him into a short contro* 
versy with the late Dr. Lyttelton, then dean of Exeter, 
and afterwards bishop of Carlisle. The dean, to assist Mr. 
Blackstone in his publication, had favoured him with the 
collation of a very curious ancient roll, containing both the 
Great Charter, and that of the Forest, of the 9th of Henry 
III. which he and many of his friends judged to be an ori«r 


B L A C K S T O N E. 

ginal. The editor of the Charters, however, thought other*^ 
wise, and excused himself (in a note in his introduction) 
for having made no use of its various readings, *^ as the 
plan of bis edition was confined to charters which had 
passed the great seal, or else to authentic entries and enrol- 
laents of record, under neither of which classes the r<41 in 
question could be ranked.'' The dean,, upon this, con« 
csemed for the credit of his roll, presented to the Society 
of Antiquaries a vindication of its authenticity, dated June 
the 8th, 1761 ; and Mr. Blackstone delivered in an answer 
to the same learned body, dated May the 28th, 1762, al^* 
leging, as an excuse for the trouble he gave theiOy 
*^ that he should think himself wanting in that respect 
which he owed to the society, and Dr. Lyttelton^ if he did 
not either own and correct his .mistakes, in tfte octavo edi* 
tion then preparing for the press, or submit-to the society's 
judgment the reasons at large upon which his suspicions 
were founded." These reasons, we may suppose^ were 
convincing, for here the dispute ended *. 

About the same time he also published a small .treatise 
on the Law of Descents in Fee Simple. « 
. A dissolution of parliament having taken place, he was 
in March 1761, returned burgess for Hindon, in Wiltshire^ 
and on the 6th of May following had a patent of precedence 
granted him to rank as king's counsel, having a few months 
before declined the office of chief justice of the court of 
common pleas in Ireland. 

. Finding himself not deceived in his expectations in re<* 
spect to an increase of business in his profession, he now 
determined to settle in life, and on the 5th of May, 1761, 
he married Sarah the eldest surviving daughter of the late 
James Clitherow, of Coston-^house, in the county of Mid- 
dlesex, esq. with whom he passed near nineteen years in 
the enjoyment of the purest domestic and conjugal felicity^ 
for which no man was better calculated, and which, housed 
often to declare, was the happiest part of his life : by ber 

* It may be here mentioned, that, aj; 
an antiquary, and a member of this so- 
ciety, into which he was admitted Fe- 
bruary the 5ti), 1761, be wrote '<4 
Letter to the hon. Daines Barringfon, 
describing an antique Seal, with some 
Obserrations on its original, and (be 
two sacGessive controversies which the 
disuse of it afterwards occasioned/' 
Tbii Milj iMvifi^ the. royal arnu of 

England on it, was one of those which 
all persons having the exercise of ec- 
clesiastical juriadictioii wt re obliged by 
the statute of the 1st of Ed. VI. ch: 2, 
to mal^e use of. This letter is printed 
in the third Tolame of the Arotoole* 
gia i but his discussion of the merits 
of the Lyttelton roll, though contain- 
ing much good criticisoiii has QOit ye| 
b^eti ofUid^ public. 

B' L A C K S T O N E. 340 

• • 

be had nine children, the eldest and youngest of whom died 
infants : seven survived him ; viz. Henry, James*, William^ 
Charles, Sarah, Mary, and Philippa ; the eldest not much 
ahove the age of 16 at his death. 

His marriage having vacated his fellowship at All-Souls^ 
fae was, on the 28th of July 1761, appointed by the earl of 
Westmoreland, at that time chancellor of Oxford, principal 
of New-inn halt. This was an agreeable residence during 
the time his lectures required him to be in Oxford, and 
was attended with this additional pleasing circumstance^ 
that it gave him rank, as the head of an house iti the nni« 
versity, and enabled him, by that means, to continue to 
promote whatever occurred to him, that might be useful 
and beneficial to that learned body. An attempt being 
made about this time to restrain the power given him, as . 
professor, by the Vinerian statutes, to nominate a deputy 
to read the solemn lectures, he published a state of the case 
for the perusal of the members of convocation ; upon which 
it was dropped. 

In the following year, 1762, he collected and republished 
several of his pieoes, under the title of " Law Tracts," in 
2 vols. 8vo. In 1763, on the establishment ol' the queen^s 
family, Mr. Blackstone was appointed solicitor general to 
her majesty, and was chosen about the same time a bencher 
of the Middle Temple. 

Many imperfect and incorrect copies of his lectures hav^^ 
^ng by ^is time got abroad, and a pirated edition of theia 
being either published, or preparing for publication in Ire- 
land, he found himself under the necessity of printing a 
correct edition himself; and in November, 1765, published 
the first volume, under the title of *^ Commentaries on the 
Laws of England,*^ and in the course of the four succeeding 
years the other tliree volumes, which completed a work 
that will transmit his name to posterity among the first class 
of English authors, and will be universally read and ad-^ 
mired, as long as the laws, the constitution, and the lan- 
guage of this country remain. Two circumstances re- 
specting this' great work, omitted by his biographer, we 
are enabled to add from unquestionable authority. So 
anxious was he that this work should appear with everyt 

I^OBStUe advantage, that he printed three copies of the first 


^ Kow .|»|^ii|oipi^l of New Inn M), ftssesf or to the vi<;e-cliauc«Uorf modr 
deputy Steward. 

550 B L A C K S T O N E. 

Volume, which he sent to three learned friends, for theif 
opinion. — ^The other circumstance does honour to his 
liberality. After reserving the copy-right in his own hands 
for some years, he disposed of it to Messrs. Strahan and 
Cadell for a considerable sum, but as, immediately after 
concluding the bargain, the decision passed the house of 
lord^, which depreciated literary property, he offered 
Messrs. Strahan and Cadell, to cancel the agreement, and 
substitute another, by which he thought they would be 
less injured. These gentlemen, however, met his proposij- 
tion with a corresponding liberality, and the original bar4 
gain stood; and every reader will be glad to hear that they 
were no losers, the work soon becoming, and yet remain* 
ing, in every sense, an English classic. 

In 1766, he resigned the Vinerian professorship, and 
the principality of New-inn hall; finding he could not 
discharge the personal duties of the former, consistently 
with his professional attendance in London, or the delicacy 
of his feelings as an honest man. Thus was he detachedi 
from Oxford, to the inexpressible loss of that university, 
and the great regret of all those who wished well to the 
establishment of the study of the law therein. When he 
first turned his views towards the Vinerian professorship, 
he had formed a design of settling in Oxford for life ; he 
had flattered himself, that by annexing the office of pro^ 
fessor to the principality of one of the halls (and perhaps 
converting it into a college), and placing Mr. Viner's feliowsi 
and scholars under their professor, a society might be estab* 
lished for students of the commbn law, similar to that of 
Trinity hall in Cambridge for civilians. Mr. Viner's will 
very much favoured this plan. He leaves to the university 
*^ all his personal estate, books, &c. for the constituting, 
establishing,, and endowing one or more fellowship or feU 
lowships, and scholarship or scholarships, in any college 
or hall in the said university, as to the convocation shall be 
thought most proper for students of the common law." But 
notwithstanding this plain direction to establish them in 
some college or hall, the clause from the delegates which 
ratified this designation, had the fate to be rejected by a 
negative in convocation. 

In the new parliament chosen in 1768 he was returned 
burgess for Westbury in Wiltshire. In the course of this 
parliament, the question, '^ Whether a member expelled 
was^ or was not, eligible in the same parliament/^ was fre-* 

B L A C K S T O N E- 351 

quently agitated in the house with much warmth; and 
what fell from him in a debate being deemed by some per- 
sons contradictory to what he had advanced on the same 
subject in his Commentaries, he was attacked with much 
asperity, in a pamphlet supposed to be written by a baro- 
net, a member of that house. To this charge he gave an 
early reply in print. In the same year. Dr. Priestley ani- 
madverted on some positions in the same work, relative to 
offences against the doctrine of the established church, to 
which he published an answer, 

**,Mr. Biackstone^s reputation as a great and able lawyer 
was now* so thoroughly established, that had he been pos** 
sessed of a constitution equal to the fatigues attending the 
most extensive business of the profession, be might pro- 
bably have obtained its most lucrative emoluments and 
highest offices. The offer of the solicitor generalship, on 
the resignation of Mr. Dunning, in Jan. 1770, opened the 
most flattering prospects to his view. But the attendance 
on its complicated duties at the bar, and in the house of 
commons, induced him to refuse it. But though he de- 
clined this path, which so certainly, with abilities like Mr. 
Blackstone's, leads to the highest dignities in the law, yet 
he readily accepted the ofiice of judge of the common 
pleas, when offered to him on the resignation of Mr. Justice 
Clive ; to which he was appointed on the 9th of February 
1770. Previous however to the passing his patent, Mr. 
Justice Yates expressed an earnest wish to remove from the 
king^s bench to the court of common pleas. To this wish 
Mr. Blackstone, from motives of personal esteem, consent- 
ed : but en his death, which happened between the en- 
suing Easter and Trinity terms, Mr. Blackstone was ap-* 
pointed to his original destination in the common pleas ; 
and on his promotion to the bench, he resigned the re- 
cordership of Wallingford. 

He seemed now arrived at the point he always wished 
for, and might justly be said to enjoy ^^ otium cum digni* 
tate.** Freed from the attendance at the bar, and what he 
had 3till a greater aversion to, in the senate, ^^ where (to 
use his own expression) amid the rage of contending par- 
ties, a man of moderation must expect to meet with no 
<}uarter from any side,'' although be diligently and con- 
scientiously attended the duties of the high office he was 
tiow placed in, yet the leisure afforded by the legal vaca- 
tions he dedicated to the private duties of life, which, aa* 

552 B L A C K S T O N E. 

the father of a numerous family^ he now found himself 
called upon to exercise, or to literary retirement, and the 
society of bis friends, at his viUa, called Priory-place, in 
Wallingford : which he purchased soon after his marriage^ 
though he had for some years before occasionally resided 
at it. His connection with this town, both from his office 
of recorder, and his more or less frequent residence tbere^ 
from about 1750, led him to form and promote every plan 
which could contribute to its benefit or improvement. To 
bis activity it stands indebted for two new turnpike roads 
through the town ; the one opening a conmiunication, by 
means of a new bridge over the Thames at Shillingford^ 
between Oxford and Reading; the other to Wantage 
through the vale of Berkshire. He was indeed always a 
great promoter of the improvement of public roads : the 
new western road over Botley Causeway was prelected, 
and the plan of it entirely conducted by him. He was the 
more earnest in thi3 design, not merely as a work of gene- 
ral utility and ornament, but as a solid improvement to the 
estate of a nobleman, in settling whose affairs he had been 
most laboriously and beneficially employed* To his archi- 
tectural talents, also, his liberal disposition, his judicious 
zeal, and his numerous friends, Wallingford owes the re- 
building chat handsome fabric, St. Peter's church. These 
were his employments in retirement; in London his 
active mind was never idle, and when not occupied in the 
duties of his station, he was ever engaged in some scheme 
of public utility. The last of this kind in which he was 
concerned, was the act of parliament for providing de- 
tached houses of hard labour for convicts, as a ^substitute 
for transportation. Of this scheme we have just given 
some account in the life of Blackburn the architect. It has 
been put in practice in several counties, but the questioa. 
as to the beneficial effects of solitary confinement, although 
frequently agitated, has not been so completely decided 
as to obviate many obj'ections which have been lately of- 

It ought not to be omitted, that the last augmentation of 
the judges' salaries, calculated to make up the deficiencies 
occasioned by the heavy taxes they are subject to, and 
thereby render them more independent, was. obtained' in a 
great measure by his industry and attention. 

In this useful and agreeable manner he passed the last 
ten years of his life; but not without many interruptions 

B L A C K Sr T O N E, 55J 

by illnes^. His constitution, hurt by the studious midnight 
labours of his younger days, and an unhappy aversion he 
always had to exercise, grew daily worse ; not only the 
gout, with which he was frequently, though not very se- 
verely, visited from 1759, but a nervous disorder also, that 
frequently brought on a giddiness or vertigo, added to a 
corpulency of body, rendered him still more unactive than 
he used to be, and contributed to the breaking up of his 
constitution at an early period of life. About Christmaa 
1779 he was seized with a violent shortness of breath, which, 
the faculty apprehended was occasioned by a dropsical 
habit, and water on the chest. By the application of pro* 
per remedies that effect of his disorder was soon removed^ 
but the cause was not eradicated ; for on his coming up to 
town to attend Hilary term, he was seized with a fresh at« 
tack, chiefly in^his head, which brought on a drowsiness 
and stupor, and baf&ed all the art of medicine ; the disorder 
increasing so rapidly, that he became at last for some days 
almost totally insensible, and expired on the 14th of Feb. 
1780, in the fifty-sixth year of his age. 

A few weeks before he died, he was applied to by the 
trustees for executing the will of the late sir George Down- 
ing, bart. who had bequeathed a large estate for the en- 
dowing a new college in Cambridge, to give his assistance 
in forming a proper plan for this society, and framing a 
body of statutes for its regulation. This was a task to which 
his abilities were peculiarly adapted ; and it may be difE- 
cult to determine, whether the application reflected more 
honour on the trustees, or on him. He had mentioned to 
some of his most intimate friends, his undertaking this bq* 
siness with great pleasure, and seemed to promise himself 
much satisfaction in the amusement it would afford him : 
but, alas ! his disorder was then coming on with such hasty 
strides, that before any thing could be done in it, death 
put an end to this and all his labours, and left the univer- 
sity of Cambridge, as well as that of Oxford, to. lament the 
loss of Mr. Justice Blackstone. He was buried, by his own 
direction, in a vault he had built for his family, in his pa* 
rish church of St. Peter's in Wallingford. His neighbour 
)ind friend Dr. Barrington, bishop of Landaff, now of Dur^ 
ham, at his own particular request, performed the funeral 
service, as a public testimony of his personal regard and 
highest esteem. 

In his public line of life he approved himself an able| 

Vol* V. A A 

35* B L A C K S T O N E. 

upright, impartial judge; perfectly acquainted with the 
laws of the countryi and making them the invariable rule 
of his conduct. As a senator, he was averse lo party vio-* 
lence, and moderate in his sentiments. Not only in parlia- 
ment, but at all tim^s, and on all occasions, he was a firm 
supporter of the true principles of our happy constitution 
in church and state ; on the real merits of which few men 
were so well qualified to decide. He was ever an active 
and judicious promoter of whatever he thought useful or 
advantageous to the public in general, or to any particular 
spciety or neighbourhood he was connected with ; and hav- 
ing not only a sound judgment, but the clearest ideas, and 
the most analytical head that any man, perhaps, was ever 
blessed with; these qualifications, joined to an unremitting 
perseverance in pursuing whatever he thought right, ena- 
bled him to carry many beneficial plans into execution, 
which probably would have failed, if they had been at- 
tempted by other men. 

He was a believer in the great truths of Christianity, 
from a thorough investigation of its evidence : attached to 
the church of England from conviction of its excellence, 
his principles were those of its genuine members, enlarged 
and tolerant. His ireligion was pure and unaffected, and 
his attendance on its public duties regular, and those du- 
ties always performed with seriousness and devotion. 

His professional abilities need not be dwelt upon. They 
will be universally acknowledged and admired, as long as 
his works shall be read, or, in other words, as long as the 
municipal laws of this country shall remain an object of 
st^dy and practice : and though his works will only bold 
forth to future generations his knowledge of the law, and 
his talents as a writer, there was hardly any branch of lite- 
rature be was unacquainted with. He ever employed much 
time in reading, and whatever he had read and once di- 
gested, he never forgot He was an excellent manager 
of his time ; and although so much of it was spent in an 
applicaition to books, and the employment of his pen, yet 
this was done without the parade or ostentation of being a 
hard student. It was observed of him, during his residence 
at college, that his studies never appeared to break in upon 
the common business of life, or the innocent amusements 
o^ society ; for the latter of which few men were better 
calculated, being possessed of the happy faculty of making 
his own company agreeablfi^ and instructive, whilst be en* 

. B L A C K S T O N E. 355 

joyed, without reserve, the society of others. Melancthon 
himself could not have been more rigid in observing the 
hour and minute of an appointment. During the years in 
which he read his lectures at Oxford, it could not be re- 
membered that he had ev;er kept his audien^ce waiting for 
him, even for a few minutes. As he valued his own tinie^ * 

he was extremely careful not to be instrumental in squan- 
dering or trifling away that of others, who, he hoped, might 
have as much regard for theirs, as he had for his. Indeed^ 
puftctuality was in his opinion so much a virtue, that he 
could not bring himself to think favourably of any who 
were notoriously defective in it. 

The virtues of his private character, less conspicuous ia 
their nature, and consequently less generally known, eh- 
deared him to those he was more intimately connected 
with, and who saw him in the more retired scenes of life. 
He was, notwithstanding his contracted brow (owing in a 
gireat measure to his being very near-sighted), a cheerful, 
agreeable, and facetious companion. He was a faithful 
friend, an affectionate husband and parent, and a charitable 
benefactor to the poor *, possessed of generosity, without 
affectation, bounded by prudence and ceconomy. The 
constant accurate knowledge he had of his income and ex- 
pences (the consequence of uncommon regularity in his 
accounts) enabled him to avoid the opposite extremes of 
meanness and profusion. 

Being himself strict in the exercise of every public and 
jprivate duty, he expected the same attention to both ia '* 

others : and, when disappointed in his expectations, was 
apt to animadvert with some degree of severity on those 
who, in his estimate of duty, seemed to deserve it. This 
rigid sense of obligation, added to a certain irritability of 
temper, derived from nature, and increased in' his latter 
jears by a strong nervous affection, together with his coun- 
tenance apd figure, conveyed an idea of sternness, which 
occasioned the unmerited imputation, among those wfaQ 
did not know him, of ill-nature : but he had a heart as be- 
nevolent and as feeling as .man. ever possessed. A natural 
reserve and diffidence which accompanied him from his 
earliest youth, and which he could never shrike off, ap- 
peared to a casual observer, though it was only appearance, 
like pride ; especially after he became a judge, when he 
thought it his duty to keep* strictly up to forms (which, as 
b^ was wont to observe, are now too much laid aside), and 

A A 2 

356 B L A C K S T O N E. 

not to lessen the respect due to the dignity and gravity of 
his office, by any outward levity of behaviour. 

For this excellent meinoir of Judge Blackstone, we are 
indebted to the Preface prefixed to his " Reports/' 1780, 
2 vols, folio, written by James Clitherow, esq. his brother- 
in-law. For its length no apology can be necessary, for 
Blackstone may justly be ranked among the illustrious 
characters of the eighteenth century, and as possessing a 
claim to permanent reputation which it will not be easy to 
lessen. — It was not long after his death, before the sons^of 
Oxford paid the honours due to the memory of so eminent 
a scholar and benefactor. In 1781, a portrait was pre- 
sented to the picture-gallery, by R. Woodeson, D.t. L. 
professor ; T. Milles, B. C. L. ; T. Plumer, A. M. ; and H. 
Addington, A. M. (now lord Sidmouth), scholars upon Vi- 
ner's foundation : and in 1784, by the liberality of Dr. 
Buckler, and a few other members of All Souls, a beauti- 
ful statue, by Bacon, was erected in the hall of that col- 
lege, and may be considered as one of its most striking 
ornaments. His arms iare likewise in one of the nordb 
windows of the elegant chapel of All Souls. ' 

BLACKWALL (Anthony), a native of Derbyshire, 
born in 1674, was admitted sizer in Emanuel college, 
Cambridge, Sept. 13, 1690; proceeded B. A. in 1694, and 
went out M. A. 1698. He was appointed head master of 
the free-school at Derby, and lecturer of All-hallows there, 
where in 1706 he distinguished himself in the literary 
world by *^ Theognidis Megarensis sententi® morales, no- 
va Latina versione, notis et emendationibus, explanatae et 
exornatsD : un^ cum variis lectionibus, &c.^* 8vo. Whilst 
at Derby he also published '< An Introduction to the Clas- 
sics ; containing a short discourse on their excellences, and 
^ directions how to study them to advantage : with an essay 
on the nature and use of those emphatical and beautiful 
figures which give strength and ornament to writing," 1718, 
12mo; in which he displayed the beauties of those ad- 
mirable writers of antiquity, in a very instructive, concise, 
and clear manner. In 1722 he was appointed head master 
of the free-school at Market-Bosworth in Leicestershire ; 
and in 1725 appeared, in quarto, his greatest and most 
celebrated work, ** The Sacred Classics defended and il- 

1 From Memoirs at aboTe.^-In 1782, a strange, rambling Life of Sir W. 
Blackstone, appeared in an 8to voluine, ranarkabit only for Cfiptioas remark»« 

B L A C K W A L L. 357 

lustrated.*' A second volume (completed but a few weeks 
before his death) was published in 1731, under the title of 
" The Sacred Classics defended and illustrated. The se- 
cond and last volume." To this volume was prefixed a 
portrait of the author by Verl;ue, from an original painting. 
Both volumes were reprinted in 4to, Lipsioe, 1736, In 
many respects this is a work of great merit. It displays a 
fund of genuine learning, and contains a number of useful 
and important observations. In a great variety of instances 
it is shewn, that several of the words and phrases in the 
New Testament which have been condemned as barbarous, 
are to be found in Greek writers of the best reputation. 
But it is the opinion of some judicious critics, that he has 
not succeeded in proving the general purity and elegance 
of language in which the evangelists and apostles wrote, 
Among these Dr. Campbell appears to be Mr. Blackwall's 
most formidable adversary, in his " Four Gospels trans- 
lated from the Greek," 4 to edit. vol. I. p. 1 3 — 17. 

Mr. Blackwall, in his seminaries at Derby and Bosworth, 
had the felicity of bringing up a number of excellent 
scholars besides Mr. Dawes. Among these was sir Henry 
Atkins, hart, who, being patron of the church of Clapham 
in Siirrey, as a mark of his gratitude and esteem, presented 
our author, on the 1 2th of October, 1726, to that rectory, 
which was then supposed tg be worth three hundred pounds 
, a year. The grammar which Mr. Blackwall made use of, 
for the purpose of initiating the young people under his 
care into the. knowledge of the Latin tongue, was of his 
own composition ; and it was considered as so well adapted 
to that end, that he was prevailed upon to publish it ia 
1728. Such, however, was his modesty, that it would not 
pertpit him to fix his name to it, because he would not be 
thought to prescribe to other instructors of youth. The 
title of it is, ** A New Latin Grammar ; being a short, 
clear, and easy introduction of young scholars to theknow- 
lege of the Latin tongue ; containing an exact account of 
the two first parts of grammar." It is probable, that Mr. 
BlackwalPs situation at Clapham did not altogether suit his 
disposition; for, early in 1729, he resigned the rectory 
. of that place, and retired to Market- Bosworth, where his 
abilities and convivial turn of mind rendered him generally 
respected. At the school-house of this town he died, ou 
the 8th of April, 1730. He left behind him two children, 
» son and a daughter. The son was an attorney at Stoke-» 

S58 B L A C K W A L L. 

Golding, in the neighbourhood of Bosworth, where he died 
July 5y 1763; and the daughter was married to a Mr. 
Pickering. * 

BLACKWELL (Elizabeth), an ingeniouis lady, to whom 
physic was indebted for the most complete set of figures of 
the medicinal plants, was the daughter of a merchant of 
Aberdeen, and born, probably about the beginning of the 
last century. Her husband, Dr. Alexander Blackwell (bro- 
ther of Dr. Thomas, the subject of our next artiele) re* 
ceived an university education, and was early distinguished 
for his classical knowledge. , By some he is said only to 
have assumed the title of doctor after his successful at- 
tendance on the king of Sweden, but the other report is 
more probable, that when he had regularly studied medi- 
cine, he took his degree at Ley den under Boerhaave^ 
Having failed in his attempt to introduce himself into 
practice, first in Scotland, and afterwards in London, he 
became corrector of the press for Mr. Wilkins, a printer. 
After some years spent in this employment, he set up as a 
printer himself, and carried on several large works, till 1734, 
when he became bankrupt. To relieve bis distresses, Mrs. 
Blackwell, having a genius for drawing and painting, ex- 
erted all her talents : and, understanding that an herbal 
of medicinal plants was greatly wanted, she exhibited to 
sir Hans Sloane, Dr. Mead, and other physicians, some 
specimens of her art in paintin'g plants, who approved so 
highly of them as to encourage her to prosecute a work, 
by the profits of which she is said to have procured her 
husband^s liberty, after a confinement of two years. 

Mr. Rand, an eminent apothecary, was at that time 
demonstrator to the company of apothecaries, in th^ gar- 
den at Chelsea, and by his advice she took up her resi- 
dency opposite the physic garden, in order to facilitate her 
design, by receiving the plants as fresh as possible. He 
not only promoted her work with the public, but, together 
with Mr. Philip Miller, afforded her all possible direction 
^nd assistance in the execution of it. After she had com-s 
pleted the drawings, she engraved them on copper, and 
coloured the * prints with her own bands. During he^ 
abode at Chelsea, she was frequently visited by per- 
sons of quality, and many scientific people who ad- 
mired her performances, and patronized her undertak- 

* Biog. ?rit. ▼ql. V. p. 17—19, note oa Da wey.— Nichols's Bowycr, ,vol. I. 



ittg. On publishing the first volume in 17?7, she obtained 
a recommendation from Dr. Mead, Dr. Sberard, Mr. Rand, 
and others, to be prefixed to it. And being allowed to 
present, in person, a copy to the college of physicians, 
that body made her a present, and gave her a public testi- 
monial of their approbation ; with leave to prefix it to her 
book. The second volume was finished in 1739, and the 
whole pubhshed under the title, ^^ A curious Herbal, con-* 
taining 500 cuts of the most useful plants which are now 
used in the practice of physic, engraved on folio copper- 
plates, aft^r drawings taken from the life. By Elizabeth 
BlackweU. To which is added, a short description of the 
plants, and their common uses in physic," 2 vols. fol. 

The drawings are in general faithful, and if there is 
wanting that accuracy which modern improvements have 
rendered necessaiy, in delineating the more minute parts, 
yet,, upon the whole, the figures are sufficiently distinctive 
of the subject. Each plate is accompanied with an en- 
graved page, containing the Latin and English officinal 
namies, followed by a short description of the plant, and a 
summary, of its qualities and uses. After these occurs the 
name in various other languages. These illustrations were 
the share her husband took in the work. 

This ill-fated man, after bis £adl\ire in physic iEind in 
printing, became an unsuccessful candidate for the place 
of secretary to the society foir the encouragement of learning. 
He was then made superintendant of the works belonging 
to the duke of Chandos at Caiinons, and experienced those 
disappointments incident to projectors. He also formed 
schemes in agriculture, and wrote a treatise on the subject, 
wbicb, we are told, was the cause of his being engaged in 
Sweden. In tbat kingdom he drained marshes, practised 
'physic, and was even empk^ed in that capacity for the 
king. At length he w:as involved in some state cabals, or, 
as some accounts inform ns, in a plot with count Tessin^ 
and was put to the torture, which not producing a confess* 
sion, he was beheaded, Aug. 9, 1747. The British ambas« 
sador was recalled from Sweden in the same, year, among 
other reasons, for the imputations thrown on his Britannic 
majesty in the trial of Dr. Bkokwell. Soon after this 
ftvent, appeared " A genuine copy of a Letter from a mer»- ^ 
chant in Stockholm, to his correspondent in. London, con- 
taining an impartial account of Dr. Alexander BlackweU, 
Hiii plqt, trial, character, and l^ehavioar, both under e«:- ^ 

360 B L A C K W EL L 

ainination and at the place of execution, together \vith a 
copy of a paper delivered to a friend upon the scaffold/' 
in which he denied the crime imputed to him. — When 
Mrs. Blackwell died does not appear. An improved edi- 
tion of her Herbal was published by Trew, the text in 
Latin and German, Nuremberg, 1750 — 1760, fol. and at 
Leipsic was published in 1794, 8vo, " Nomenclator Lin- 
nasanus in Blackvellianum Herbarium per C. G. Groening,*' 
a proof of the estimation in which this work is still held on 
the continent. ^ 

BLACK WELL (Thomas), an ingenious, and very learned 
writer of the last century, was born August 4, 1701, in the 
city of Aberdeen. His father, the rev. Mr. Thomas Black- 
well, was minister of Paisley in Renfrewshire, from whence 
}xe was removed in 1700 to be one of the ministers of 
Aberdeen. He was afterwards elected professor of divinity 
in the Marischal college of that city, and in 1717 was pre- 
sented by his majesty to be principal of the college, in 
both which offices he continued until his* death in 1728. 
His mother's name was Johnston, of a good family near 
Cl^sgoWj and sister to Dr. Johnston, who was many years 
prof^ssprof medicine in the university of Glasgow. Our 
author received his grammatical education at the grammar- 
pchopl of Aberdeen, studied Greek and philosophy in the 
Marischal college there, and took the degree of master of 
arts in 1718; which, as he was at that time only seven- 
teen yjears of age, jmust be regarded as a considerable tes- 
timony pf bis early proficiency in literature. A farther 
proof of it was his being presented, on the 28th of No- 
vember 1723, by his majesty king George the Fhrst, to 
the professorship of Greek, in the college in which he had 
been edupated. He was admitted into this office on the 
13th of Deisember in the same year; and after that con* 
tinned to teach the Greek language with great applause. 
His knowledge of that language was accurate and exten- 
sive, and bis manner of communicating it perspicuous and 
^engaging. He had a dignity of address which commanded 
the attention of the students, a steadiness in exacting the 
prescribed e^eroises which enforced application, and an 
enthusiasm for the beantii^s of the ancients, and utility of 
^l^ssipa} l^^roing, which WcitJpd an ardour of study, and 

I Nichols's Bowycr.w-Pultency's HUt, and Bipg. Sketche».r-Gent. Mag. vol, 
JKVII. where is an account of Mr. Biackwell somewhat different from the abov^ 
tfff Bl#^veii*B famUjr werp fipt nry ^wvfOWi of prejienrinf V» m^^^f% . 


eontributed much to diffuse a spirit for Grecian erudition 
far superior to what bad taken place before he was called 
to the professorship. Together with his lessons in the 
Greek tongue, he gave, likewise, lessons on some of the 
Latin classics, chiefly with a view to infuse a relish for 
their beauties. To his zeal and diligence in discharging 
the duties of his station, it is probable that the world was, 
in part, indebted for such men as Campbell, Gerard, Reid, 
Seattle, Duncan, and the Fordyces, who have appeared 
with so much eminence in the republic of letters. When 
the celebrated Dr. Berkeley was engaged in the scheme 
of establishing an American university in the Summer 
Islands, Mr. Blackwell was in treaty with him for going 
out as one of bis young professors ; but the negociation 
did not take effect. In 1735 was published at London, in 
octavo, without the name of the bookseller, and without 
his own name, our author's " Enquiry into the Life and 
Writings of Homer;" a work, the great ingenuity and 
learning. of which will be acknowledged by all who have 
perused it* It was embellished with plates, designed by 
Gravelot, and executed by different engravers. This we 
apprehend to be the most esteemed, and it is, in our 
opinion, thef inost valuable, of Mr. Blackwell's perform- 
ances. The second edition appeared in 1736; and, not 
Jong after,. he published " Proofs of the Enquiry into Ho- 
mer's Life and Writings, translated into English : being a 
key. to the Enquiry ; with a curious frontispiece." This 
was a translation of the numerous Greek, Latin, Spanish, 
Italian and French notes which had been subjoined to the 
original work. In 1748, out, in London, '^ Letters 
concerning Mythology," in a large octavo, but without 
the bookseller (Andrew Millar's) name. On the 7th of 
October, in the same year, our author was appointed by 
his late majesty, George II. to be principal of the Ma- 
riscbal college in Aberdeen, and was admitted to the of* 
fice on the 9th of November following. He contuiued, 
also, professor of Greek till his death. He is the only 
layman ever appointed principal of that college, since the 
patronage came to the crown, by the forfeiture of the 
Marischal family in 1716; all the other principals Having 
been ministers of the established church of Scotlanat. 
When Robert and Andrew Foulis, printers at Glasgow, in- 
tended to publish an edition of Plato, Mr. Blackwell pro«* 
p09ed to furnish them with several criticstl notes for \t, to« 

M I 

562 B L A C K W E L 1. 

jgetber with an account of Plato's Life and Philosophy: 
but the printers not acceding to the terms which he de- 
manded for this assistance,, he promised^ by a Latin ad« 
vertisement in 1751, himself to give an edition of Plato. 
His design, however^ was not carried into execution ; nor 
did it appear, from any thing found among his papers af- 
ter his death, that he had made any considerable progress 
in the undertaking. On the 3d of March, 1752, he took 
the degree of doctor of Laws. In the following year, ap- 
peared the first volume of his ^^ Memoirs of the Court of 
Augustus," in 4to. The second volume came out in 1755 ; 
and the third, which was posthumous, and lefb incomplete 
by the author, was prepared for the press by John Mills, 
esq. and published in 1764. At the same time, was pub- 
lished the third edition of the two former volumes. This 
is a proof of the good reception the work met with from 
the public, though it must be acknowledged that the pa- 
rade with which it was written, and the peculiarity of the 
language, exposed it to some severity of censure, parti- 
cularly to a most acute, and in some respects humourous, 
criticism by Dr. Johnson, written for the Literary Maga«r 
zine, and now inserted in Johnson's works. It cannot be 
denied that there is a considerable degree of affectation in 
Dr. Black welP,s style and manner of composition: and, 
unhappily, this affectation increased in him as he advanced 
in yeiars. His " Enquiry into the Life of Homer'* was not 
free from it : it was still more discernible in his " Letters' 
concerning Mythology ;'' and was most of all apparent in 
his " Memoirs of the Court of Augustus.'* We perceive 
in his various productions a mixture of pedantry : but it is 
not the sober dull pedantry of the merely recluse scholar. 
•In Dr. Blackwell it assumes a higher form. Together with 
th^display of his erudition, he is ambitious of talking like 
a man who is not a little acquainted with the world. He 
is often speaking of life and action, of men and man- 
ners ; and aims at writing with the freedom and politenessi 
of oqe who has been much conversant with the public. But 
in this he is unsuccessful : for though he was not destitute 
of genius or fancy, and had a high relish for the beautieai 
of the ancient authors, he never attained that sin^plicity of 
taste, which leads to true ease and** elegance in com- 
position. It is probable, also, that, like many others at 
that time, he might be seduced by an injudicious imitatioil 

B L A C K W E L L, SM 

of lord Shaftesbury ; a writer, whose faults have beea 
found more easily attainable than his excellences. 

Soon after Dr. Blackwell became principal of his college 
he married Barbara Black, the daughter of a merchant of 
Aberdeen, by whom he had no children, and who survived 
him so late as 1793. Several years before his death, his 
health began to decline ; so that he was obliged to employ 
an assistant for teaching his Greek class. His disorder was 
of the consumptive kind, and it was thought to be increased 
by the excess of abstemiousness which he imposed on him-r 
self; and, in which, notwithstanding all the remonstrance^ 
of his physicians, he obstinately persisted, from an opinion 
of his own knowledge of his constitution, and of what he 
found by experience to suit it best. His disease increas-- 
ing, he was advised to travel ; and accordingly, in Febru- 
ary 1757, he set out from Aberdeen, but was able to go 
tio farther than Edinburgh, in which city he died, on the 
8th of March following, in the fifty-sixth year of his age. 
Dr. Blackwell enjoyed an equable flow of temper, in which 
his intimate friends scarcely ever observed any variation* 
This he maintained during his whole illness. The day be- 
fore hie set out from Aberdeen, he desired to meet with all 
the professors of the college, and spent two hours with, 
them with bis usual vivacity. In Edinburgh he was visited, 
at his own desire, by Dr. W^illace, one of the ministers of 
that city, whose ingenuity and learning are well known* 
Dr. Blackwell, on the very day in which he died, wrote 
letters to several of his friends, and took leave of them with 
the greatest cheerfulness. In the April following our au- 
thor's decease, it being Dr. Gerard's business, as (at that 
time) professor of moral philosophy and logic in the Ma- 
rischal college, to preside at conferring the degree of 
master of arts on those whose standing entitled them to ity 
the doctor took that occasion to pronounce publicly, on 
the late principal, such an en.comium as his literature de- 
served. It was a fault in Dr. Blackwell, that he too much 
assumed the appearance of universal knowledge ; the con- 
sequence of which was that he sometimes laid himself open, 
by entering on subjects of philosophy and mathematics, 
without a suflScient acquaintance with them. With all the 
ancient, and with most of the modern languages, he was 
really acquainted ; and his reading, in the departments of 
history and the belles lettres, was very extensive. He bad 

364 &L A C.K W E L L. 


a ready and lively manner of introducing his knowledg^f of 
this kindy which made his conversation both instructive 
and entertaining ; and it was rendered still more so by be- 
ing accompanied with great good humour, and an entire 
command of his passions, even when he was provoked. 
Though he had something of the stiffness of the recluse, 
he joined with it much of the confidence and good breed- 
ing that are found in men who converse much in the world. 
His life was private and studious : he did not wholly de- 
cline mixed companies, though it was but seldom that he 
came into them ; and at home he chose only the conver* 
sation of the learned, or that of persons of superior rank or 
fortune. At London he was known to several men of emi- 
nence. The late duke of Newcastle, and Mr. Henry Pel- 
ham, were his patrons, and procured for him the office of 
principal of the Marischal college. It is confidently said 
that they had intended him an establishment at Cambridge, 
and that the professorship of modern history was dxed upoo 
for him, if he had not died a short time before it became 
vacant. A man of Dr. Blackwell's abilities and reputation 
could not fail of having some valuable literary connexions 
and correspondents ; among whom he had the honour of 
numbering the late celebrated Dr. Mead, and the no less 
celebrated Dr. Warburton, bishop of Gloucester. It is 
said that Mr. Blackwell, soon after the publication of his 
Enquiry, being at Cambridge, paid a visit to Dr. Bentley, 
and the discourse turning upon tne book, the doctor, being 
asked his opinion of it, answered, ** That when he had 
gone through half of it, he bad forgotten the beginning; 
and that, when he had finished the reading of it, he had 
forgotten the whole." • Whatever truth is in this story, it; 
is certain, at least, that a similar objection bad been started 
by others, if not by Dr. Bentley. 

In the first volume of the Arch^eologla is a letter, written 
in 1748, by Dr. Blackwell, to Mr. Ames, containing an ex- 
planation of a Greek inscription, on a white marble, found 
in the isle of Tasso, near the coast of Romania, by captain 
Joseph Hales, in 1728. As Dr. BUckwell was singular in 
bis style and sentiments, he likewise imbibed some reli- 
gious opinions, little known at that time in the bosom of 
the Calvinistic church of Scotland. He was so much a So- 
cinian, that he never read the first chapter of St. John in 
his class, but always began with the second. This on one 
occasion gave rise to a foolish report respecting bis know* 

B L A C K W E L L. S6S 

ledge of Gceek; which we shall have occasion to notice in 
the life of Di*. Gregory Sharpe. — His widow, who, as already 
noticed, died in 1793, bequeathed her estates partly to 
found a chemical professorship in the college over which 
her husband had so long presided, and partly for a pre- 
mium for an English essay, and for the augmentation of 
the professors' salaries.' 

BLACKWELL (GEOReE), a learned English writer of 
the church of Rome, in the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, was born in the county of Middlesex, -and ad- 
mitted a scholar of Trinity college in Oxford at seven- 
teen years of age. May 27, 1562, probationer in 1565, 
being then bachelor of arts, perpetual fellow the year fol- 
lowing, and master of- arts in 1567. But being more in-, 
clined to the Roman catholic than the Protestant religion, 
he left his fellowship, and retired to Gloucester hall, where 
he continued for some time, and was highly esteemed by 
Edmund Rainolds and Thomas Allen, two learned seniors^ 
of that hall. He afterwards went beyond sea^' antl spent 
some time in one of the English seminaries newly erected 
to receive the exiled English catholics ; and was at last in 
1598, with the permission of pope Clement VIII. consti- 
tuted by Henry cardinal Cajetan, protector of the English 
nation at Rome, and superior of the English clergy, with 
the authority and name of Archpriest of England, and was 
appointed by that pope notary of the apostolic see. This 
affair being resented by the English catholic clergy, espe- 
cially as they imagined that our author was absolutely un- 
der the influence of Henry Garnet, provincial of the Jesuits 
of England, it occasioned a warm contest between them in 
England. The Jesuits wrote and spoke against the secular 
priests in so virulent a manner, as to detract very much 
from BlackwelPs authority ; who upon this degraded them 
of their faculties, so that when they afterwards appealed 
to the pope, he caused them to be declared in a book 
schismatics and heretics. They vindicated themselves 
from this charge, and procured the censure of the univer- 
sity of Paris in their favour ; which was answered by our 
author. He also declared his abhorrence of the Powder 
Plot in 1605, and wrote two letters to dissuade the Roman 
catholics from all violent practices against the king and 

^ Biop. Brit.firom materials communicated by the late Dr. Geirard.— See his 
proposals for Plato» Gent. Ma;, vol. XXI. p. 383. • < 

see BL A C K W E L L. 

' .  • • 

gbvernment He held the office of archpiiest till 1607, 
when he was succeeded by George Birket. The reason of 
this change was, because our author having been seized at 
London June 24 the same year, he was committed to pri- 
son, and consequently deprived of the liberty required to 
act in his office. He was released soon after upon his 
taking the oath of allegiance. An account of this affair 
was published at London, 1607, in 4to, entitled "The 
examination of George Blackwell, upon occasion of his 
answering a letter sent by cardinal Bellarmine, who blamed 
him for taking the oath of allegiance." He died suddenly 
January 12, 1612-3, and was buried, as Mr. Wood sup- , 
poses, in some church in London. He was esteemed by 
those of his own persuasion, and by others likewise, a man 
of great learning and piety, and a good preacher. 

He was the author of " A letter to cardinal Cajetane in 
comniendation of the English Jesuits," written in 1596. 
** Answers upon sundry examinations whilst he was a pri- 
soner," London, 1607, 4to. " Approbation of the Oath 
of Allegiance; letters to the Romish priests touching the 
lawfulness of taking the Oath of Allegiance," and another 
to the same purpose, all of which were printed with the 
** Answers upon sundry examinations," &c. " Epistolsoi 
ad Anglos Pontificios," London, 1609, 4to. " Epistolae 
ad Robertum cardinalem Bellarminum.'^ See the third 
volume of the Collections of Melchior Goldast, Francfort, 
1613, foU "Answer to the Censure of Paris in suspending 
the secular priests obedience to his authority," dated May 
the 29th, 1600.' This was replied to byJohnDorel, or 
Barrel, dean of Agen the same year. " A treatise against 
lying and fraudulent dissimulations," in manuscript, among 
those given to the Bodleian library by archbishop Laud. 
At the end of it is the approbation of the book written by 
Blackwell, and recommended by him as fit for the press ; 
so that no other name being put to it, it has been ascribed 
to him ; whereas it is more justly supposed to have been 
Written by Francis Tresham, esq. an English Catholic* 

BLACKWOOD (Adam), professor of civil law at Poic- 
tiers, was born at Dumfermling, in Scotland, in 1539, 
descended of an ancient family. He was left an orphan ia 
the tenth year of his age, and was sent by his uncle, the 
bishop of Orkney, to the university of Paris. On his 

1 Wood's Ath. vol. L^Gen. Di'ct.-.CoUier's Church Hist. 


fincte^s death, by which he seems to have lost the means of 
being able to remain at Paris, he returned to Scotland, 
but finding no encouragement there, he went again to 
Paris, where, by the liberality of Mary, queen of Scot- 
land, he was enabled to pursue his studies in philosophy, 
naathematics, and the oriental languages. He then went 
to the university of Tholouse, where he studied civil law 
for two years ; and having obtained the patronage of Bea- 
ton, archbishop of Glasgow, he was chosen by the parlia- 
ment of Poictiers one of their counsellors, and afterwards 
professor of civil law. He died in 1623, and was interred 
at Poictiers in St. Porcharius church, near his brother 
<xeorge. As a writer, he was chiefly known for his vindi-» 
cation of his royal mistress, when put to death by queen 
Elizabeth, written with, all that bitterness of resentment 
which is natural for a man of spirit to feel, who, by an act 
of flagrant injustice, was deprived of \As mistress and his 
sovereign, his friend and his benefactress. He addresses 
himsell; in a vehement strain of passion, to all the princes 
of Europe, to avenge her death ; declaring, that they are 
unworthy of royalty, if they are not roused on so interest- 
ing and pressing an occasion. He laboured hard to prove 
that .Henry VHI.'s marriage with Anne Bolen was incestu- 
ous; a calumny too gross to merit a formal refutation. 
This work was entitled ** Martyre de Maria Stuart Reyne 
d'Escosse,'* Antwerp, 1588, 8vo. His other works were, 
1. ** Adversus G. Buchanan! Dialogum de Jure Regni apud 
Scotos, pro regibus apologia," Pict. 1580, 8vo. 2. " De 
Vinculo Religionis et Imperii," Paris, 1575, 8vo. 3. ''Sanc- 
tarum precationutn praemia," a manual of devotions, 
Pict. 1598, Svo. 4. " Varii generis poemata," ibid. 1609, 
8vo. 5. *^ Jacobi I. Magnse Britanniae inauguratio," Paris, 
1606, 4to. These and some other pieces by him, were 
collected and published, with a life, by Gabriel Naudeus, 
1644, 4to. * 

. BLACKWOOD (Henry), another brother of the pre- 
ceding, was born probably about 1526, at Dumfermling 
in Fifeshire, and educated at St. Andrew's. He was also 
sent by his uncle, the bishop of Orkney, to Paris, where 
in 1551, he taught philosophy. He afterwards applied 
himself to the study of phasic, became a member of the 
college of physicians, and was finally honoured with the 

, # 

^ Mackenzie's Scotch Writeri^ ^oh IU.--*Moreri. — Niceron. — ^Nicolson's Scot- 
ch Iabfary.-**^a]ie^; 


dignity of dean of the faculty, a place of considerable im- 
portance in'* the college of Paris. He was also appointed 
physician to the duke de Longueville, with a salary of 200 
pistoles. During the plague at Paris, he had the resolute 
humanity to continue in that city, much to his own honour^ 
and the consolation of the people. He is supposed to have 
died in 1613, or 1614. He wrote several medical and phi-> 
losopbical treatises, of which we only know of two that 
were printed : 1. " Hippocratis quaedam cum MSS. col- 
lata,'* Paris, 1625, and 2. *' Questio Medica, an visceri- 
bus nutritiis aestuantibus aquarum metallicarum potus salu- 
bris ?" ibid^ 4to. He had a son of both his names, like- 
wise a. physician of eminence, of whom Moreri gives a*- 
short account * , ^ 

BLADEN (Martiij), of Albro'-batch, in thef county of 
Essex, was early in life an officer in the army, bearing the 
commission of lieutenant- colonel in queen Anne's reign, 
under the great duke of Marlborough. In 1714, he was 
made comptroller of the Mint, and in 1717, one of the 
lords commissioners of trade and plantations. In the same 
year he was appointed envoy extraordinary to the court of 
Spain, but declined it, and retained the office he held 
until his death, Feb. 14, 1746. He satin the fifth, sixthy 
and seventh parliaments of Great Britain for Stockbridge, 
in the eighth for Maiden, and in the ninth for Portsmouth. 
Coxeter hints that he was secretary of state for Ireland, 
but this is doubtful. He wrote two very indifferent drama- 
tic pieces, " Orpheus and Euridice," and ** Solon ;" which 
were printed in 1705, 4to, without his consent. He is 
best known, however, by his translation of Caesar's Com- 
mentaries, which he dedicated to the duke of Marlborough. 
Thi$ book was in some estimation formerly, and Mr. Bow- 
yer appears to have assisted in correcting it. He was' 
buried in Stepney church, with a very handsome inscrip- 
tion to his memory. Pope introduces him in the Dunciad 
as a. gamester, for what reason cannot now be ascertained. 
He was uncle to Collins the celebrated poet, to whom he 
left an estate, which poor Collins did not get possession 
of till his faculties were deranged, and he could not en^ 

joy it. * 

BLAEU (William), an eminent printer, and publisher 
of gebgraphical maps and charts, was born at Amsterdam 

^> ^ ••  . • . 

* Mackenzie, vol. In.— Moreri. 

t Nichols'! Bowyer. — LysoQi'i SnTinras^ roL lIIf^-WaitoA's Pkipe'g Works* 

B L A £ U. S6» ) 

in la71) and died there in 1638. He wa$ the scholar and 
friend of Tycho-Brahe, and applied himself^ besides his 
particular art, to the study of geography and astronomy. 
When he had formed the design of his celebrated " Atlas,'* 
he gave liberal prices to the most experienced geographers 
and draughtsmen for original maps, which he procured to 
be engraved with great care, and all the elegance which 
the state of the arts in his time could, admit Eager, how«* 
ever, as he was to render this work perfect, as he was 
obliged to trust to the incomplete and dubious relations of 
travellers, the work is now valued chiefly as a beautiful 
specimen of engraving, and bears a considerable price, 
especially^ when coloured. It was entitled the ^* Grand 
Atlas geographique," or ** Theatrum Mundi ;" and includ- 
ing the. celestial and hydrographical maps, forms 14 vols, 
fol. 1663 — 67, very little of it having been published in his 
life-time, but the whole completed by his sons. He pub- 
lished also, ^* Instruction astronomique de Pusage des 
globes et sphere celestes et terrestres," Amst. 1642, 4co; 
1669, 4to. There was a neatness in all his publications of - 
this description, which has been rarely imitated. An acci- 
dental fire 'which destroyed the greater part of the first 
edition of the atlas and of bis other works, rendered them 
for some time in great demand. His ** Theatrum urbium 
et muniipentorum,'* was another collection of views and 
maps in much esteem. These and other designs were pur- 
sued and completed by his sons John and Cornelius, and, 
the latter dying young, chiefly by John, who was also the 
printer of a great many classics, which yield in beauty 
only to the Elzevirs. Among the geographical works of 
John Blaeu, are, 1. *^ Novum ac magnum theatrum civi- 
tatum totius Belgise,'' 1649, 2 vols. fol. 2. ^^ Civitates et 
admirandee ItaliaB,'' 1663, 2 vols. fol. reprinted with a 
French text, Amst. 1704, 4 vols. fol. and Hague, 1724. 
3. <* Theatrum Sabaudi® et Pedemontii,'' 1682, 2 vols, 
fol. translated and published under the title '^ Theatre de 
Piemont e de la Savoie,'' by James Bernard, Hague, 173^, 
a vols. fol. Yossius and Grotius speak in high terms of the 
talents and industry of. John and Cornelius Blaeu. It may 
be noticed that John Blaeu sometimes concealed himself 
under a fictitious name. His editio.u of ^^ Ery thraei Pina- 
cotheca," a work to which we have sometimes referred, 
was published with Cologne in the title page^ instead of 
Vol; V, B B 

370 B L A E U. 



Amsterdam, and Jodocus Kalcovius, instead of John £Ia- 
vius, or Biaeu. ^ 

BLAGRAVE (John), an eminent mathematician, who 
flourished in the 16th and 17th centuries, was the son of 
Jbhn Blagrave, of Bulmarsh, esq. and was born at Read- 
ing, but in what year is not known. He acquired the ru- 
diments of his education at Reading, whence he removed 
to St. John^s college,- Oxford, but soon quitted the uni- 
versity, and retired to Southcote Lodge at Reading, where 
he devoted his titne to study and contemplation. His 
genius seemed to be turned most to mathematics ;. and that 
he might study this science without interruption, he de- 
Voted himself to a retired life. He employed himself 
chiefly in compiling such works as might render specula- 
tive mathematics accurate, and the practical parts easy. 
He accordingly finished some learned and useful works, ia 
all which he proposed to render those sciences more uni- 
versally understood. He endeavoured to shew the useful- 
ness of sUch studies, that they were not mere amusements 
for scholars and speculative persons, but of general advan- 
tage, and absolutely indispensable in many of the neces- 
saries and conveniences of life t with this view he published 
the four following works: 1. "A Mathematical Jewel, 
shewing the making and most excellent use of an instru- 
ment so called : the use of which j^wel is so abundant, that 
it leadeth the direct path-way through the whole art of 
astronomy, cosmography, geography,'* &c. 1582, folio. 
2. ^^ Of the making and use of the Familiar Staff, so called : 
for that it may be made useful and familiarly to walk with, 
as for that it performeth the geometrical mensuration of all 
altitudes,*' 1590, 4to. 3. ^* Astrolabium uranicum gene- 
rale ; a necessary and pleasant solace and recreation for 
navigators in their long journeying ; containing the use of 
an instrument, or astrolabe," &c. 1596, 4to. 4. "The 
art of Dialling, in two parts.'* 1609, 4to. 

Blagrave was a man of great beneficence in private life. 
As he was born in the town of Reading, and bad spent 
. most of his time there, he was therefore desirous of leaving 
in that place some monuments of his beneficent disposi- 
tion ; and 9uch too ais might have reference to each of the 
three parishes of Reading. He accordingly bequeathed a 
legacy for this purpose, of which we have an account by 

^ Biog. Uaivenelle.— Moreri. Baillet Jugemens des Savans. 


Ashmole, in the following words : *^ You are to not^^ that 
he doth devise that each church-warden should send oa 
Good-Friday one virtuous maid that has lived five years 
with her master: all three maids appear at the town-hall 
before the mayor and aldermen, and cast dice. She that 
throws most has 10/. put in a purse, and she is to be at-^ 
tended with the other two that lost the throw. The next 
year come again the two maids, and one more added to 
them. He qrders in his will that each maid should have 
three throws before she loses it ; and if she has no luck in 
the three years, he orders that still new faces may come 
and be presented. On the same Good-Friday he gives 
eighty widows money to atteqd, and orders 10^. for a good 
sermon, and so he wishes well to all his countrymen. It 
is lucky money, for I never heard but the maid that had 
the 10/. suddenly had a good husband.'' Blagrave died at 
his own house near Reading, August 9, 1611, and lies 
interred near his mother ir^ the church of St. Lawrence ; 
with a fine monument to his memory, and an inscription ; 
the following account of which is given by Mr. Asbmole, 
and remains still nearly correct. On the north against the 
wall is a noble monument, representing a man under an 
arch to the middle, holding one hand on a globe, the other ' 
on a quadrant. He is habited in a short cloak, a cassock, 
and a ruff, surrounded with books on each side of hiai« 
Dn one side is the figure of a woman to the breasts, naked^ 
holding an instrument in her hand, as offering it to him» 
and under her feet the word CUBUS. On the other, side 
is another woman, somewhat naked, though with a scarf 
thrown closely round her, and offering in like manner; 
under her feet, TETPAEAPON. On the top are two women 
leaning on their arms, inscribed OKTAEAPON, AXIAEKA* 
EAPON. In the middle, a person armed, cap-a-pee, but . 
npw' almost defaced, entitled EIK02EAP0N. And under 
the first figure mentioned, an inscription^ in an oval; 
celebrating his virtues in homely rhimes. ^ 

BLAGRAVE (Joseph), probably a relation of the pre* 
ceding, was born in the parish of St. Giles, Reading, in 
1610, and was a great enthusiast in astrological studies* 
He published " An introduction to Astrology," 1682, 8vo, 
to which is prefixed an engraving of him mentioned by 

1 Biog^. Bnt.-^oates*s Hist, of Reading, wliere are many particulars jo{ 61a- 
fravc's charities. — Atb. Ox. vol. h — Martin's Lives of the Philosophers.— 
StrutCs Diet, of Engravers. 

B B 2 

S72 B L A G R A y R 

Granger* He was the author of a large supplement ta 
Culpepper's Herbal; to which is added ^* An accodrit of 
all the Drugs that were sold in the druggists and apothe- 
caries shops, with their dangers and connexions.*' To this 
book is subjoined " A new tract of Chirurgery," 8vo. He 
was also author of " The Astrological practise of Physick, 
discovering the true method of curing all kinds of diseases, 
by such herbs and plants as grow in our nation/' 8vo. 
In the Biographia Britannica, is an account of a maou-- 
script which had been seen by Dr. Campbell, the author 
of that article, and had been bought at the sale of the li- 
brary of an eminent physician neai^ Covent-garden. In 
the first leaf it was said to be written by Mr. J. Blagrave, 
and was dedicatee^ to Mr. B. (Backhouse) of Swaliowfield. 
It appeared, from some mention of the royal society, and 
its members, to have been written in 1669, or 1670. The 
title was, ^^ A remonstrance in favour of Ancient Learning 
against the proud pretensions of the moderns, more es- 
pecially in respect to the doctrine of the Stars." From 
the distribution of the several heads, and the extracts from 
them, it seems to be the work of an ingenious writer ; one 
far superior to Joseph Blagrave in style and composition ; 
and mighty possibly, as Mr. Coates conjectures, be an un- 
published work of Mi*. John Blagrave, the mathematician, 
by whose will he inherited an estate in Swallowfield, yet 
we know not how to reconcile this with the dates respect* 
ing the royal society, which certainly did not exist in the 
mathematician's time. This Joseph Blagrave died in 

1679. * 

BLAIR (Hugh), D.D. an eminent divine of the church 
of Scotland, was born at Edinburgh, April 7, 1718. His 
father, John Blair, a respectable merchant in that city, 
was a descendant of the ancient family of Blair, in Ayr- 
shire, and grandson of the famous Mr. Robert Blair, mi- 
nister of St. Andrew's, chaplain to Charles I. and one of 
the most zealous and distinguished clergymen of the pe- 
riod in which he lived. Of the two sons who survived him, 
David, the eldest, was a clergyman of eminence in Edin- 
burgh, and father to Mr. Robert Blair, minister of Athel- 
Stanford, the author of the well-known poem entitled 
•* The Grave." From his youngest son, Hugh, who en- 
^l^aged in business as a merchant, and had the, honour to 

> Blof. Brit. art. John Blagrave.— Coates's HUt. of Reading, p. 49ib 

BLAIR. 373 

fill a high station in the magistracy of E4inhurgh^ the ob- 
ject of the present memoir descended. 

Dr. Blair was educated for the church, and while he 
prosecuted his studies at the college of Edinburgh with 
great success and approbation, a circumstance occurred, 
which determined the bent of his genius towards polite 
literature. Ah essay ** On the beautiful," written by him 
when a student of logic, in the usual course of academical 
exercises, had the good fortune to attract the notice of 
professor Stevenson, and with circumstances honourable 
to the author, was appointed to be read in public^ at the 
conclusion of the session^ a mark of distinction which made 
H deep impression on his mind. 

At this time. Dr. Blair commenced a^ method of study 
which contributed much to the accuracy and extent of his 
Knowledge, and which be continued to practise occasion- 
ally, even after his reputation was fully established. It 
consisted in making abstracts of the most important works 
which he read, and in digesting them according to the 
train of his own thoughts. History, in particular, he re- 
sglv^d to study in this manner ; and, in concert with some 
of his youthful associates, he constructed a very compre- 
hensive scheme of chronological tables, for receiving into 
its proper place every important fact that should occur. 
The scheme devised by this young student for his own 
private use, was afterwards improved, filled up, and given 
to the public by his learned friend Dr. John Blair, prer 
bendary of Westminster, in his valuable work ^* The Chro- 
pology and History of the World.'* 

In 1739 Dr. Blair took his degree of A.M. and in 1741 
was licensed to preach by the presbytery of Edinburgh^ 
and his first living was the parish of Colessie, in Fife ; but 
in 1743 he was recalled to his native city, as second mi- 
nister of the Canongate church, in which he continued 
eleven years. In 1754 he was translated from the Canon- 
gate to lady Tester's, one of the city churches, and in 
1758 he was promoted to the high church of Edinburgh, 
the most important ecclesiastical charge in that kingdom. 

Hitherto his attention seems to have been devoted almost 
exclusively to the attainment of professions^l excellence, 
and to the regular discharge of his parochial duties. No 
production of his pen had yet been given to the world 
by himself, except two occasional seroapns, spme trai^s- 
Jations in v^rse of passages of Scripture for the psa.lmpdy 

374 B L A I R. 

of the church, akid' a few articles in the Edinburgh Re- 
view, a publication begun in 1755, and conducted for a 
short time by some of the .ablest men in that kingdom. 
But, standing as he now did, at the head of his profes* 
sion, and released by the labour of former years from what 
bis biographer, rather incautiously, calls the drudgery of 
weekly preparation for the pulpit, he began to think se- 
riously on a plan for teaching to others that art which had 
contributed so much to the establishment of his own fame. 
With this view he communicated to his friends a scheme 
cf lectures on composition ; and having obtained the ap- 
probation of the university, he began to read them in the 
college on the 11th of December, 1759. Before this, he 
had received the degree of D. D. from the university of 
St. Andrew's, a literary honour which at that time was very 
rare in Scotland. His first course of lectures were so 
much approved, that the patrons of the university, con- 
vinced that they would form a valuable addition to the 
system of education, agreed in the following summer to 
institute a rhetorical class under his direction, as a perma- 
nent part of their academical establishment ; and on the 
7th of April, 1762, his majesty was graciously pleased 
*' To erect and endow a professorship of rhetoric and belles 
lettres in the university of Edinburgh, and to appoint Dr. 
Blair, in consideration of his approved qualifications, re^ 
gius professor thereof^ with a salary of 70/." These lec- 
tures he published in 1783, when he retired from the 
labours of the office ; and the general voice of the public 
has pronounced them to be a most judicious, elegant, and